Text Type conventions

advertisement
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
Text​ ​Type​ ​Conventions​ ​and​ ​Styles​ ​Document
List​ ​of​ ​Text​ ​Types:
1.​ ​Blog
2.​ ​Diary​ ​(journal)
3.​ ​Review​ ​(of​ ​a​ ​film,​ ​CD,​ ​book,​ ​play,​ ​TV​ ​show,​ ​concert,​ ​video​ ​game,​ ​restaurant​ ​or​ ​cafe)
4.​ ​Set​ ​of​ ​instructions​ ​/​ ​guidelines
5.​ ​Brochure,​ ​pamphlet,​ ​leaflet,​ ​flyer,​ ​advertisement
6.​ ​Interview
7.​ ​News​ ​report
8.​ ​Official​ ​report
9.​ ​Opinion​ ​Article​ ​or​ ​Lead​ ​Newspaper​ ​Editorial​ ​(from​ ​Senior​ ​Editor)
10.​ ​Article​ ​(feature)
11.​ ​Personal​ ​letter​ ​or​ ​personal​ ​e-mail
12.​ ​Letter​ ​to​ ​the​ ​editor
13.​ ​Letter​ ​giving​ ​an​ ​opinion
14.​ ​Letter​ ​giving​ ​advice
15.​ ​Letter​ ​of​ ​complaint
16.​ ​Letter​ ​of​ ​application​ ​(for​ ​a​ ​job​ ​or​ ​course)
17.​ ​Letters​ ​of​ ​apology,​ ​request,​ ​or​ ​asking​ ​for​ ​advice
18.​ ​Info-graphics
19.​ ​Op-Ed
20.​ ​Speeches
21.​ ​Tabloid
22.​ ​Autobiography
23.​ ​Memoir
24.​ ​Biography
1
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
25.​ ​Pastiche
26.​ ​Satire
27.​ ​Screenplays
28.​ ​Song​ ​lyrics
29.​ ​Poetry
30.​ ​Radio​ ​broadcasts
31.​ ​Text​ ​messages
32.​ ​Websites
33.​ ​Forums/chat​ ​rooms
34.​ ​Public​ ​Service​ ​Announcements
35.​ ​Post​ ​Cards
36.​ ​Cartoons
37.​ ​Charts​ ​and​ ​Graphs
38.​ ​Appeals
39.​ ​Commentary
40.​ ​Essay
41.​ ​Travel​ ​Writing
42.​ ​Parody
43.​ ​Short​ ​stories
44.​ ​Novel
45.​ ​Facebook​ ​posting
46.​ ​Obituary
47.​ ​Eulogy
Text​ ​type
1.​ ​Blog
Purpose
Features
● Personal​ ​blog​ ​is​ ​an​ ​ongoing​ ​commentary​ ​or
diary​ ​(though​ ​unlike​ ​a​ ​diary​ ​it​ ​may​ ​contain
explanatory​ ​words​ ​or​ ​phrases)
2
● Written​ ​in​ ​1​ ​ ​person​ ​(avoid​ ​“CU”​ ​or​ ​“GR8”
or​ ​texting/SMS​ ​language)
● Subject​ ​line
● Name​ ​of​ ​person​ ​writing​ ​blog
st​
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
● Often​ ​more​ ​than​ ​just​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to​ ​communicate;​ ​it ● Date​ ​and​ ​time​ ​(most​ ​recent​ ​post​ ​appears
becomes​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to​ ​reflect​ ​on​ ​life
first)
● Includes​ ​observations,​ ​descriptions​ ​of​ ​events,​ ​or ● At​ ​least​​ ​two​ ​entries
other​ ​material
● Comments​ ​from​ ​readers;​ ​links;​ ​photos
● Shows​ ​feelings
2.​ ​Diary
(journal)
● To​ ​reflect,​ ​to​ ​introspect,​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​personal
emotions,​ ​thoughts,​ ​fears,​ ​concerns​ ​ ​etc.​ ​ ​To
objectify​​ ​those​ ​thoughts,​ ​feelings​ ​and​ ​concerns
by​ ​writing​ ​them​ ​down.
● About​ ​you​ ​–​ ​not​ ​meant​ ​to​ ​be​ ​read​ ​by​ ​anyone
but​ ​the​ ​writer
● Very​ ​personal,​ ​intimate,​ ​and​ ​introspective
● Can​ ​be​ ​a​ ​straightforward​ ​account​ ​of​ ​the​ ​events
of​ ​the​ ​day​ ​AND/OR​​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to​ ​examine​ ​your​ ​life
● Shows​ ​thoughts,​ ​feelings,​ ​reflections,​ ​and​ ​ideas
about​ ​the​ ​world​ ​around​ ​you,​ ​specific​ ​events,
etc.
