CHAPTER 2 (3RD DRAFT)

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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter contains the different literature and studies related to the current study
which correlates with its conceptual framework that showed the factors that are positive
and/or negative impacts of being a student-athlete which affected their academic
performance.
Positive Impacts of Being a Student-Athlete
Some recent articles and studies conducted by researchers show the different
positive effects of being a student-athlete. The effect that sports have may vary because of
the distinction of individuals. Albeit generally speaking, sports can have certain positive
impacts that may apply to the majority, if not all. The Next College Student Athlete
organization had an article which is written by Sorenson, (2013) that stated three primary
benefits of being a student-athlete. The first is relationships. Being part of a team, working
together, and striving towards the same goal are few of the best ways to develop close
relationships. Next is health, since being a college athlete may force someone to be
healthier. Most student-athletes are highly motivated and goal-oriented, so it is safe to say
they have put in a lot of work to even be a student-athlete. Working out, training, and
practicing are part of their life as an athlete, which can keep them in great shape. Lastly, it
is generally easier to get a job because some potential employers look for and want former
athletes. They understand the lessons learned through years of being an athlete translate
into a quality employee. A successful athlete would have better leadership skills and higher
confidence levels.
In line with the previous article, a study conducted by Thomas Kohs, (2015),
determined if student-athletes would have greater confidence than non-athletes, and in turn
have an overall higher GPA (Grade Point Average). The result of the study has shown that
there were significant differences in confidence between student-athletes and non-athletes.
However, there were no significant differences in terms of academic performance. The
researchers can conclude from this study that confidence is not a leading impact on the
academic performance of student-athletes. Due to the results of this study, the researchers
decided to not include a student-athlete’s level of confidence in the experiences to be
studied for the research to be conducted.
Another positive effect of having a school sport would include community
representation. An article by Chen, (2018) on Public School Review states that students
who participate in high school sports learn the benefit of representing their community on
the field or court. These athletes learn the fun of team rivalries and revel in the praise of a
job well done for their school. This feeling of community and the honor of representing the
home team may run over into college athletics if the student advances in his sport as well.
Another is the “importance of the 3 P’s”, which means persistence, patience, and practice.
This helps student-athletes learn beyond the classroom. Other positive effects stated in the
article include social relationships, leadership skills, and success mindset.
In terms of academic performance, an article from Civic Issues entitled “How Do
Athletics Affect Academic Performance of Student-Athletes?” (2013) suggested that being
a student-athlete can have both negative and positive impacts depending on the student.
Some student-athletes learn time management and they are able to get school works done
quickly and efficiently. Exercise also seems to help them focus. However, many students
come to school on full scholarship as entertainers on the field or court, while usually having
very weak educational backgrounds. This proposes that every student-athlete is different
with how they respond to handling the academic side. This is contrary to the article
“Benefits to College Student-Athletes” by the National Collegiate Athletic Association,
(2013) which stated different positive effects of sports to students. One of these is academic
success. The NCAA's most recent data indicate that more than eight out of 10 (82 percent)
Division I student-athletes are earning their degrees. Overall, college student-athletes
graduate at rates higher than college students in general. The resulting academic success
may be due to the increased physical activity of student-athletes. Consistent pattern of
physical activity offered by sports keeps the brain alert and functioning on an optimal level,
Kimbal & Freysinger, (2003).
Sports can also very strongly affect a student-athlete’s social well-being. It
influences relations among peers, authority, and family. When those in the athlete’s sphere
of influence held a healthy involvement in the athlete’s life, the healthy involvement forms
emotional, financial, and directional support directed towards the student-athlete. These
supports make a sense of security as well as hope for the student-athletes future,
Cremadesa, et al., (2013).
Additionally, sports can also affect a student-athlete’s emotional well-being.
Research conducted by Machida, et al., (2013) has shown a direct result of involvement in
a motivational culture. This motivational climate encourages student athletes with
constructive criticism and support not only in his or her sport but as well as in other areas
of their life. This climate can be made by fellow teammates, coaches, managers, and
extends to other family members. The supportive motivational climate can affect the aspect
of self-perfectionism which may have an influence in self-confidence. This self-confidence
can carry over personal relationships, academics, and future endeavors which in turn create
a foundation of personal strength for any athlete’s future. The emotional well-being of a
student-athlete may even be further bettered because of sports serving as coping
mechanism for stress. As eloquently stated by Comeaux & Harrison, (2011), a deep impact
is felt by student-athletes when it comes to athletic involvement on the academic level.
