Totalitarianism and the Outbreak of World War II

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Mussolini
& was
Hitler
believed in fascism:
the
idea
that
Stalin
a
Communist
believed
that
the
Totalitarian
Regimes
in Europe
& Asia by one
nations
need
strong
dictators,
total
authority
government
should
control
all
property
&
business
party, but that people can keep private property
“Totalitarianism and World War II”
Essential Question:
–Why did powerful dictators come to
power in Europe in the 1920s & 1930s?
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Totalitarianism
Fascism
Communism
Censorship
Indoctrination
Secret Police aka Police terror
Benito Mussolini
Joseph Stalin
Hideki Tojo
Adolf Hitler
Nazism
Aryan
“Totalitarianism and World War II”
Anticipation Guide:
■ What is a Totalitarian dictator? What are the
characteristics of a Totalitarian dictator?
■ Throughout the history of the world, there have been
many examples of Totalitarian governments. What
countries or dictators can you think of? (Past)
■ Do you see evidence of Totalitarianism in current
times? Where? Who? Explain your answer. (Present)
Characteristics of Totalitarianism - YouTube Video
After WWI, events from 1919-1939 led to another WW:
The punishing terms of the
Treaty of Versailles led to
resentment in Germany
Reparations payments
slowed Germany’s ability
to rebuild after WWI
In the 1920s-1930s
totalitarian dictators noted
the weakness of the League
of Nations and began to
pursue aggressive foreign
policies.
The depression in USA
triggered a world-wide
depression in the
1930s when
international trade
declined & U.S.
investment in Europe
Germany inflation was so bad, money was worthless
ended
Due to the economic depression, bitterness, & desperation
nationalism increased & citizens turned to totalitarian
dictators to maintain order and rule the nation
Britain, France, and members of the League of Nations
wanted to avoid another war BUT powerless to stop
aggression (no military, promoted disarmament, collective
security and negotiation). Totalitarian
leaders came to
power
by promising
jobs and
promoting
nationalism,
expansionism
and militarism
Dictators controlled all
aspects of the nation by
eliminating rivals
(secret police), denying
liberties, censorship,
indoctrination
After Vladimir Lenin’s
death in 1924…
…Joseph Stalin gained
control of the Soviet Union
System of Gov’t: Communism
Beliefs: Gov’t ownership of property, farms and industry.
Gov’t control of economy and social equality. He used
censorship, indoctrination (nationalist and militarist
propaganda) and a secret police to eliminate rivals (camps)
Not all totalitarian
dictators were
Communists…
Fascist
governments
were controlled
by dictators
who demanded
obedience from
citizens (denial
of rights)
Unlike
Communists,
fascists
believed people
could keep
their property
…In Italy, Germany, and Spain,
people turned to an extremely
nationalist gov’t called fascism
In Italy, Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Party seized power by
promising to revive the economy, rebuild the military,
and create a new Roman Empire (nationalism)
Italians felt
betrayed by
the treaty, had
a suffering
economy, &
unemployment
rose. Did not
receive land
promised after
WWI
System of Gov’t: Fascism with high
militarism.
Beliefs: Expansionism.
Dictatorial one-party rule, Destroy
all opposition.
Mussolini’s “Militarism”
The “Blackshirts”
After WWI, Japan gained wealth
by selling supplies to the Allies. Japan became the strongest
nation in Asia and was ready to conquer new lands to provide
resources for Japanese industry
Emperor Hirohito,
System of Gov’t:
gave full control
Militarism &
of the Japanese
Imperialism
military to Hideki
Beliefs:
Tojo who served
Expansionism to
as a military
take control of
dictator
natural resources
The harshness of the Treaty of Versailles created
bitterness in Germans who believed the punishment
was excessive and wanted revenge. Germans wanted
strong leader to improve economy.
The Nazis were a fascist group
in Germany that wanted to
overthrow the disloyal Weimar
Republic = Jail
Adolf Hitler was an early Nazi
recruit and quickly rose to
power in the party using
Communists and Jews as
scapegoats
Hitler was impressed by
Mussolini and used many
of his ideas to make the
Nazi Party strong in Germany
Beliefs: Germans were
members of a master race
called Aryans and
all non-Aryans were inferior
Promoted Expansionism:
Hitler declared that Germans
needed living space and
should conquer Eastern
Europe and Russia
Strong Central Gov’t: Called
the Treaty of Versailles an
outrage and promised to
regain land taken from
Germany after the war
Promoted Militarism: Hitler put Germans to work by
building factories, highways, weapons, and increasing
the military.
