Chapter 3: The Growth of a Young Nation Amanda Chang, Sarah Chen, Heidi Chow, Annie Lam, Vivian Lam, Belinda Lau, Zerlinda Lee, and Elaine Li Section 1. The Jeffersonian Era THE ELECTION OF 1800 Jefferson’s Presidency ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Thomas Jefferson won presidential election against Adams House of Representatives voted for 6 days and a total of 35 ballots Thomas Jefferson won the election against Aaron Burr by a majority of 2 votes Congress passed the Twelfth Amendment SIMPLIFYING THE GOVERNMENT ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Jeffersonian republicanismpeople should control the government & simple government is the best Tried to shrink the government and cut costs Pushed back Hamilton’s economic program 1803: made the government bureaucracy more evenly balanced between Federalists and Republicans Continue: Jefferson’s Presidency JOHN MARSHALL & SUPREME COURT ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ President Adams tried to make the judicial branch filled with Federalists Jefferson argued the document were invalid 1803: Marbury v. Madison ◦ John Marshall declared Marbury = unconstitutional Judicial review- allow Supreme Court to say Congress’ action(s) are unconstitutional LOUISIANA PURCHASE ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Contributed with nation’s growth with Louisiana Purchase 1803: Napoleon abandoned hopes for an empire in America & offered to sell it to US → sold for $15 million Form “empire of liberty” → submitted treaty to finalize → Senate ratified Doubled the size of US and did the opposite of his goal Lewis and Clark Expedition ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ 1803: Jefferson appointed Lewis to lead an expedition (St. Louis→Pacific coast) Goal: carry out scientific studies & document native cultures Time: 2 years and 4 months Gain valuable information ◦ transcontinental travel ◦ Way for settlement of West ◦ Strengthened American claims to Oregon Territory Contribute to success of Jefferson’s first term in office CAUSES ▫ ▫ Madison and the War of 1812 ▫ ▫ Impressment (British practice of seizing Americans at sea & forced them into British navy/army at sea) War Hawks (a group of young congressman from South & West) want war and went against Tecumseh (Shawnee chief who led confederacy of Native Americans) who wanted to defend homeland War hawks discovered that Native Americans were given weapons from British Canada EFFECTS ▫ ▫ ▫ British and American diplomats signed peace treaty before Battle of New Orleans Christmas Eve, 1814: The Treaty of Ghent Three Important Consequences: ◦ End of Federalist party ◦ Encourage growth of American industries ◦ US status: free & independent nation ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ OCCURRED Spring 1812: President Madison chose to go to war with Britain & early June: Congress approved British: Preoccupied with Napoleon 1812: Invasion to Canada failed 1813: Battle of the Thames Lake Erie- American fleet defeated a British fleet End of 1813: American ships stayed at ports British victory: August 1814invaded Washington, D.C. & burned the Capitol, the Presidential Mansion, and other public buildings American victory: Battle of New Orleans (January 8, 1815) Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ 1816: elected James Monroe as president Foreign policy: belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns Adams goals: ◦ Security & Expansion Monroe- all European powers do not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere and promised that the US wouldn’t interfere in European affairs ◦ Known as Monroe Doctrine ■ European nations ignore his speech due to lack of armed forces to support this policy Section 2. The Age of Jackson Early Industry in the U.S. North ▫ ▫ ▫ Specializes in manufacturing Creates factories Needs South for raw goods to make into manufactured goods South ▫ ▫ ▫ Specializes in agriculture and producing raw materials for factories Agriculture leads to need for workers aka slaves ◦ Emergence of cotton increases slavery in the South Needs North to have manufactured goods to use Clay’s American System ▫ Henry Clay (House Speaker in 1815) supported President Madison’s plan to unify economy of the U.S. ◦ Called it the American System ▫ North would manufacture goods that the South & West made from farming ◦ South & West would buy manufactured goods BUS (Bank of the US) & Internal Improvements ▫ The creation of the 2nd Bank of the U.S. allowed for national currency that was accepted everywhere in the U.S. ▫ Transportation systems were made (aka roads, canals, highways) ◦ Helped communication, transport goods, & trade Missouri Compromise ▫ Caused Maine to be admitted as a free state ▫ Missouri turned into a slave state ▫ Slavery was abolished in the North, but was still legal in the South 1824 ELECTION Jackson’s Path to Presidency ▫ ▫ Andrew Jackson vs John Quincy Adams ◦ Adams wins B/c differences in preference for president, the Democratic-Republican Party splits into... ◦ The National Republican Party= Clay ■ Clay was appointed Secretary of State by Adams ◦ The Democratic Party= Jackson JACKSONIANS Continue: Jackson’s Path to Presidency Followers of Andrew Jackson - Accused John Quincy Adams of stealing Jackson’s presidency in 1824 EXPANDING DEMOCRACY States eased their voting requirements - Enlarged the voting pop. With more voters, Andrew Jackson won the 1828 election SPOILS SYSTEM Jackson tried to give common people chances to participate within the government - So he enforced a maximum 4-year term for federal jobs This policy allowed for Jackson to give jobs to his friends and allies Jackson’s Native American Policy The Removal of Native Americans - Indian Removal Act of 1830: forced Native Americans, including the Cherokee, to Oklahoma and lands west of the Mississippi River; was passed by Congress The Trail of Tears (800-mile journey) - In 1838, President Martin Van Buren ordered the removal of the 20,000 Cherokee that still remained in the East. - buried more than a quarter of their people along the Trail of Tears, the routes they followed from Georgia to the Indian Territory The Nullification Crisis Tariffs, States’ Rights, and the National Bank - In 1824 (and again in 1828), Congress increased the Import Tariff of 1816. In attempt to free South Carolina from the tariff, John C. Calhoun developed a theory of nullification. Tensions only relieved when Henry Clay proposed a tariff bill that would gradually lower duties over a ten-year period. Jackson’s Bank War - Tried to kill the BUS, by withdrawing all government deposits from bank’s branches and placing them in “pet banks” because of their loyalty to the Democratic Party - Angered by this, National Republicans formed a new political party, called the Whig Party. Martin Van Buren Successors Deal with Jackson’s Legacy - Along with the presidency, he inherited the consequences of Jackson’s bank war. - In the Panic of 1837, bank closings and the collapse of the credit system cost many people their savings and put more than a third of the population out of work Harrison and Tyler - William Henry Harrison won reelection, in 1840, and tried to enact the Whig program to revitalize the economy. - After he died, John Tyler became president. He opposed many parts of the program. Section 3. Manifest Destiny Americans Pursue Manifest Destiny ▫ Belief that God wants to expand the U.S. westward to the Pacific ◦ Abundance of land ◦ Merchants and manufacturers seeking new markets for goods ◦ Personal economic problems in the east The Santa Fe Trail Trails West The Oregon Trail ▫ One of the busiest routes to the west ▫ ▫ 780 miles from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico From Independence, Missouri to Portland, Oregon ▫ Methodist missionaries, Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, proved that wagons can travel on the Oregon Trail. ▫ Pioneers use prairie schooners or handcarts. ▫ Traders traveled together on Native American lands. The Mormon Migration ▫ Religious group founded by Joseph Smith ▫ Led by Brigham Young to escape persecution ▫ Anti-Mormon mob murdered Smith ▫ Young urged Mormons to move farther west ▫ In 1847, Mormon settled in desert near Great Salt Lake Texan Independence ▫ Mission system declined after Mexico won independence ▫ Mexico offered land and encouraged Americans to settle in Texas ▫ Stephen F. Austin, an empresarios, established a colony in Texas between the Brazil and Colorado rivers Stephen F. Austin The Texas Revolution ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Tension rose between Anglo Texans and Mexican government 1830- Mexico sealed borders and put taxes on ▫ American goods 1833- Austin went to Mexico City, imprisoned ▫ Sparked several rebellions Santa Anna marched ▫ toward San Antonio with a 4000-man army ▫ Lt. Colonel William Travis moved Anglo troops to