Contains​ ​your​ ​voice​ ​(i.e.​ ​it​ ​sounds​ ​like​ ​you)
Written​ ​in​ ​1st​​ ​ ​person
Date
Often​ ​runs​ ​over​ ​a​ ​series​ ​of​ ​dates​ ​with​ ​the
goal​ ​of​ ​exploring​ ​the​ ​story​ ​of​ ​your​ ​life.
● Grammar​ ​(begin​ ​sentences​ ​with​ ​phrases
like:​ ​I​ ​wonder,​ ​I​ ​guess,​ ​I​ ​suppose,​ ​I​ ​think,​ ​I
reckon,​ ​I​ ​imagine,​ ​I​ ​hope,​ ​I​ ​doubt​;​ ​consider
using​ ​verbs​ ​in​ ​the​ ​conditional​ ​tense:​ ​I
wonder​ ​what​ ​will​ ​happen​ ​if​ ​I​ ​go.​​ ​[future],​ ​I
wonder​ ​what​ ​would​ ​happen​ ​if​ ​I​ ​went.
[theoretical​ ​situation​ ​in​ ​the​ ​present],​ ​I
wonder​ ​what​ ​would​ ​have​ ​happened​ ​if​ ​I​ ​had
gone.​​ ​[theoretical​ ​situation​ ​in​ ​the​ ​past])
●
●
●
●
Link​ ​to​ ​Diary​ ​Exemplars:
http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Diary
3.​ ​Review
(of​ ​a​ ​film,​ ​CD,
book,​ ​play,​ ​TV
show,
concert,​ ​video
game,
restaurant​ ​or
cafe)
● Communicate​ ​a​ ​clear​ ​opinion​ ​about​ ​the​ ​subject
matter
● Opinion​ ​should​ ​be​ ​based​ ​on​ ​evidence:​ ​facts​ ​and
details
● Should​ ​be​ ​authoritative​ ​–​ ​you​ ​must​ ​sound
knowledgeable
● Summarize​ ​key​ ​information
● Date,​ ​reviewer
● Title,​ s​ ubtitle​ ​(that​ ​reflects​ ​opinion​ ​or
perspective)
● Hook/lead
● Paragraphs,​ ​columns
● Intro​ ​should​ ​justify​ ​why​ ​it’s​ ​being​ ​reviewed
(recently​ ​released;​ ​writer,​ ​musician​ ​dies)
● Some​ ​summary​ ​of​ ​plot​ ​(don’t​ ​retell!​ ​no
spoilers!)
● Critique​ ​of​ ​characters/themes​ ​(Convincing?
Original?​ ​Relevant​ ​today?)
● Opinion​ ​and​ ​evaluation​ ​with​ ​a
recommendation​ ​(e.g.​ ​4​ ​out​ ​of​ ​5​ ​stars)
● Use​ ​of​ ​terminology​ ​from​ ​genre​ ​(e.g.​ ​refrain,
chorus)
● Link​ ​to​ ​Review​ ​Exemplars​ ​and​ ​How​ ​to
4.​ ​Set​ ​of
instructions​ ​/
guidelines
● Usually​ ​gives​ ​step-by-step​ ​guidance​ ​about​ ​how
to​ ​do,​ ​approach,​ ​or​ ​fix​ ​something
● Usually​ ​chronologically​ ​ordered​ ​(begins​ ​at​ ​start
of​ ​process,​ ​finishes​ ​up​ ​at​ ​the​ ​end)
● Use​ ​headings​ ​to​ ​capture​ ​reader’s​ ​attention
● Use​ b
​ ullet​ ​points​ ​or​ ​numbers
● Limit​ a​ mount​ ​of​ ​information​ ​in​ ​each​ ​step:
Be​ ​precise​ ​(specific)​ ​and​ ​concise​ ​(brief)
● Write​ ​clearly
3
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
● Sometimes​ ​written​ ​to​ ​give​ ​advice​ ​–​ ​these​ ​are
less​ ​systematically​ ​ordered​ ​and​ ​more​ ​personal
in​ ​style
● Explains​ ​each​ ​step​ ​of​ ​the​ ​process/operation
● Very​ ​factual
● Start​ ​with​ ​a​ ​short​ ​paragraph​ ​that​ ​gives
context​ ​/​ ​background​ ​to​ ​the​ ​guidelines
● Create​ ​a​ ​title​ ​that​ ​explains​ ​what​ ​the
instructions​ ​are​ ​"How​ ​to..."