He created a secret police called the Gestapo to
eliminate rivals and control all aspects of Germany
AND elite squad of ultra-loyal Nazi Aryans called the
“Totalitarianism and World War II”- Rise of
Dictators (video)
“Totalitarianism and World War II”
Essential Question:
–What caused WWII? What factors led to
the outbreak of World War II in 1939?
■ Anti-Semitic
■ Nuremberg Laws
■ Kristallnacht
■ Appeasement
■ Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939
■ Blitzkrieg tactics
In 1933, Hitler was named chancellor (prime minister)
of Germany and used his power to become dictator
Hitler speech after
wining Germany
elections-Video
In 1935, Hitler began a series of anti-Semitic laws called
the Nuremburg Laws that deprived German Jews the
rights of citizens, jobs, property, forbade mixed Jewish
marriages, and required Jews to wear a yellow star
In Nov 9,1938, Hitler ordered Kristallnacht (Night of
Broken Glass) a series of mob attacks on Jewish
synagogues, businesses, homes and on the streets.
Signaled the starting point of eliminating the Jews from
German Life .
In the 1930s, Japan, Italy, and Germany began
aggressively expanding in Africa, Asia, and
Europe
Japan aggressively expanding
Military dictator
Hideki Tojo promised to
conquer new lands to
provide natural resources
for Japan’s industrialization
(coal, timber, iron, ore,
control of China)
Japan invaded Manchuria in
1931. Mainland China in
1937 killing 300,000
unarmed soldiers &
civilians. Invaded Indochina
& the East Indies
In 1935, Mussolini began his campaign to create an
Italian Empire by invading Ethiopia and other African
Nations
Ethiopian soldiers
defending their country
from the Italian military
The League of Nations
condemned Japan and Italy but
did nothing to stop the attacks
in order to maintain world peace
The failure of the League of Nations to stop Italy or
Japan, encouraged Hitler to expand Germany too
By 1936, Hitler had expanded
the German military
(violating what?) and moved
troops into the Rhineland
In 1938, Germany
annexed Austria and
the Sudetenland
In 1939, Hitler invaded
Czechoslovakia
1938, Leaders of League of
Nations meet with Hitler and
Mussolini. Appeasement was
proposed by British Prime
Minister Neville Chamberlain
to avoid war.
Appeasement: In order to
avoid war, Germany was
allowed to keep Rhineland,
Sudetenland and Austria IF
Hitler promised to stop
expanding
Mussolini
Hitler
Chamberlain
At the Munich Conference, 1938
In 1939, Hitler demanded the return of Poland
to Germany but wanted to avoid a war with the USSR
Stalin and Hitler =NaziSoviet Nonaggression
Pact (1939), promising
to divide Poland and to
never
to attack each other
On September 1, 1939,
Germany invaded
Poland
On September 3, 1939,
Britain and France
declared war on the
Axis Powers (Germany,
Italy, and Japan) and
World War II began
When World War II began,
German blitzkrieg tactics (air raids,
artillery, tanks) led to conquest of Poland,
Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium,
France, the Balkans. Axis take North
Africa
In 1941, Hitler broke the Nazi-Soviet Pact
and invaded the Soviet Union
By 1941, Germany and
Italy controlled most of
Europe and North Africa
Meanwhile, Japan conquered new territories in
Asia and threatened Guam and the Philippines
From 1939 to 1941, the United States remained
neutral, but not isolated, from the global conflict
TPS: Why did the U.S remain
neutral toward Totalitarians?
“Totalitarianism and World War II”
Mind Mirror:
■ 2 main ideas from the text in complete sentences.
■ 2 main ideas that you have inferred about your dictator
based on your notes in complete sentences.
■ 3 vocabulary terms that apply/relate to this dictator,
include definition of term in your own words and
explanation of HOW does it relate/apply to your
dictator.
■ 3 symbols/drawings that represent your dictator and/or
their story.
■ 1 thesis statement answering: Was ______ a
Totalitarian dictator? Why? Explain (3 examples)
Closure Activity
■On your map, label the following:
–The 3 main Axis Powers
–The territories under the control of the
Axis Powers by 1942
■On your timeline, identify the 5 most
important events that contributed to
World War 2; For each event, provide a
brief summary & an image
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