CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter contains the different literature and studies related to the current study which correlates with its conceptual framework that showed the factors that are positive and/or negative impacts of being a student-athlete which affected their academic performance. Positive Impacts of Being a Student-Athlete Some recent articles and studies conducted by researchers show the different positive effects of being a student-athlete. The effect that sports have may vary because of the distinction of individuals. Albeit generally speaking, sports can have certain positive impacts that may apply to the majority, if not all. The Next College Student Athlete organization had an article which is written by Sorenson, (2013) that stated three primary benefits of being a student-athlete. The first is relationships. Being part of a team, working together, and striving towards the same goal are few of the best ways to develop close relationships. Next is health, since being a college athlete may force someone to be healthier. Most student-athletes are highly motivated and goal-oriented, so it is safe to say they have put in a lot of work to even be a student-athlete. Working out, training, and practicing are part of their life as an athlete, which can keep them in great shape. Lastly, it is generally easier to get a job because some potential employers look for and want former athletes. They understand the lessons learned through years of being an athlete translate into a quality employee. A successful athlete would have better leadership skills and higher confidence levels. In line with the previous article, a study conducted by Thomas Kohs, (2015), determined if student-athletes would have greater confidence than non-athletes, and in turn have an overall higher GPA (Grade Point Average). The result of the study has shown that there were significant differences in confidence between student-athletes and non-athletes. However, there were no significant differences in terms of academic performance. The researchers can conclude from this study that confidence is not a leading impact on the academic performance of student-athletes. Due to the results of this study, the researchers decided to not include a student-athlete’s level of confidence in the experiences to be studied for the research to be conducted. Another positive effect of having a school sport would include community representation. An article by Chen, (2018) on Public School Review states that students who participate in high school sports learn the benefit of representing their community on the field or court. These athletes learn the fun of team rivalries and revel in the praise of a job well done for their school. This feeling of community and the honor of representing the home team may run over into college athletics if the student advances in his sport as well. Another is the “importance of the 3 P’s”, which means persistence, patience, and practice. This helps student-athletes learn beyond the classroom. Other positive effects stated in the article include social relationships, leadership skills, and success mindset. In terms of academic performance, an article from Civic Issues entitled “How Do Athletics Affect Academic Performance of Student-Athletes?” (2013) suggested that being a student-athlete can have both negative and positive impacts depending on the student. Some student-athletes learn time management and they are able to get school works done quickly and efficiently. Exercise also seems to help them focus. However, many students come to school on full scholarship as entertainers on the field or court, while usually having very weak educational backgrounds. This proposes that every student-athlete is different with how they respond to handling the academic side. This is contrary to the article “Benefits to College Student-Athletes” by the National Collegiate Athletic Association, (2013) which stated different positive effects of sports to students. One of these is academic success. The NCAA's most recent data indicate that more than eight out of 10 (82 percent) Division I student-athletes are earning their degrees. Overall, college student-athletes graduate at rates higher than college students in general. The resulting academic success may be due to the increased physical activity of student-athletes. Consistent pattern of physical activity offered by sports keeps the brain alert and functioning on an optimal level, Kimbal & Freysinger, (2003). Sports can also very strongly affect a student-athlete’s social well-being. It influences relations among peers, authority, and family. When those in the athlete’s sphere of influence held a healthy involvement in the athlete’s life, the healthy involvement forms emotional, financial, and directional support directed towards the student-athlete. These supports make a sense of security as well as hope for the student-athletes future, Cremadesa, et al., (2013). Additionally, sports can also affect a student-athlete’s emotional well-being. Research conducted by Machida, et al., (2013) has shown a direct result of involvement in a motivational culture. This motivational climate encourages student athletes with constructive criticism and support not only in his or her sport but as well as in other areas of their life. This climate can be made by fellow teammates, coaches, managers, and extends to other family members. The supportive motivational climate can affect the aspect of self-perfectionism which may have an influence in self-confidence. This self-confidence can carry over personal relationships, academics, and future endeavors which in turn create a foundation of personal strength for any athlete’s future. The emotional well-being of a