Research has proven that great amounts of stress are released during an enjoyable physical
activity. The positive impact that sports has on student-athletes can be recognized due to
the extreme amount of physical activity they encounter.
Leaning more towards the social aspect, a student-athlete will most of the time be
able to gather more friends and engage in a healthy relationship due to the environment
they are in. An article by the Stath Team, (2017) entitled “10 benefits of being a StudentAthlete” showed many different positive effects of sports in the social life of an individual.
Rivals and teammates can already serve as friends. They would also learn how to handle
adversity considering sports comes with it as well. Being a student-athlete can also get
them to represent their school, which can be a good way to improve their social awareness.
On the other hand, student-athletes and female athletes in general also had positive
effects as stated by Hock, (2018) in her article based on studies, “Strong Athletes, Smart
Students: The Impact of Teens’ Sports Participation on Academics”. One of these
important research studies is Teen Sport in America: Why Participation Matters. Released
in January of 2018, “Teen Sport” is the first report to offer in-depth analysis into how the
type of sport and number of sports that teens play impacts their health and well-being. This
report builds on previous research and policy showing that athletic participation has a
favorable influence on girls’ academic achievement, psychological well-being and physical
health. It digs deeper by looking at the little-studied question of whether adolescent health
and educational success vary from sport to sport. And finally, the report identifies the
unique benefits and opportunities for improvement that exist within each sport to maximize
the health benefits for teens.
These positive effects and impacts of sports to student-athletes can serve as both a
guide and additional information in which the current study can be compared and studied
with. These can help the researchers in establishing a general idea of the positive effects of
sports to students.
Negative Impacts of Being a Student-Athlete
Approximately 45 million children and adolescent in the US participate in
organized youth sport. At least one child in seventy five percent of American families with
school-aged children participates in organized sports. On the surface, it gives the idea that
US kids are joyful and healthy as they take part in this leisure activity, and families report
more elevated amounts of fulfillment if their kids take an interest. Unfortunately,
measurements exhibit a childhood obesity epidemic, with one of three kids currently being
overweight, with an inactive way of life for most kids and adolescents. Expanding sportsrelated wounds, with 2.6 million emergency room visits a year for those aged 5– 24 years,
a 70%– 80% wearing down rate when a kid is 15 years old, and projects overemphasizing
winning are issues experienced in youth sport. The difficulties looked by grown-ups who
are engaged with youth sports, from guardians, to mentors, to sports medicine providers,
are multiple, complex, and changed crosswise over ethnic cultures, gender, communities,
and socioeconomic levels. It gives the idea that an emphasis on fun while setting up a
harmony between physical wellness, psychologic prosperity, and long-lasting exercises for
a solid and dynamic way of life are fundamental for progress, Merkel, (2013).
Another in an article by Alex Hatch, (2014) in which he proposed a lot of the
negative impacts that a student-athlete goes through. Time management and stress are the
primary factors that give student-athletes a hard time. Sports do impact education in many
ways; there is no doubt about it. Instead of being focused on learning new subjects and
becoming the best student you can be, a lot of the focus, if not all, go towards athletics. Not
everyone is good with time management, and not all schools and teachers are considerate
for students who get behind because of other priorities.
Another from the many negative impacts of being a student-athlete is related to how
some people think that student-athletes have a less demanding time in college. After all,
they are mostly famous and have a great deal of things going for them, such as being part
of a bigger goal. In pursuant to an article by Kozlowski, (2013) however, there are a few
drawbacks in being a student-athlete. Student-athletes are 15% bound to create
psychological well-being issues because of an expanded measure of stressors in their lives.
They are students simply like every other person going to advanced education. They have
a similar measure of obligations in the classroom but on the other hand are under a ton of
strain to perform physically. This can be overpowering to a lot of people and can be as
serious as causing depression, substance misuse, and dietary problems. Extreme uneasiness
can block execution in the classroom and on the athletic field. A lower performance will
just raise the dimensions of stress. Consistent stress can incur damage on an individual's
body and psyche. It is imperative to figure out how to destress. Looking for help can
sometimes be the best way to manage stress. The strategy does not make a difference but
rather the final product, managing pressure, is the fundamental objective.