● Begin​ ​each​ ​sentence​ ​with​ ​an​ ​action​ ​verb
(e.g.​ ​pick​ ​up,​ ​take,​ ​hold,​ ​etc.)
● Address​ ​the​ ​reader​ ​using​ ​"you"​ ​or​ ​"your"
● Limit​ ​each​ ​step​ ​to​ ​one​ ​main​ ​idea
● Use​ ​short,​ ​clear​ ​sentences​ ​with​ ​words​ ​that
are​ ​common
● Reinforce​ ​steps​ ​with​ ​a​ ​picture,​ ​illustration​ ​or
diagram
● Include​ ​any​ ​cautions,​ ​warnings,​ ​or​ ​dangers
● Leave​ ​out​ ​redundant​ ​or​ ​confusing
information
● Put​ ​steps​ ​in​ ​the​ ​most​ ​logical​ ​sequence
Conclude​ ​with​ ​a​ ​brief​ ​summary​ ​such​ ​as,​ ​“By
following​ ​these​ ​guidelines”
Advice​ ​on​ ​how​ ​to​ ​write​ ​a​ ​Set​ ​of​ ​Instructions
How​ ​to​ ​write​ ​instructions​ ​incorporating
pictures
5.​ ​Brochure,
pamphlet,
leaflet,​ ​flyer,
advertisemen
t
6.​ ​Interview
● Provides​ ​descriptive​ ​information​ ​to​ ​inform,​ ​sell, ● Take​ ​readers​ ​straight​ ​to​ ​important
promote,​ ​or​ ​raise​ ​awareness​ ​about​ ​a​ ​certain
information
issue
● Address​ ​audience​ ​clearly​ ​and​ ​directly
● Eye-catching​ ​title
● Headings,​ ​sub-headings,​ ​bullet-points,​ ​and
numbers​ ​to​ ​highlight​ ​key​ ​information
● Short​ ​sections​ ​or​ ​paragraphs
● Simple​ ​and​ ​straightforward​ ​language
● Contact​ ​information
● Some​ ​factual​ ​information​ ​(statistics,​ ​etc.)
● Creative​ ​use​ ​of​ ​language​ ​(alliteration,​ ​puns,
series​ ​of​ ​adjs.)
● High​ ​proportion​ ​of​ ​adjectives​ ​and​ ​adverbs
● Some​ ​language​ ​rules​ ​may​ ​be​ ​broken
● Use​ ​of​ ​rhetorical​ ​devices
● A​ ​testimonial(s)
Link​ ​to​ ​How​ ​To​ ​Write​ ​a​ ​Brochure
● To​ ​gain​ ​first​ ​hand​ ​information​ ​about​ ​an​ ​issue,​ ​a ● Title​ ​(with​ ​a​ ​hook)
person,​ ​a​ ​subject.
● Date,​ ​interviewer’s​ ​name
● Questions​ ​should​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​an​ ​understanding​ ​of​ ​1) ● Introductory​ ​paragraph​ ​explaining​ ​who​ ​the
the​ ​topic​ ​and​ ​2)​ ​the​ ​personality​ ​of​ ​the
interviewee​ ​is,​ ​her​ ​connection​ ​to​ ​the​ ​issue
interviewee
(i.e.​ ​job,​ ​position),​ ​and​ ​where​ ​and​ ​why​ ​the
● A​ ​dialogue​ ​in​ ​question-and-answer​ ​style
interview​ ​is​ ​taking​ ​place
4
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
● To​ ​be​ ​published​ ​(don’t​ ​write​ ​a​ ​transcript​ ​of​ ​the
conversation)
● First​ ​question​ ​should​ ​establish​ ​rapport
●
●
●
●
●
7.​ ​News
report
8.​ ​Official
report
(​“Thanks​ ​for​ ​talking​ ​to​ ​our​ ​magazine.”​)
Ask​ ​“open”​ ​questions​ ​(Begin​ ​with:​ ​what,
how,​ ​why,​ ​who,​ ​where​);​ ​avoid​ ​yes/no
If​ ​discussing​ ​personal​ ​issues,​ ​start​ ​with​ ​less
sensitive​ ​topics​ ​(background,​ ​facts)​ ​and
move​ ​on​ ​to​ ​specifics
Last​ ​question​ ​could​ ​be​ ​about​ ​future​ ​plans
(​“So​ ​what​ ​do​ ​you​ ​see​ ​as​ ​the​ ​next​ ​stage?”​)
Final​ ​paragraph​ ​should​ ​conclude​ ​interview
and​ ​ ​thank​ ​and​ ​wish​ ​the​ ​interviewee​ ​well