student-athlete may even be further bettered because of sports serving as coping mechanism for stress. As eloquently stated by Comeaux & Harrison, (2011), a deep impact is felt by student-athletes when it comes to athletic involvement on the academic level. Research has proven that great amounts of stress are released during an enjoyable physical activity. The positive impact that sports has on student-athletes can be recognized due to the extreme amount of physical activity they encounter. Leaning more towards the social aspect, a student-athlete will most of the time be able to gather more friends and engage in a healthy relationship due to the environment they are in. An article by the Stath Team, (2017) entitled “10 benefits of being a StudentAthlete” showed many different positive effects of sports in the social life of an individual. Rivals and teammates can already serve as friends. They would also learn how to handle adversity considering sports comes with it as well. Being a student-athlete can also get them to represent their school, which can be a good way to improve their social awareness. On the other hand, student-athletes and female athletes in general also had positive effects as stated by Hock, (2018) in her article based on studies, “Strong Athletes, Smart Students: The Impact of Teens’ Sports Participation on Academics”. One of these important research studies is Teen Sport in America: Why Participation Matters. Released in January of 2018, “Teen Sport” is the first report to offer in-depth analysis into how the type of sport and number of sports that teens play impacts their health and well-being. This report builds on previous research and policy showing that athletic participation has a favorable influence on girls’ academic achievement, psychological well-being and physical health. It digs deeper by looking at the little-studied question of whether adolescent health and educational success vary from sport to sport. And finally, the report identifies the unique benefits and opportunities for improvement that exist within each sport to maximize the health benefits for teens. These positive effects and impacts of sports to student-athletes can serve as both a guide and additional information in which the current study can be compared and studied with. These can help the researchers in establishing a general idea of the positive effects of sports to students. Negative Impacts of Being a Student-Athlete Approximately 45 million children and adolescent in the US participate in organized youth sport. At least one child in seventy five percent of American families with school-aged children participates in organized sports. On the surface, it gives the idea that US kids are joyful and healthy as they take part in this leisure activity, and families report more elevated amounts of fulfillment if their kids take an interest. Unfortunately, measurements exhibit a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three kids currently being overweight, with an inactive way of life for most kids and adolescents. Expanding sportsrelated wounds, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5– 24 years, a 70%– 80% wearing down rate when a kid is 15 years old, and projects overemphasizing winning are issues experienced in youth sport. The difficulties looked by grown-ups who are engaged with youth sports, from guardians, to mentors, to sports medicine providers, are multiple, complex, and changed crosswise over ethnic cultures, gender, communities, and socioeconomic levels. It gives the idea that an emphasis on fun while setting up a harmony between physical wellness, psychologic prosperity, and long-lasting exercises for a solid and dynamic way of life are fundamental for progress, Merkel, (2013). Another in an article by Alex Hatch, (2014) in which he proposed a lot of the negative impacts that a student-athlete goes through. Time management and stress are the primary factors that give student-athletes a hard time. Sports do impact education in many ways; there is no doubt about it. Instead of being focused on learning new subjects and becoming the best student you can be, a lot of the focus, if not all, go towards athletics. Not everyone is good with time management, and not all schools and teachers are considerate for students who get behind because of other priorities. Another from the many negative impacts of being a student-athlete is related to how some people think that student-athletes have a less demanding time in college. After all, they are mostly famous and have a great deal of things going for them, such as being part of a bigger goal. In pursuant to an article by Kozlowski, (2013) however, there are a few drawbacks in being a student-athlete. Student-athletes are 15% bound to create psychological well-being issues because of an expanded measure of stressors in their lives. They are students simply like every other person going to advanced education. They have a similar measure of obligations in the classroom but on the other hand are under a ton of strain to perform physically. This can be overpowering to a lot of people and can be as serious as causing depression, substance misuse, and dietary problems. Extreme uneasiness can block execution in the classroom and on the athletic field. A lower performance will just raise the dimensions of stress. Consistent stress can incur damage on an individual's body and psyche. It is imperative to figure out how to destress. Looking for help can sometimes be the best way to manage stress. The strategy does not make a difference but rather the final product, managing pressure, is the fundamental objective. In line with all the drawbacks from being a student-athlete, frequent occurrences of stereotyping can cause damage to student-athletes