In line with all the drawbacks from being a student-athlete, frequent occurrences of
stereotyping can cause damage to student-athletes emotional well-being. This stereotyping,
though sometimes indirect, comes in many different forms. As noted in research, one way
to make them feel stereotyped is through the assumption that they are only attending
college to join in athletics and have absolutely no concern for studies. Those involved in
the research pose that this assumption comes from sources like classmates, professors, or
other people involved in the student athlete’s life. Student athletes, especially females,
encounter this stereotype from their fellow classmates. Those who do not appreciate or
have never participated in sports will be humiliated a lot by student athletes, despite the
athlete being truly kind and outgoing. On the other hand, fellow athletes also stereotype
each other, according to division (NCAA versus Club Sport), sport (football versus ice
hockey), and size. In general, student athletes feel that professors and even classmates hold
a negative outlook of them as students because of their athletic association. Often, student
athletes feel as if they are misjudged as lazy or negligent in class. The Stereotype Threat
theory states that student athletes live up to the opinions held of them, which could explain
why some athletes do not feel the need to take their studies as seriously as others do. This
is to say that if some athletes feel as if they are already being judged as lazy and reluctant
to work, they do not even feel like taking the time and effort to show their professors and
classmates wrong. Instead, go with the flow along through their homework and classes and
fall into the classic athletic stereotype that occurs on many student athletes, Feltz, et al.,
(2013).
In line with the forgoing article, stereotyping can be detrimental to a studentathlete’s growth. It results to both emotional and social negative effects. In accordance with
a study performed by Cremadesa, et al., (2013), negative effects to social well-being occurs
when there was an absence of healthy involvement and a presence of an unhealthy support.
Unhealthy support can be classified as existence of an over-support such as pressuring the
student-athlete or having a firm control over his or her decision making. Stereotyping also
fall under this category. Likewise, an unhealthy support can be seen when somebody forces
the student-athlete into following his or her recommendation on choices. This sort of
conduct is damaging to the individual as a competitor as well as an individual. Absence of
positive help causes lost objectives, advancement, and association for the competitor. It
makes a nearly "what for" frame of mind as the competitor believes that what he is doing
does not make a difference or have a reason. Improvement is reduced as the student starts
to lose a feeling of joy in the sport. Furthermore, absence of involvement can cause mild
depression and at times a hatred of the sport. In conclusion, absence of a positive support
conveys from athletics into academics and profoundly affects the student-athlete’s future.
Additionally, there are other negative effects when it comes to both males and
females, as eloquently stated by the study conducted by Tamaki and Sasaki, (2017). The
demand of team travel contributes to exhaustion and sleeping in a non-familiar setting
reduces the quality of sleep. This occurrence is called “first night affect” and most often
occurs when the brain senses a new environment. This creates an alertness, uneasiness, and
sometimes anxiety that makes the brain unable to reach a deep sleep. Sleep deprivation is
one of many mental staining things that student-athletes encounter.
In line with the study carried out by Puri and Sood, (2018), sports have been viewed
as helpful for the better working of a person. Liberality in games exercises is rich and
remunerating knowledge. Anyway, competitors who are associated with aggressive games
just as scholastics will in general experience more prominent measure of mental strain that
has negative effect on their execution in the field. In this manner, it is imperative that
spotlight ought to be given on emotional well-being of understudy competitors. While
endeavors have been coordinated towards decreasing the psychological pain experienced
by understudy competitors, there is similarly lesser consideration paid towards improving
their emotional well-being. The utilization of positive brain science in the field of games
has given due thought to significance of positive emotional wellness among competitors.
Positive psychological well-being has been found as a standout amongst the most
imperative factor that encourages the insight and aids adequately taking care of the
numerous requests experienced by competitors. Be that as it may, there is a shortage of
writing as to noteworthiness of positive psychological wellness among understudy
competitors. The motivation behind the present paper was to feature the significance of
positive psychological wellness among understudy competitors.
In terms of academic performance, it is well reported that student-athletes fail to
meet expectations. A few analysts have recommended that this underperformance is
claiming student-athletes need inspiration in scholastic undertakings. Interestingly, the
researchers locate that most student-athletes hold positive private frames of mind towards
scholarly accomplishment, yet also believe that their peers don't. So as to fit in, athletes
adjust to the apparent (but false) social standard in their open practices, along these lines
undermining their scholarly execution and at the same time fortifying the (false) social
standard for whatever is left of their group. This pluralistic obliviousness recommends that
distinctive mediations will be expected to tackle the issue than are normally proposed,
Levine, et al., (2014).
