Child cognitive development through early childhood reading Specific purpose statement: To persuade and raise awareness in reading to your children as a parent or guardian and the effects on child psychology and development through reading during childhood growth I. Attention a. Attention getter: II. B. Motivation to listen and relate to the audience a. According to Reuters "Shared reading supports child cognitive development, but probably more importantly, helps children develop the ability to pay attention and cooperate," Kistin said by email. "For these social-emotional skills, the shared experience - sitting close together, pointing out pictures, making connections between the book and daily life - are critical." A reading program designed to help men become better fathers is associated with better parenting skills as well as behavior and learning improvements in kids, a small study has found. Researchers focused on Head Start centers in New York City, where programs are designed to improve school readiness for children younger than 5. Researchers randomly assigned 126 families to either participate in a reading-based parenting program with eight weekly sessions or join a control group of people on a waiting list for the program. Fathers in the parenting program watched videos showing dads reading with children and making exaggerated errors. The men discussed better approaches and were encouraged to practice these strategies when reading at home with their own sons and daughters. Among other things, the program tried to improve such parenting skills as establishing consistent routines and spending time with children doing things chosen by the young people. The program also encouraged dads to use praise and rewards to promote good behavior and to use distraction or reduced attention to discourage negative behavior. Children with fathers in the program had significantly bigger improvements in behavior and language development during the study period than the other children, researchers report in the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Fathers in the program also reported improved discipline approaches and promotion of their children's psychological growth by the end of the study. When researchers observed how dads' interactions changed after the program, they found that fathers made fewer critical statements to their children and used more positive parenting behaviors such as praise and affection. In addition to its small size, one limitation of the study was the lack of follow-up data to see whether the program had a lasting effect, the authors note. The reading approach used in the program may work well with preschoolers but not with older kids, said Anil Chacko, a psychology researcher at New York University and the study's lead author. Still, the study suggests that approaches previously tested to help mothers improve parenting can also help fathers, said Caroline Kistin, a pediatrics researcher at Boston University who wasn't involved in the study. b. According to Susan Braid and the Neonatal Network; A large body of research has shown that shared book reading is an important activity that can help parents to promote cognitive and language development, literacy, and reading achievement in their children,7-9 but most of this research does not differentiate between children born at term and those born preterm. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent effects of shared book reading on the cognitive development of a sample of children born preterm, or those infants born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, and to assess what factors influence the likelihood that parents of children born preterm will read aloud to their children. This secondary analysis used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a large, nationally representative survey of children born in the United States in 2001, to examine whether shared book reading holds any potential as an early developmental intervention for children born preterm. BACKGROUND Preterm infant care was significantly affected by technology, pharmacology, and standardization during the 1980s and 1990s, resulting in dramatic improvements in the survival of preterm infants. Advances in neonatal care such as surfactant therapy, high-frequency ventilation, and prenatal steroids have dramatically reduced mortality but not preterm birth.1012 Because more preterm infants survive at decreasing gestational age, there has been an increasing focus on their health and other long-term outcomes, specifically their cognitive development. The evidence indicates that children born preterm are at an increased risk for major neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, visual and hearing impairment, and other neurosensory impairments, as well as the more subtle disorders of central nervous system function, such as language disorders, learning disabilities, and cognitive impairment as measured by cognitive and language scores according to the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and other composite measures of neurodevelopmental functioning.1,3'13-15 Given the long-term impact of these disabilities, there is consensus that better interventions that support the neuro development of children born preterm are needed while infants are in the NICU and following hospital discharge.1,16 Shared book reading is a general practice that typically involves an adult reading a book to a child or group of children without requiring extensive interactions from them.17 This practice, also referred to as "reading to children" or "reading aloud to children," aims at enhancing children's language and literacy skills and their appreciation of books. Much research in the general population of children, which is for the most part undifferentiated by gestational age at birth, indicates that reading to children aged two to five years, including children from lowincome families and children from diverse racial or ethnic backgrounds, promotes oral language development, literacy, reading achievement, and cognitive development.8,9,18,19 The development of language and other emergent literacy skills in turn helps children get ready for school and leads to later success in reading.20 The evidence also suggests that early literacy activities such as shared book reading should begin as early as possible in a child's life. Shared book reading with infants younger than 12 months of age and toddlers aged 12-24 months is associated with higher scores on later language measures, better language comprehension, and improved cognitive development. 