Use​ ​cohesive​ ​devices​ ​(transitions)​ ​and,
perhaps,​ ​humor
● Presents​ ​newsworthy​ ​information​ ​about​ ​events ● Formal​ ​register
that​ ​have​ ​just​ ​happened
● Begin​ ​with​ ​a​ ​headline;​ ​use​ ​subheadings
● Factual
● Write​ d
​ ate​ ​and​ ​byline
● Provide​ ​the​ ​5​ ​W’s​ ​(who,​ ​what,​ ​why,​ ​when,
where)​ ​in​ ​the​ ​lead​ ​paragraph
● Provide​ ​further​ ​facts​ ​and​ ​details​ ​ ​including
statements​ ​and​ ​direct​ ​quotes​ ​in​ ​the
explanatory​ ​paragraphs;​ ​explain​ ​how​ ​the
events​ ​occurred
● Report​ ​similar​ ​incidents​ ​and​ ​least​ ​important
information​ ​in​ ​the​ ​final​ ​paragraphs
● Use​ ​short​ ​paragraphs
● Rhetorical​ ​devices​ ​(indirect​ ​speech,​ ​passive
voice,​ ​objective,​ ​concise)
● INVERTED​ ​PYRAMID:​ ​structural​ ​device​ ​for
news​ ​articles​ ​where​ ​in​ ​the​ ​most​ ​important
information​ ​and​ ​facts​ ​are​ ​put​ ​near​ ​the​ ​top
of​ ​the​ ​article,​ ​including​ ​an​ ​engaging​ ​LEAD…
the​ ​assumption​ ​being​ ​that​ ​most​ ​people​ ​so
not​ ​read​ ​all​ ​news​ ​articles​ ​to​ ​completion….
They​ ​want​ ​the​ ​main​ ​points​ ​of​ ​the​ ​news
quickly.
● LEAD:​ ​opening​ ​sentence​ ​which​ ​answers​ ​as
much​ ​of​ ​the​ ​who,​ ​what,​ ​where,​ ​when​ ​and
why​ ​as​ ​grammatically​ ​possible.
● Presents​ ​information​ ​in​ ​a​ ​coherent,​ ​formal
manner​ ​(e.g.​ ​police​ ​report,​ ​witness​ ​statement,
or​ ​social​ ​worker’s​ ​report)
● Often​ ​argues​ ​for​ ​a​ ​certain​ ​position​ ​or​ ​solution
to​ ​a​ ​specific​ ​issue​ ​or​ ​problem
5
Advice​ ​on​ ​how​ ​to​ ​write​ ​a​ ​News​ ​Article
● Formal​ ​register
● Begin​ ​with​ ​background​ ​information​ ​about
the​ ​issue​ ​or​ ​conflict
● Explain​ ​what​ ​happened
● Summarize​ ​findings​ ​and​ ​recommendations
● Conclude​ ​with​ ​a​ ​short​ ​summary​ ​of​ ​the​ ​ideas
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
presented
● Present​ ​facts,​ ​statistics,​ ​and​ ​details
● Use​ ​objective,​ ​descriptive​ ​language
● It​ ​may​ ​or​ ​may​ ​not​ ​be​ ​addressed​ ​to​ ​anyone,
as​ ​long​ ​as​ ​this​ ​is​ ​not​ ​confused​ ​with​ ​the
formal​ ​letter​ ​style
● Organize​ ​with​ ​subheadings​ ​and​ ​bullet​ ​points
(but​ ​do​ ​not​ ​inappropriately​ ​replace
continuous​ ​prose)
Link​ ​to​ ​an​ ​example​ ​of​ ​a​ ​Police​ ​Report:
http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Police-Repo
rt
9.​ ​Opinion
Article​ ​or
Lead
Newspaper
Editorial
(from​ ​Senior
Editor)
10.​ ​Article
(feature)
• Written​ ​to
1)​ ​provide​ ​an​ ​opinion​ ​on​ ​a​ ​current​ ​event
2)​ ​provide​ ​balanced​ ​support​ ​regarding​ ​issues,
but​ ​persuasive​ ​language​ ​to​ ​get​ ​readers​ ​to​ ​agree
writer’s​ ​personal​ ​opinion.
3)​ ​Ask​ ​the​ ​reader​ ​to​ ​review​ ​or​ ​adapt​ ​their
opinion​ ​on​ ​an​ ​issue,​ ​or​ ​see​ ​things​ ​from​ ​a​ ​new
angle.​ ​ ​Possibly​ ​asks​ ​reader​ ​to​ ​take​ ​action.