Additionally, as reported by Bishop, (2018), high school sports have both negative
and positive effects on the lives of the students. Playing a sport is something that requires
long periods of training and devotion which can detract from different things such as a
person’s studies. Because of the time expected to concentrate on a sport, a few students
begin to fall behind in their academics. The main way a student-athlete can concentrate on
both school and sports is if a balance is found between the two. Playing a sport does not
have a complete negative affect. A commitment to school sports does not have to translate
into compromised academic performance. Although these students often feel substantial
pressure to perform both on the field and in the classroom. One problem with this pressure
is that if a student favors sports over academics then they may not care if they start to fall
behind. The counter to this is that students who begin to slack in academics should be
penalized in their sport. While this may seem like a good solution, some students often
only fail in one subject. This penalty would then be unfavorable and unjust for them.
In conclusion, sports can have various outcomes depending on the current situation
of student-athletes. It is mostly up to the student-athlete on how they manage their time.
Their personal preferences and life decisions would also affect how they tackle their
academics. As stated by McMullen, (2014), hard training and healthy eating can cross the
line to exhaustion and eating disorders, encouraging players to do their best can slip into
pushing players to the point of injury and harm, and attempts at team bonding can morph
into bullying or hazing. Student-athletes should learn at an early age the importance of both
their talents and their education, so they would know their limitations and the priorities
they should uphold in their life.
The negative impacts and how it affected student-athletes all around the world can
be used as a source of data so that research on them can come into contrast with another
for the issues to be resolved. All the information mentioned above can help the learners
and researchers studying about the negativity of athletics for busy and hardworking
students.
Support from Family, Friends, Peers, etc.
Being a student-athlete is stressful and can result to sacrificing educational
attainment. The lack of research caused the limited knowledge on how to best support
student-athletes. 20 Australian university student-athletes were interviewed, and data were
analyzed using thematic analysis. It is reported that they encounter numerous stressors, like
schedule clashes, fatigue, financial problem, and inflexibility of coaches. Student-athletes
acknowledged few coping strategies but stated that support from family, and coaches was
prevailing. They would benefit from having another skill like time management, efficiency
of time, self-care, and specific coping strategies for stress. Coaches have the chance to play
an essential role in assisting successful integration of sport and education, Cosh and Tully,
(2015). Since coaches are the one who are in-charge during trainings, they can motivate
and give advices to their players for support. That will give a big impact on their everyday
lives. During the whole life of a student being a student-athlete, they can guide them
throughout the journey. Coaches can also be considered as a second or third parent that can
help every athlete whenever they have problems. Also, the aforementioned study shows
that support from parents and coaches has a positive effect on student athletes. It can make
them achieve more skills in life. Furthermore, the study conducted by Katagami and
Tsuchiya, (2016), aimed to observe the impact of received support and perceived support
on athletes’ psychological welfare. Moreover, correlations between received support,
perceived support, and personality were investigated. Two hundred and thirty-nine
Japanese college student athletes completed the inquiry forms about social support,
psychological well-being, and personality. It showed that received support was positively
correlated with psychological welfare while perceived support was not. Furthermore, it was
revealed that received support and perceived support were positively correlated with each
other. In addition to that, the results showed no relationship between received support and
a positive self-schema, however perceived support was positively correlated with positive
self-schema. Therefore, received support can be a significant predictor of athlete’s
psychological welfare. As stated above, support, specifically received support, can
positively impose an impact on an athlete’s psychological welfare. Along with the study of
Cosh and Tully, it can be concluded that support can affect the performance of student
athletes since it can positively affect their psychological welfare and it can possibly make
them achieve more skills in life.
Conforming to Heshizer and Knapp, (2016), buffer theory proposes that social
support controls the stress associated with the stressors. This can be connected to the
current study because the theory may impose that the social support received by studentathletes may reduce negative impacts of being a student-athlete in their academics.
Furthermore, it also helped the athletes not only to be physically active, but also mentally.