emotional well-being. This stereotyping, though sometimes indirect, comes in many different forms. As noted in research, one way to make them feel stereotyped is through the assumption that they are only attending college to join in athletics and have absolutely no concern for studies. Those involved in the research pose that this assumption comes from sources like classmates, professors, or other people involved in the student athlete’s life. Student athletes, especially females, encounter this stereotype from their fellow classmates. Those who do not appreciate or have never participated in sports will be humiliated a lot by student athletes, despite the athlete being truly kind and outgoing. On the other hand, fellow athletes also stereotype each other, according to division (NCAA versus Club Sport), sport (football versus ice hockey), and size. In general, student athletes feel that professors and even classmates hold a negative outlook of them as students because of their athletic association. Often, student athletes feel as if they are misjudged as lazy or negligent in class. The Stereotype Threat theory states that student athletes live up to the opinions held of them, which could explain why some athletes do not feel the need to take their studies as seriously as others do. This is to say that if some athletes feel as if they are already being judged as lazy and reluctant to work, they do not even feel like taking the time and effort to show their professors and classmates wrong. Instead, go with the flow along through their homework and classes and fall into the classic athletic stereotype that occurs on many student athletes, Feltz, et al., (2013). In line with the forgoing article, stereotyping can be detrimental to a studentathlete’s growth. It results to both emotional and social negative effects. In accordance with a study performed by Cremadesa, et al., (2013), negative effects to social well-being occurs when there was an absence of healthy involvement and a presence of an unhealthy support. Unhealthy support can be classified as existence of an over-support such as pressuring the student-athlete or having a firm control over his or her decision making. Stereotyping also fall under this category. Likewise, an unhealthy support can be seen when somebody forces the student-athlete into following his or her recommendation on choices. This sort of conduct is damaging to the individual as a competitor as well as an individual. Absence of positive help causes lost objectives, advancement, and association for the competitor. It makes a nearly "what for" frame of mind as the competitor believes that what he is doing does not make a difference or have a reason. Improvement is reduced as the student starts to lose a feeling of joy in the sport. Furthermore, absence of involvement can cause mild depression and at times a hatred of the sport. In conclusion, absence of a positive support conveys from athletics into academics and profoundly affects the student-athlete’s future. Additionally, there are other negative effects when it comes to both males and females, as eloquently stated by the study conducted by Tamaki and Sasaki, (2017). The demand of team travel contributes to exhaustion and sleeping in a non-familiar setting reduces the quality of sleep. This occurrence is called “first night affect” and most often occurs when the brain senses a new environment. This creates an alertness, uneasiness, and sometimes anxiety that makes the brain unable to reach a deep sleep. Sleep deprivation is one of many mental staining things that student-athletes encounter. In line with the study carried out by Puri and Sood, (2018), sports have been viewed as helpful for the better working of a person. Liberality in games exercises is rich and remunerating knowledge. Anyway, competitors who are associated with aggressive games just as scholastics will in general experience more prominent measure of mental strain that has negative effect on their execution in the field. In this manner, it is imperative that spotlight ought to be given on emotional well-being of understudy competitors. While endeavors have been coordinated towards decreasing the psychological pain experienced by understudy competitors, there is similarly lesser consideration paid towards improving their emotional well-being. The utilization of positive brain science in the field of games has given due thought to significance of positive emotional wellness among competitors. Positive psychological well-being has been found as a standout amongst the most imperative factor that encourages the insight and aids adequately taking care of the numerous requests experienced by competitors. Be that as it may, there is a shortage of writing as to noteworthiness of positive psychological wellness among understudy competitors. The motivation behind the present paper was to feature the significance of positive psychological wellness among understudy competitors. In terms of academic performance, it is well reported that student-athletes fail to meet expectations. A few analysts have recommended that this underperformance is claiming student-athletes need inspiration in scholastic undertakings. Interestingly, the researchers locate that most student-athletes hold positive private frames of mind towards scholarly accomplishment, yet also believe that their peers don't. So as to fit in, athletes adjust to the apparent (but false) social standard in their open practices, along these lines undermining their scholarly execution and at the same time fortifying the (false) social standard for whatever is left of their group. This pluralistic obliviousness recommends that distinctive mediations will be expected to tackle the issue than are normally proposed, Levine, et