the Alamo Mexican troops scaled the Alamo’s walls March 2 1836- Texans declared independence from Mexico March 16- ratified constitution Texas Joins Union ▫ “Remember the Alamo” Texas Wins Independence ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Sam Houston ▫ Santa Anna’s troops executed 445 rebels Sam Houston and 900 ▫ men surprised Mexicans at San Jacinto River “Remember the Alamo!” ▫ Captured Santa Anna, who was freed after signing the Treaty of Velasco Ended the Texas Revolution and gave Texas its independence Texans hoped U.S. would annex them Northerners feared more slave territory would tip balance in the Senate 1844 U.S. presidential campaign James K. Polk Dec. 29. 1845- Texas entered the Union Polk Urges War The War With Mexico ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Believed war with Mexico would bring New Mexico and California into Union Nov. 1845- $25 million offered to purchase ▫ California and New Mexico; Mexican approval of the Rio Grande as Texas border ▫ Mexican leader refused, Polk sent men to blockade the river Southerners supported war, Northerners opposed The War Begins Mexican troops crossed Rio Grande and killed U.S. soldiers Mexico started war, shedding “American blood upon American soil” Bear Flag Republic ▫ Ending the War With Mexico ▫ ▫ ▫ Spoils of War June 1846- American settlers ▫ Feb 2, 1848- Treaty seized town of Sonoma of Guadalupe Hoisted flag with a grizzly bear, Hidalgo (ending war rebels declared independence and ceding and proclaimed nation of the California, New Bear Flag Republic Mexico territories Sept. 1846- captured ▫ Pay $15 million for Monterrey, then Veracruz cities Mexican cession General Scott’s army captured Mexico City California Gold Rush ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Gold discovered in California Sierra Nevadas Gold fever traveled eastward, overland migration skyrocketed California gold rush in 1849 Revolutionized California’s economy Ships clogged harbor and linked Californian markets to rest of the U,S, Section 4. The Market Revolution ▫ U.S Markets Expand - The completion of the Erie Canal brought on the market revolution era. People purchased and sold goods, rather than making the goods themselves. Farmers shifted from self-sufficiency to specialization. Amount of goods and services multiplied while incomes rose. Growth of the U.S economy coincided with growth of free enterprise. ▫ Inventions and Improvements - Inventions fueled the economic revolution and transformed manufacturing, transportation and communication. Telegraphs allowed communication from one end of the continent to the other Farmers/manufacturers sought better ways to ship their goods, which led to steamboats and eventually led to railroads. ▫ New Markets Link Regions ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ The inner regions of America became interdependent. Steamboats connected the North to the South The Erie canal, railroads and telegraph wires connected the East to the West New York became the central link between American agriculture and European markets. The rate of manufacturing increased. Northeast: South: -center of American commerce -remained agricultural -becoming more industrialized -looked down on industrialization -people moved midwest for fertile soil -lacked the capital to build factories because they invested in land and slaves -farmers began growing cash crops ▫ Changing workplaces ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Production moved from homes to factories The Lowell textile mills allowed young women the opportunity to work New machines allowed unskilled people to work in factories There were a lot of rules and regulations that workers had to follow Conditions got worse with some employees working 12 hour shifts and being regarded as machinery Workers began going on strike when wages were lowered, however, little to none were won by the employees European: Immigration - Number rose dramatically between 1830-1860 3 million immigrated in from 1845-1854 Most came from Northern/Western Europe Irish: - 1 million settled between 1815 and 1844 1.3 million more came because of the Great Potato Famine Faced prejudice Willing to work low wage jobs under terrible conditions - National Trades’ Union - Trade unions joined together to expand their power Represented variety of trades Faced fierce opposition from bankers/owners Strikes were, at first, declared illegal by court However, in one case (Commonwealth vs. Hunt), the supreme court supported the workers’ rights New changes in the industrial system brought on strikes in the workplaces Section 5. Reforming American Society ▫ ▫ Second Great Awakening ▫ ▫ Widespread movement to awaken religious sentiments Revivalism ◦ Revival meetings could last for days where they studied the Bible, reflected on their lives, and heard emotional sermons Unitarians ◦ Member of a religious group that emphasizes reason and faith in the individual ◦ They emphasized reason as the path to perfection ◦ Believed that spiritual awakening was a gradual process Transcendentalism ◦ Developed by Ralph Waldo Emerson when he met artists who advocated romanticism ◦ Emphasized that truth could be found in nature, intuition, and imagination ▫ The AfricanAmerican Church ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Slaves in the South worshipped in the same churches, heard the same sermons, and sang the same hymns as did the slave owners In the East, free African Americans worshipped in separate black churches Richard Allen purchase his freedom and establish the Bethel African Church By 1816, it became the African Methodist Episcopal Church It also became a political, cultural, and social center for African Americans ▫ Slavery and Abolition ▫ In 1817, American Colonization Society was funded to encourage black emigration William Lloyd Garrison: most radical white abolitionist was a young editor ◦ Began a publishing career in 1828 as the editor of an antislavery paper ◦ Founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society and the national American Anti-Slavery Society ◦ He enjoyed the widespread of black support Frederick Douglass ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Born into slavery in 1817 Taught to read and write by the wife of one of his owners He realized that knowledge could be his pathway from slavery to freedom By 1838, he held a skilled job as a ship caulker in Baltimore and earned the highest wages in the yard but his owner took his pay each week Borrowed the identity of a free black sailor and traveled to New York by train Garrison sponsored him to speak for the American Anti-Slavery Society In 1847, Douglass began his own antislavery newspaper ▫ Life Under Slavery ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ During the 18th century, most slaves were male and had arrived from Caribbean or Africa By 1830, number of male and female slaves were more equal Most enslaved African Americans lived and worked on large plantations and worked long, hard days in the fields Many slave owners owned only a few slaves Slaves were denied education and civil rights Slave owners “hired out” their slaves to factory owners ▫ Turner’s Rebellion ▫ ▫ ▫ A slave in Virginia, Nat Turner, organized a rebellion and in August 1831, he gathered more than 50 followers as he moved from plantation to plantation They attacked four plantations and killed about 70 whites but by the 5th attack, the whites captured 16 members of Turner’s band Turner was later captured and hanged After the Turner rebellion, the slave owners argue that slavery was a beneficial institution ◦ They used the Bible to defend slavery Women and Reform Education For Women ▫ ▫ Sojourner Truth In 1821, Emma Willard opened one of the first schools for girls in Troy, New York which offered different classes In 1831, Prudence Crandall opened a school for girls in Connecticut and admitted an AfricanAmerican girl Women’s Rights Movement ▫ ▫ ▫ Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, who had been ardent abolitionists, held a women’s rights convention after male abolitionists discriminated against them Participants at the Seneca Falls convention approved all parts of the declaration Sojourner Truth was born into slavery but she argued for abolition and pointed to the problem of slavery Game Time How to Play Pictionary ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Form teams First drawer comes up and roll a dice Highest number can choose a term from the deck 5 seconds to think/plan. 1 minute to draw First team to guess wins. Terms ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Thomas Jefferson John Marshall Impressment Trail of Tears Andrew Jackson American System Manifest Destiny Trails to the West The Alamo Market Revolution Lowell Textile mills Strike Sojourner Truth Nat Turner Elizabeth Cady Stanton Q&A Have any comments, questions, or concerns? Tell us!