Social support reduces the work stress of the respondents. In referral to Psychology (n. d.),
social support refers to the different ways that people help each other. It has been
acknowledged that it has an important and positive role in the health and welfare of
individuals. However, social support has frequently been summarized as a system of people
on whom one can rely for psychological or material support. People can rely to family and
friends when it comes to this. No matter how hard to play and to study at the same time, it
will be surpassed because there are people are to help. They can not only be the source of
support, but they will also serve as an inspiration.
In accordance to studies, parental involvement has an influence on a child’s
achievement. Also it is stated that “According to a handout prepared by the National Parent
Teacher Association (PTA), when parents are involved, regardless of income or
background, children are more likely to earn higher grades and test scores, enroll in higherlevel programs, attend school regularly, have better social skills, show improved behavior,
graduate, and go on to postsecondary education.”, Inclusive Schools Network, (2015). It
is recognized that parental involvement is like social support to student athletes. Thus,
having effect on the performance of student athletes. On the other hand, a study by
DeFreese and Smith, (2013) showed that the view of support availability from teammates,
regardless of received support, was significant associate of burnout and self-determined
motivation in sport. Also, the general dearth of team-level variation in criterion variables
recommends that burnout and self-determined motivation perceptions were largely driven
by individual encounters. It is observed that support from peers or colleagues can positively
affect the performance of athletes. This shows the probability that support is beneficial to
both students and athletes. The statements can possibly show the probable relationship of
support received by student-athletes.
A study of Cole and McCurdy, (2014), resulted to a positive effect of peer support
intervention on students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This can
be related to the current study because it shows that peer support intervention can positively
affect the performance of students. This is another evidence that support from peers bring
positive effects or impacts on an individual’s life. In line with the study of Orr and Stedge,
(2016) about the effect of social support on an athlete’s compliance in terms of their
rehabilitation from an injury, the relationship between the factors were established. In the
life of being a student-athlete there will be a chance that an athlete might be injured. The
injuries are different depending on how that injury happened. If it takes a lot of time to
recover, a lot of athletes have lost their self-confidence. They need support and a friend to
help them gain confidence again. Therefore, the stated study intends to show athletes the
importance of acquiring proper social support during their rehabilitation.
The results of the study conducted by Evans, et al., (2014) showed that the
confirmatory factor analysis of both studies used suggested enough model fit for measures
of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression
analyses in Study 1 revealed substantial (p < .05) stress-buffering effects for the insights
of available esteem support in relation to restlessness, separation, and feeling cheated, and
the perception of emotional support in relation to separation. In both studies, moderated
hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant (p < .05) main effects for esteem,
emotional, and noticeable support in relation to restlessness, separation, and feeling
cheated. Thus, the study suggests the importance of support as it has stress-buffering and
main effects on injury stressors and psychological responses. The correlations between
social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may vary with regard
to received or perceived accessible support. The conclusions have vital implications for the
system of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at relieving the harmful
effects of injury stressors. The aforementioned suggests the positive effects of support that
affect its recipients positively. It shows that social supports, stressors and psychological
responses are connected. Mentally unstable athletes are at a higher risk of being injured or
not focusing on their games. A lot of problems brought around his or her environment
causes an athlete to be stressed. Emotional support is a great factor in helping an athlete. If
he or she knows that someone is there to support his or her no matter what, it will really
help to boost the moral and the athlete can play well and preventing injury stressors.
However, social support did not seem to have a significant correlation in terms of
moderating stress and depression as well as the attitude toward help-seeking, according to
Norseth, (2017). The same study suggests a reluctance to seek help among college studentathletes even with the experience of stress and depression. The possible factors that may
affect the student-athletes’ choice to seek help may include time pressures and stigma in
the athletic culture. Not all of the athletes are capable of approaching someone to seek for
help or support. Others are suffering from depression which conclude that there is a high
chance that they will not tell anyone about what they feel. The truth is, the ones that are
suffering from stress and depression are the ones that need a lot of help. People can support
every athlete but there are different ways to help and understand them. This can also denote
that social support is not the only factor in reducing stress and depression. Proper social
support is needed especially for those who suffer depression.
The said evidences may help in understanding the impact of support, in all forms,
to student-athletes and their academic performances. They show that support can positively
affect the performance of different individuals, like students, and athletes. Thus, showing
a considerable probability that it can be the same with student-athletes.