al., (2014). Additionally, as reported by Bishop, (2018), high school sports have both negative and positive effects on the lives of the students. Playing a sport is something that requires long periods of training and devotion which can detract from different things such as a person’s studies. Because of the time expected to concentrate on a sport, a few students begin to fall behind in their academics. The main way a student-athlete can concentrate on both school and sports is if a balance is found between the two. Playing a sport does not have a complete negative affect. A commitment to school sports does not have to translate into compromised academic performance. Although these students often feel substantial pressure to perform both on the field and in the classroom. One problem with this pressure is that if a student favors sports over academics then they may not care if they start to fall behind. The counter to this is that students who begin to slack in academics should be penalized in their sport. While this may seem like a good solution, some students often only fail in one subject. This penalty would then be unfavorable and unjust for them. In conclusion, sports can have various outcomes depending on the current situation of student-athletes. It is mostly up to the student-athlete on how they manage their time. Their personal preferences and life decisions would also affect how they tackle their academics. As stated by McMullen, (2014), hard training and healthy eating can cross the line to exhaustion and eating disorders, encouraging players to do their best can slip into pushing players to the point of injury and harm, and attempts at team bonding can morph into bullying or hazing. Student-athletes should learn at an early age the importance of both their talents and their education, so they would know their limitations and the priorities they should uphold in their life. The negative impacts and how it affected student-athletes all around the world can be used as a source of data so that research on them can come into contrast with another for the issues to be resolved. All the information mentioned above can help the learners and researchers studying about the negativity of athletics for busy and hardworking students. Support from Family, Friends, Peers, etc. Being a student-athlete is stressful and can result to sacrificing educational attainment. The lack of research caused the limited knowledge on how to best support student-athletes. 20 Australian university student-athletes were interviewed, and data were analyzed using thematic analysis. It is reported that they encounter numerous stressors, like schedule clashes, fatigue, financial problem, and inflexibility of coaches. Student-athletes acknowledged few coping strategies but stated that support from family, and coaches was prevailing. They would benefit from having another skill like time management, efficiency of time, self-care, and specific coping strategies for stress. Coaches have the chance to play an essential role in assisting successful integration of sport and education, Cosh and Tully, (2015). Since coaches are the one who are in-charge during trainings, they can motivate and give advices to their players for support. That will give a big impact on their everyday lives. During the whole life of a student being a student-athlete, they can guide them throughout the journey. Coaches can also be considered as a second or third parent that can help every athlete whenever they have problems. Also, the aforementioned study shows that support from parents and coaches has a positive effect on student athletes. It can make them achieve more skills in life. Furthermore, the study conducted by Katagami and Tsuchiya, (2016), aimed to observe the impact of received support and perceived support on athletes’ psychological welfare. Moreover, correlations between received support, perceived support, and personality were investigated. Two hundred and thirty-nine Japanese college student athletes completed the inquiry forms about social support, psychological well-being, and personality. It showed that received support was positively correlated with psychological welfare while perceived support was not. Furthermore, it was revealed that received support and perceived support were positively correlated with each other. In addition to that, the results showed no relationship between received support and a positive self-schema, however perceived support was positively correlated with positive self-schema. Therefore, received support can be a significant predictor of athlete’s psychological welfare. As stated above, support, specifically received support, can positively impose an impact on an athlete’s psychological welfare. Along with the study of Cosh and Tully, it can be concluded that support can affect the performance of student athletes since it can positively affect their psychological welfare and it can possibly make them achieve more skills in life. Conforming to Heshizer and Knapp, (2016), buffer theory proposes that social support controls the stress associated with the stressors. This can be connected to the current study because the theory may impose that the social support received by studentathletes may reduce negative impacts of being a student-athlete in their academics. Furthermore, it also helped the athletes not only to be physically active, but also mentally. Social support reduces the work stress of the respondents. In referral to Psychology (n. d.), social support refers to the different ways that people help each other. It has been acknowledged that it has an important and positive role in the health and welfare of individuals. However, social support has frequently been summarized as a system of people