18,20,21 Several decades of research in the general population also indicate that children begin the process of learning how to read long before they enter any type of formal schooling. Reading aloud to infants and toddlers before they even know the names of the letters or understand how to progress from the front to the back of a book helps them to develop emergent literacy skills that prepare them to learn how to read later in their lives.22 Very little has been written about shared book reading with children born preterm. A review of the literature reveals only three relevant articles; all concern reading to infants born preterm while in the NICU. Jones and Englestad describe a pilot program in which parents were encouraged to read to their preterm infants in the NICU, and, as a result, more parents and siblings were seen reading to infants.23 Lariviere and Renneck conclude that a parent book reading intervention had a positive effect on parent-infant interaction and was the only significant predictor of parent-infant reading three months post-NICU hospitalization.24 In a recent review, Walker discusses the potential of shared book reading as an intervention to support the parents of infants in the NICU and to facilitate positive interactions between parents and infants.25 None of these studies attempts to measure the impact of shared book reading on the cognitive development of these infants while they are in the NICU or post-NICU discharge. Previous research has indicated that race/ethnicity, maternal education, and primary language of the mother impact the likelihood of reading aloud to children, but these factors have not been specifically investigated in children born preterm.18,26,27 Both race/ethnicity and maternal education are independently associated with frequency of shared book reading. Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic parents are less likely than non-Hispanic white parents to read to their children. Several studies have identified this association even after controlling for variables such as family income.18,26-28 Maternal educational level has also been found to affect the frequency of mother-child shared reading.27,29 For example, Raikes and colleagues18 found that each additional year of education a mother had attained increased the likelihood of reading to her child. Primary language also influences parental reading to a child.18,27,30 A national U.S. survey found non-English-speaking mothers read to their children less often than mothers whose primary language is English.30 The primary aim of this study was to investigate the independent effects of shared book reading on the cognitive development of a sample of children born preterm, or those infants born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, using data from the ECLS-B, a large, nationally representative survey of children born in the United States in 2001. The secondary aim was to assess whether the same factors that influence the likelihood of reading aloud to children born at term gestation, such as race/ethnicity and maternal education, are also present in this population. The potential of shared book reading to affect the cognitive development of children born preterm should be of interest to health care professionals, who care for these children as infants, especially nurses in the NICU. Neonatal nurses face the challenge of not only assuring the infants' survival while they are hospitalized but also optimizing their developmental course and outcome. Furthermore, NICU nurses play a critical role by serving as a primary source of information and-as an educator for the parents of infants born preterm.31,32 Therefore, they are best placed to consider the evidence in favor of shared book reading as part of a comprehensive approach to developmental care. c. Study Sample The ECLS-B, sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics, is a longitudinal study that followed approximately 14,000 children from birth through kindergarten entry. It is designed to provide a comprehensive and reliable data set that would be used to better understand early childhood development, health care, nutrition, and physical well-being. The data sources used in the ECLS-B included birth certificates, nine-month and two-year parent interviews, direct assessment of the child at nine months and two years, and child care observations at two years. The ECLS-B used cluster complex sampling to get an adequate sample of children born preterm with sufficient minority group representation so that these populations could be studied.33 Of the 14,000 births initially sampled, a sample of 9,850 parents completed the parent and child interviews at the two-year data collection point, yielding a total response rate of 70.4 percent.33 Of those, the families of a total of 1,700 singleton preterm infants (22-36 weeks gestation) of all birth weights and without congenital anomalies participated in the two-year follow-up. This study included 1,400 of those children (82.3 percent) for whom the Bayley Short Form Research Edition (BSF-R), which was used to assess young children's cognitive and motor development, was completed. This study was reviewed and approved for exemption by the institutional review board. The Institute of Education Statistics Data Security Office at the Department of Education reviewed this manuscript and approved its publication. III. Satisfaction a. b. c. IV. Preview of main points V. Action A. B.