Schedule and Time Management
Typical student athletes are bombarded with commitments from all sides. There is
pressure to be involved, to be successful and to handle a lot of stress. School, clubs, sports,
family, social life – it can be hard to keep track of everything and sometimes
responsibilities are overlooked or unfulfilled, Hale, (2013). Scheduling your time and
having time management is very important for every student athlete. Time management is
a crucial skill that student-athletes must learn to be successful not only in high school but
beyond. The earlier this talent is honed, the better, Louisiana High School Athletic
Association, (2013).
As eloquently stated by Florida National University, (2017). There is an immense
amount of responsibility that college athletes have to manage physically and mentally. The
level of responsibility and commitment required of any college student-athlete is a tall
order. Adding college sports into the equation requires an extreme amount of focus and
time management.
Time is precious, particularly when it comes to being a student-athlete, Polevoi,
(2014). Yet there are never more than 24 hours in a day. Learning to be organized and
efficient with your time is the key to success, “Time Management for Student-Athletes”,
(2019). Pursuant to Vidal, (2015), there are three time-management tips for student-athlete
success. First, make a daily to-do list. The trick is not so much in the list itself, but in taking
the time to sit down and write out the things you need to do. It’s either a priority for you or
it’s not. Second, time block your tasks. For him, he prefers a 60-minute segments of
focused productivity. Also, he said that it’s up to you if what kind of system is best for you.
Lastly, Avoid distractions. “You may delay, but time will not,” said Benjamin Franklin,
America’s great inventor. The fact is, you’re only as distracted as you allow yourself to be.
The success of a student athlete comes down to one’s ability to manage one’s time
efficiently with social life, academics and sports in the opinion of Uribe, (2016). A student
athlete has to be always attentive to not overwork himself beyond certain limits so as to
reduce the potential for mental and physical damage. Balance, discipline and organization
are the pillars for a student athlete and optimizes one’s success.
All of the people that succeed in college have one strong skill in common: good
time management. These people can create a balance of work time, play time, and down
time. They know how to organize their lives so that they have time to complete quality
school work efficiently and on time, get rest, and be social with their friends. This is
important for any person, but especially for student athletes. Student athletes have an
entirely different responsibility that regular students do not have to keep track of. So many
things come into play for student athletes such as workouts, weight training, study hours,
eating, recovery, rest, and finally- free time. It is important for student athletes to practice
wise time management in order to succeed academically, socially, and athletically, “Time
Mangement”, (2015). In addition, as believe by Pavan, (2017), a pro volleyball player and
beach volleyball olympian, being a student-athlete is almost like having a full-time job.
Between school, practices, games, etc. there just never seems to be enough time to fit
everything in. Therefore, the key is time management, or as the quote above says, “priority
management". It will help the student-athlete to cope between his academic performance
and trainings.
As stated in a study, time management training might be beneficial for
undergraduate students’ well-being, Hafner, et al, (2015). In this study, it examined the
effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived
stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a
time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and
perceived control of time directly before 2 and 4 weeks after training. They used a “nonequivalent dependent variable design”, Cook and Campbell, (1979) with perceived stress
and perceived control of time as dependent variables, which should be influenced by the
training, and demands as control variable, which should not be changed. As expected,
perceived stress decreased, and perceived control of time increased after training, whereas
demands did not change.
Cognitive Learning
The study of Athletic Investment, Academic Promise: How Participation in School
Sport May Foster Academic Resilience and Investment among At-Risk Students states the
positive effects of being a student-athlete in relation to their cognitive learning. This proves
that many student-athlete can excel in sports and academic performances. High school
students who participate in sports express less hostility toward their classmates and are
more likely to graduate from high school and go on to college, according to the preliminary
results of an ongoing national study. The study is based on national data collected by the
U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics. Data collection
began in 1988 and followed 14,000 students beginning in eighth grade through 1994.
Researchers monitored the group every two years by interviewing the students and having
teachers, principals and parents fill out questionnaires. The data provide a nationally
representative sample of students, including students from major cities of every race and
socio-economic background, Braddock, et al., (1998). Recognizing the fact that sport has
become a major social institution, the University of Miami established the Center for
Research on Sport in Society (CRSS) earlier this fall. An interdisciplinary center, CRSS is
founded on the basic principle that sport is an institution that can and does affect our lives
and our society in profound and sometimes dramatic way. Another important area of
research that CRSS will be examining focuses on how educators can use children's
fascination with sports as a tool to illustrate complex principles in math and physics while
maintaining the interest of students. Teachers could teach basic principles of physics by
explaining how a curveball works as well as using computer programs that involve
managing a team or acting as a coach and calling plays.