on whom one can rely for psychological or material support. People can rely to family and friends when it comes to this. No matter how hard to play and to study at the same time, it will be surpassed because there are people are to help. They can not only be the source of support, but they will also serve as an inspiration. In accordance to studies, parental involvement has an influence on a child’s achievement. Also it is stated that “According to a handout prepared by the National Parent Teacher Association (PTA), when parents are involved, regardless of income or background, children are more likely to earn higher grades and test scores, enroll in higherlevel programs, attend school regularly, have better social skills, show improved behavior, graduate, and go on to postsecondary education.”, Inclusive Schools Network, (2015). It is recognized that parental involvement is like social support to student athletes. Thus, having effect on the performance of student athletes. On the other hand, a study by DeFreese and Smith, (2013) showed that the view of support availability from teammates, regardless of received support, was significant associate of burnout and self-determined motivation in sport. Also, the general dearth of team-level variation in criterion variables recommends that burnout and self-determined motivation perceptions were largely driven by individual encounters. It is observed that support from peers or colleagues can positively affect the performance of athletes. This shows the probability that support is beneficial to both students and athletes. The statements can possibly show the probable relationship of support received by student-athletes. A study of Cole and McCurdy, (2014), resulted to a positive effect of peer support intervention on students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This can be related to the current study because it shows that peer support intervention can positively affect the performance of students. This is another evidence that support from peers bring positive effects or impacts on an individual’s life. In line with the study of Orr and Stedge, (2016) about the effect of social support on an athlete’s compliance in terms of their rehabilitation from an injury, the relationship between the factors were established. In the life of being a student-athlete there will be a chance that an athlete might be injured. The injuries are different depending on how that injury happened. If it takes a lot of time to recover, a lot of athletes have lost their self-confidence. They need support and a friend to help them gain confidence again. Therefore, the stated study intends to show athletes the importance of acquiring proper social support during their rehabilitation. The results of the study conducted by Evans, et al., (2014) showed that the confirmatory factor analysis of both studies used suggested enough model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed substantial (p < .05) stress-buffering effects for the insights of available esteem support in relation to restlessness, separation, and feeling cheated, and the perception of emotional support in relation to separation. In both studies, moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant (p < .05) main effects for esteem, emotional, and noticeable support in relation to restlessness, separation, and feeling cheated. Thus, the study suggests the importance of support as it has stress-buffering and main effects on injury stressors and psychological responses. The correlations between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may vary with regard to received or perceived accessible support. The conclusions have vital implications for the system of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at relieving the harmful effects of injury stressors. The aforementioned suggests the positive effects of support that affect its recipients positively. It shows that social supports, stressors and psychological responses are connected. Mentally unstable athletes are at a higher risk of being injured or not focusing on their games. A lot of problems brought around his or her environment causes an athlete to be stressed. Emotional support is a great factor in helping an athlete. If he or she knows that someone is there to support his or her no matter what, it will really help to boost the moral and the athlete can play well and preventing injury stressors. However, social support did not seem to have a significant correlation in terms of moderating stress and depression as well as the attitude toward help-seeking, according to Norseth, (2017). The same study suggests a reluctance to seek help among college studentathletes even with the experience of stress and depression. The possible factors that may affect the student-athletes’ choice to seek help may include time pressures and stigma in the athletic culture. Not all of the athletes are capable of approaching someone to seek for help or support. Others are suffering from depression which conclude that there is a high chance that they will not tell anyone about what they feel. The truth is, the ones that are suffering from stress and depression are the ones that need a lot of help. People can support every athlete but there are different ways to help and understand them. This can also denote that social support is not the only factor in reducing stress and depression. Proper social support is needed especially for those who suffer depression. The said evidences may help in understanding the impact of support, in all forms, to student-athletes and their academic performances. They show that support can positively affect the performance of different individuals, like students, and athletes. Thus, showing a considerable probability