As stated in the study of Pascarella, et al., (1999) and Bohr, et al., (1995) focus on
what the positive impacts of athletics have on non-cognitive development. Using the
national sample from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program to help with the
study, Pascarella found positive correlations with the satisfaction and the overall college
experience, motivation to complete degree, bachelor’s degree completion, and persistence
in college. Being a part of athletics kept these student athletes motivated to continue their
pursuit to attain their degree, receive good grades to stay eligible and meet graduation
requirements. These statistics shed light on the success of upper level college students, but
what is the impact for first year college students on getting acquainted with the university?
Pascarella’s 1995 study focused on the study of 23 two-year and four-year colleges in
sixteen states around the country. This study was conducted to look at the positive
outcomes for first year students from participation in collegiate athletics. The study found
that participation in intercollegiate sports positively influenced gains in success during their
first year of college in regard to feeling at home at the university and success in classes.
Referring to the study of Grimit, (2014) about Effects of Student Athletics on
Academic Performance states that the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of
involvement in athletics at the collegiate level at South Dakota State University. The
research paper seeks to determine if participation in collegiate athletics is beneficial to a
person or if its disadvantages outweigh the advantages. Sixty-seven student-athletes
completed a survey during October of 2013 to determine the effects that athletic
involvement has had on SDSU’s campus. This study found that participation in athletics is
extremely beneficial. These athletes performed better in the classroom, developed
impressive time management skills, felt motivated to complete their degree, were
motivated to attend classes, and experienced a smoother transition into the college lifestyle.
As believed by Maslen, (2015) in his article about the social and academic benefits
of team sports states that in the University of Kansas Study student-athletes get the higher
percentage of graduated high school students and having a good performance in their
school than those students who never participated in sports. Team sports are about so much
more than their physical benefits. This is especially so when group sports activities are
incorporated into a young person’s life. Studies have shown a direct correlation between
physical activity and academic performance. Athletes were also shown to have better
G.P.A. outcomes than non-athletes. This supports the idea of being a student-athlete will
give more achievements not only in sports, but also in academic performances.
In agreement with Granacher and Borde, (2017) on their study about the Effects of
Sport-Specific Training during the Early Stages of Long-Term Athlete Development on
Physical Fitness, Body Composition, Cognitive, and Academic Performances proves that
being a student-athlete will not give a low grade but instead will contribute a healthy body
and a healthy grade. Several sports demand an early start into long-term athlete
development (LTAD) because peak performances are achieved at a relatively young age
(e.g., gymnastics). The results revealed that a school-based 1-year sport-specific training
in combination with physical education improved physical fitness but did not negatively
affect cognitive and academic performances of youth athletes compared to their nonathletic peers. It is concluded that sport-specific training in combination with physical
education promotes youth athletes' physical fitness development during LTAD and does
not impede their cognitive and academic development.
An article about the Physical Activity, Fitness, and Physical Education: Effects on
Academic Performance states the positive effects of being a student-athlete regarding to
their cognitive learning. Physical activity helps our body to be physically fit and also to
have an extra knowledge about the lesson inside the classroom. When physical activity is
used as a break from academic learning time, post engagement effects include better
attention, Grieco, et al., (2009); Bartholomew and Jowers, (2011), increased on-task
behaviors, and improved academic performance. Comparisons between 1st-grade students
housed in a classroom with stand-sit desks where the child could stand at his/her discretion
and in classrooms containing traditional furniture showed that the former children were
highly likely to stand, thus expending significantly more energy than those who were
seated, Benden, et al., (2011). More important, teachers can offer physical activity breaks
as part of a supplemental curriculum or simply as a way to reset student attention during a
lesson, Kibbe, et al., (2011) and when provided with minimal training can efficaciously
produce vigorous or moderate energy expenditure in students. Further, after-school
physical activity programs have demonstrated the ability to improve cardiovascular
endurance, and this increase in aerobic fitness has been shown to mediate improvements
in academic performance, as well as the allocation of neural resources underlying
performance on a working memory task, Kamijo et al., (2011).