that it can be the same with student-athletes. Schedule and Time Management Typical student athletes are bombarded with commitments from all sides. There is pressure to be involved, to be successful and to handle a lot of stress. School, clubs, sports, family, social life – it can be hard to keep track of everything and sometimes responsibilities are overlooked or unfulfilled, Hale, (2013). Scheduling your time and having time management is very important for every student athlete. Time management is a crucial skill that student-athletes must learn to be successful not only in high school but beyond. The earlier this talent is honed, the better, Louisiana High School Athletic Association, (2013). As eloquently stated by Florida National University, (2017). There is an immense amount of responsibility that college athletes have to manage physically and mentally. The level of responsibility and commitment required of any college student-athlete is a tall order. Adding college sports into the equation requires an extreme amount of focus and time management. Time is precious, particularly when it comes to being a student-athlete, Polevoi, (2014). Yet there are never more than 24 hours in a day. Learning to be organized and efficient with your time is the key to success, “Time Management for Student-Athletes”, (2019). Pursuant to Vidal, (2015), there are three time-management tips for student-athlete success. First, make a daily to-do list. The trick is not so much in the list itself, but in taking the time to sit down and write out the things you need to do. It’s either a priority for you or it’s not. Second, time block your tasks. For him, he prefers a 60-minute segments of focused productivity. Also, he said that it’s up to you if what kind of system is best for you. Lastly, Avoid distractions. “You may delay, but time will not,” said Benjamin Franklin, America’s great inventor. The fact is, you’re only as distracted as you allow yourself to be. The success of a student athlete comes down to one’s ability to manage one’s time efficiently with social life, academics and sports in the opinion of Uribe, (2016). A student athlete has to be always attentive to not overwork himself beyond certain limits so as to reduce the potential for mental and physical damage. Balance, discipline and organization are the pillars for a student athlete and optimizes one’s success. All of the people that succeed in college have one strong skill in common: good time management. These people can create a balance of work time, play time, and down time. They know how to organize their lives so that they have time to complete quality school work efficiently and on time, get rest, and be social with their friends. This is important for any person, but especially for student athletes. Student athletes have an entirely different responsibility that regular students do not have to keep track of. So many things come into play for student athletes such as workouts, weight training, study hours, eating, recovery, rest, and finally- free time. It is important for student athletes to practice wise time management in order to succeed academically, socially, and athletically, “Time Mangement”, (2015). In addition, as believe by Pavan, (2017), a pro volleyball player and beach volleyball olympian, being a student-athlete is almost like having a full-time job. Between school, practices, games, etc. there just never seems to be enough time to fit everything in. Therefore, the key is time management, or as the quote above says, “priority management". It will help the student-athlete to cope between his academic performance and trainings. As stated in a study, time management training might be beneficial for undergraduate students’ well-being, Hafner, et al, (2015). In this study, it examined the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and 4 weeks after training. They used a “nonequivalent dependent variable design”, Cook and Campbell, (1979) with perceived stress and perceived control of time as dependent variables, which should be influenced by the training, and demands as control variable, which should not be changed. As expected, perceived stress decreased, and perceived control of time increased after training, whereas demands did not change. Cognitive Learning The study of Athletic Investment, Academic Promise: How Participation in School Sport May Foster Academic Resilience and Investment among At-Risk Students states the positive effects of being a student-athlete in relation to their cognitive learning. This proves that many student-athlete can excel in sports and academic performances. High school students who participate in sports express less hostility toward their classmates and are more likely to graduate from high school and go on to college, according to the preliminary results of an ongoing national study. The study is based on national data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics. Data collection began in 1988 and followed 14,000 students beginning in eighth grade through 1994. Researchers monitored the group every two years by interviewing the students and having teachers, principals and parents fill out questionnaires. The data provide a nationally representative sample of students, including students from major cities of every race and socio-economic background, Braddock, et al., (1998). Recognizing the fact that sport has become a major social institution, the University of Miami established the Center for Research on Sport in Society (CRSS) earlier this fall. An interdisciplinary center, CRSS is founded on the basic principle that sport is an institution that can and does affect our lives and our society in profound and sometimes dramatic way. Another important area of research that CRSS will be examining focuses on how educators can use children's fascination with sports as a tool to illustrate complex principles in math and physics while maintaining the interest of students. Teachers could teach basic principles of physics by explaining how a curveball works as well as using computer programs that involve managing a team or acting as a coach and calling plays. As stated in the study of Pascarella, et al., (1999) and Bohr, et al., (1995) focus on what the positive impacts of athletics have on non-cognitive development. Using the national sample from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program to help with the study, Pascarella found positive correlations with the satisfaction and the overall college experience, motivation to complete degree, bachelor’s degree completion, and persistence in college. Being a part of athletics kept these student athletes motivated to continue their pursuit to attain their degree, receive good grades to stay eligible and meet graduation requirements. These statistics shed light on the success of upper level college students, but what is the impact for first year college students on getting acquainted with the university? Pascarella’s 1995 study focused on the study of 23 two-year and four-year colleges in sixteen states around the country. This study was conducted to look at the positive outcomes for first year students from participation in collegiate athletics. The study found that participation in intercollegiate sports positively influenced gains in success during their first year of college in regard to feeling at home at the university and success in classes. Referring to the study of Grimit, (2014) about Effects of Student Athletics on Academic Performance states that the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of involvement in athletics at the collegiate level at South Dakota State University. The research paper seeks to determine if participation in collegiate athletics is beneficial to a person or if its disadvantages outweigh the advantages. Sixty-seven student-athletes completed a survey during October of 2013 to determine the effects that athletic involvement has had on SDSU’s campus. This study found that participation in athletics is extremely beneficial. These athletes performed better in the classroom, developed impressive time management skills, felt motivated to complete their degree, were motivated to attend classes, and experienced a smoother transition into the college lifestyle. As believed by Maslen, (2015) in his article about the social and academic benefits of team sports states that in the University of Kansas Study student-athletes get the higher percentage of graduated high school students and having a good performance in their school than those students who never participated in sports. Team sports are about so much more than their physical benefits. This is especially so when group sports activities are incorporated into a young person’s life. Studies have shown a direct correlation between physical activity and academic performance. Athletes were also shown to have better G.P.A. outcomes than non-athletes. This supports the idea of being a student-athlete will give more achievements not only in sports, but also in academic performances. In agreement with Granacher and Borde, (2017) on their study about the Effects of Sport-Specific Training during the Early Stages of Long-Term Athlete Development on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, Cognitive, and Academic Performances proves that being a student-athlete will not give a low grade but instead will contribute a healthy body and a healthy grade. Several sports demand an early start into long-term athlete development (LTAD) because peak performances are achieved at a relatively young age (e.g., gymnastics). The results revealed that a school-based 1-year sport-specific training in combination with physical education improved physical fitness but did not negatively affect cognitive and academic performances of youth athletes compared to their nonathletic peers. It is concluded that sport-specific training in combination with physical education promotes youth athletes' physical fitness development during LTAD and does not impede their cognitive and academic development. An article about the Physical Activity, Fitness, and Physical Education: Effects on Academic Performance states the positive effects of being a student-athlete regarding to their cognitive learning. Physical activity helps our body to be physically fit and also to have an extra knowledge about the lesson inside the classroom. When physical activity is used as a break from academic learning time, post engagement effects include better attention, Grieco, et al., (2009); Bartholomew and Jowers, (2011), increased on-task behaviors, and improved academic performance. Comparisons between 1st-grade students housed in a classroom with stand-sit desks where the child could stand at his/her discretion and in classrooms containing traditional furniture showed that the former children were highly likely to stand, thus expending significantly more energy than those who were seated, Benden, et al., (2011). More important, teachers can offer physical activity breaks as part of a supplemental curriculum or simply as a way to reset student attention during a lesson, Kibbe, et al., (2011) and when provided with minimal training can efficaciously produce vigorous or moderate energy expenditure in students. Further, after-school physical activity programs have demonstrated the ability to improve cardiovascular endurance, and this increase in aerobic fitness has been shown to mediate improvements in academic performance, as well as the allocation of neural resources underlying