Academic Performance
Student athletes and non-student athletes exhibited similar academic
achievement and academic motivation, which is based on an online questionnaire.
Student-athletes reported doing coursework for 8-11 hours while non-student-athletes
reported doing coursework for 4-7 hours, Dihoff, (2015).
As proposed by Naquin and Whitsell, (2016), most of the athletes felt that being
an athlete increased stress levels. Females received more perceived stress than males
according to the Perceived Stress Scale. Athletes reported to have less sleep on
weekdays in comparison to weekends. It is also suggested that increasing sleep time
among athletes and providing stress management plans may enhance athletic
performance.
In line with a study by Aries, et al., (2004), student-athletes were studied over 4
years at a highly selective liberal arts college and an Ivy League university. Students
spending 10 or more hours per week in athletic activities had lower entering academic
credentials and academic self-assessments than non-athletes, but the academic
performance of athletes was not below what would be expected based on their entering
profiles. Athletes surpassed non-athletes on sociability/extraversion and self-reported
well-being in each annual wave of the study. Athletes were not isolated from the rest
of the student body; they spent over 50% of their time with non-group members and
belonged to non-athletic extracurricular groups every year. Athletes perceived group
membership to pose greater difficulties to academic performance and involvements
outside the group than did members of other types of extracurricular groups.
Several conclusions as well as some practical recommendations for action
relative to the improvement of student performance have been advanced. Conforming
to a study by Rheenen and Simons, (2014), states that 200 Division I athletes examined
the role of four noncognitive variables in predicting academic performance. Using a
paper and pencil Likert scale instrument the noncognitive variables, athletic-academic
commitment, feelings of being exploited, academic self-worth, self-handicapping
excuses as well as several background and academic preparation variables were studied
as predictors of academic performance. All four noncognitive variables were found to
be significant and independent predictors of academic performance. Student athletes'
relative athletic-academic identification and achievement motivation play important
roles in student athletes' academic performance.
Pursuant to Chandler, et. al., (2009), states that “parenting styles have
consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology,
behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the
parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination
theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting style,
academic performance, self-efficacy, and achievement motivation using a sample of
college students (N = 264). Results indicated that authoritative parenting continues to
influence the academic performance of college students, and both intrinsic motivation
and self-efficacy predicted academic performance. Additionally, the study tested the
interaction between self-efficacy and authoritative parenting, but the interaction was
not significant. Implications for future research and applications are discussed.”
In keeping with Nichols and Sanchez, (2007), researchers examined “whether
self-efficacy mediated the relationship between generational status and 2 academic
outcome indicators of 192 college students. A mediation effect was not found with
either academic performance or college adjustment. However, high self-efficacy at the
beginning of the year predicted better college adjustment at the end of the 1st year.
For college students in general, high self-efficacy was related to better college
adjustment. Just as Samarasinghe, et. al., (2016) stated that attendance at school and
sport team participation are related. The same with sport team participation and
completion of homeworks. Sport team participation and getting along with people are
also found to be correlated to each other.
Students with the physical activity intervention are significantly more fluent in
reading and had higher mathematic score. Also, they had higher mean scores in reading
and mathematics as well as grades, Erwin, (2017).
Conforming to Samaha and Hawi, (2016), smartphone addiction risk positively
affects perceived stress. On the other hand, perceived stress negatively affects satisfaction
to life. Furthermore, smartphone addiction negatively affects academic performance and
the latter positively affects satisfaction in life.
As believed by Keamu and Gbollie, (2017), the nature of motivation and
learning strategy use is vital to improving student learning outcomes. This study was
intended to explore the motivational beliefs and learning strategy use by Liberian junior
and senior high school students in connection with their academic performance. It also
solicited students’ self-reports about presumed factors hindering their learning.
Utilizing a cross-sectional quantitative research design, 323 participants took part in
the study from 2 counties. Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ)
was adapted and 12 potential learning hindrances were identified and used as
instruments. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. The results showed the
motivational belief component of extrinsic goal orientation as the most preferred belief
and test anxiety was the least possessed belief. Rehearsal strategies were found to be
the most frequently used, while help seeking was reported to be the least strategy
considered. The result also showed significant relationships between the two
constructs. In addition, the study found some learning hindrances.
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