performance on a working memory task, Kamijo et al., (2011). Academic Performance Student athletes and non-student athletes exhibited similar academic achievement and academic motivation, which is based on an online questionnaire. Student-athletes reported doing coursework for 8-11 hours while non-student-athletes reported doing coursework for 4-7 hours, Dihoff, (2015). As proposed by Naquin and Whitsell, (2016), most of the athletes felt that being an athlete increased stress levels. Females received more perceived stress than males according to the Perceived Stress Scale. Athletes reported to have less sleep on weekdays in comparison to weekends. It is also suggested that increasing sleep time among athletes and providing stress management plans may enhance athletic performance. In line with a study by Aries, et al., (2004), student-athletes were studied over 4 years at a highly selective liberal arts college and an Ivy League university. Students spending 10 or more hours per week in athletic activities had lower entering academic credentials and academic self-assessments than non-athletes, but the academic performance of athletes was not below what would be expected based on their entering profiles. Athletes surpassed non-athletes on sociability/extraversion and self-reported well-being in each annual wave of the study. Athletes were not isolated from the rest of the student body; they spent over 50% of their time with non-group members and belonged to non-athletic extracurricular groups every year. Athletes perceived group membership to pose greater difficulties to academic performance and involvements outside the group than did members of other types of extracurricular groups. Several conclusions as well as some practical recommendations for action relative to the improvement of student performance have been advanced. Conforming to a study by Rheenen and Simons, (2014), states that 200 Division I athletes examined the role of four noncognitive variables in predicting academic performance. Using a paper and pencil Likert scale instrument the noncognitive variables, athletic-academic commitment, feelings of being exploited, academic self-worth, self-handicapping excuses as well as several background and academic preparation variables were studied as predictors of academic performance. All four noncognitive variables were found to be significant and independent predictors of academic performance. Student athletes' relative athletic-academic identification and achievement motivation play important roles in student athletes' academic performance. Pursuant to Chandler, et. al., (2009), states that “parenting styles have consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology, behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting style, academic performance, self-efficacy, and achievement motivation using a sample of college students (N = 264). Results indicated that authoritative parenting continues to influence the academic performance of college students, and both intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy predicted academic performance. Additionally, the study tested the interaction between self-efficacy and authoritative parenting, but the interaction was not significant. Implications for future research and applications are discussed.” In keeping with Nichols and Sanchez, (2007), researchers examined “whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between generational status and 2 academic outcome indicators of 192 college students. A mediation effect was not found with either academic performance or college adjustment. However, high self-efficacy at the beginning of the year predicted better college adjustment at the end of the 1st year. For college students in general, high self-efficacy was related to better college adjustment. Just as Samarasinghe, et. al., (2016) stated that attendance at school and sport team participation are related. The same with sport team participation and completion of homeworks. Sport team participation and getting along with people are also found to be correlated to each other. Students with the physical activity intervention are significantly more fluent in reading and had higher mathematic score. Also, they had higher mean scores in reading and mathematics as well as grades, Erwin, (2017). Conforming to Samaha and Hawi, (2016), smartphone addiction risk positively affects perceived stress. On the other hand, perceived stress negatively affects satisfaction to life. Furthermore, smartphone addiction negatively affects academic performance and the latter positively affects satisfaction in life. As believed by Keamu and Gbollie, (2017), the nature of motivation and learning strategy use is vital to improving student learning outcomes. This study was intended to explore the motivational beliefs and learning strategy use by Liberian junior and senior high school students in connection with their academic performance. It also solicited students’ self-reports about presumed factors hindering their learning. Utilizing a cross-sectional quantitative research design, 323 participants took part in the study from 2 counties. Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was adapted and 12 potential learning hindrances were identified and used as instruments. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. The results showed the motivational belief component of extrinsic goal orientation as the most preferred belief and test anxiety was the least possessed belief. Rehearsal strategies were found to be the most frequently used, while help seeking was reported to be the least strategy considered. The result also showed significant relationships between the two constructs. In addition, the study found some learning hindrances.