● Includes​ ​a​ ​Headline​ ​that​ ​is​ ​relevant​ ​to​ ​the
issue​ ​and​ ​implies​ ​the​ ​opinion​ ​of​ ​the​ ​writer.
● Formal​ ​register,​ ​academic,​ ​persuasive
language…​ ​though​ ​register​ ​can​ ​also​ ​vary
according​ ​to​ ​audience.
● Informative,​ ​precise​ ​and​ ​persuasive
• Provides​ ​balanced​ ​information​ ​from​ ​both
sides
• Explains​ ​issue​ ​and​ ​opinion​ ​of​ ​writer​ ​early​ ​in
the​ ​piece.
• Anticipates​ ​counter-balance​ ​arguments​ ​and
works​ ​to​ ​refute​ ​them.
• May​ ​have​ ​a​ ​“call-to-action”​ ​which​ ​provides
information​ ​for​ ​“next​ ​steps”​ ​a​ ​reader​ ​may
take​ ​if​ ​they​ ​are​ ​moved​ ​by​ ​the​ ​opinion
article.
• Give​ ​all​ ​the​ ​information​ ​the​ ​reader​ ​needs​ ​to
make​ ​a​ ​final​ ​decision
• Conclude​ ​with​ ​a​ ​general​ ​comment,​ ​opinion,
or​ ​assessment
• May​ ​use​ ​longer​ ​sentences​ ​and​ ​more
developed​ ​paragraphs​ ​than​ ​a​ ​regular​ ​news
article.
Tips​ ​for​ ​Writing​ ​an​ ​Editorial/Opinion​ ​Article
5​ ​Steps​ ​to​ ​Good​ ​Editorials
How​ ​to​ ​Organize​ ​an​ ​Editorial
• Mainly​ ​to​ ​inform,​ ​though​ ​may​ ​also​ ​persuade
• Audience​ ​(wide​ ​or​ ​narrow,​ ​e.g.​ ​all​ ​residents
and​ ​educate;​ ​they​ ​offer​ ​a​ ​personalized
of​ ​a​ ​city​ ​or​ ​teenagers)​ ​determines​ ​register
perspective​ ​on​ ​a​ ​current​ ​issue.
• Often​ ​offer​ ​a​ ​combination​ ​of​ ​the​ ​subjective
• Not​ ​concerned​ ​with​ ​news​ ​events​ ​–​ ​instead​ ​it
(persona,​ ​individual​ ​story)​ ​with​ ​the
explores​ ​a​ ​range​ ​of​ ​issues,​ ​opinions,
objective​ ​(facts,​ ​stats,​ ​expert​ ​opinions,
experiences,​ ​and​ ​ideas
data).
• Can​ ​inform,​ ​entertain,​ ​and​ ​persuade​ ​readers,​ ​or
• Begin​ ​with​ ​a​ ​headline​ ​(gives​ ​main​ ​idea​ ​and
simply​ ​satisfy​ ​a​ ​reader’s​ ​curiosity​ ​about​ ​a
gets​ ​attention),​ ​date,​ ​name​ ​of​ ​publication,
subject
6
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
• Can​ ​offer​ ​an​ ​opinion​ ​about​ ​current​ ​affairs,​ ​but
can​ ​also​ ​just​ ​give​ ​a​ ​personal​ ​or​ ​humorous
perspective​ ​on​ ​modern​ ​day​ ​life
• Give​ ​a​ ​personal​ ​perspective​ ​on​ ​the​ ​subject​ ​–​ ​a
point​ ​of​ ​view​ ​/​ ​angle​ ​that​ ​makes​ ​the​ ​article
interesting​ ​or​ ​unique
and​ ​writer’s​ ​name
• Intro​ ​should​ ​provide​ ​a​ ​hook​ ​and​ ​background
info
• Body​ ​paragraphs​ ​use​ ​subheadings,​ ​facts,
statistics,​ ​specific​ ​names/places/dates,
quotes/opinions​ ​from​ ​experts,​ ​personal
views,​ ​and​ ​visual​ ​aids​ ​(e.g.​ ​photographs,
tables,​ ​diagrams,​ ​maps)
• End​ ​with​ ​satisfying​ ​conclusion​ ​(restate​ ​main
idea,​ ​encourage​ ​a​ ​change,​ ​make​ ​a
prediction,​ ​or​ ​leave​ ​reader​ ​with​ ​something
to​ ​think​ ​about)
• Go​ ​beyond​ ​surface​ ​facts​ ​and​ ​direct​ ​quotes​ ​ ​–
add​ ​color,​ ​descriptive​ ​detail,​ ​background,
and​ ​personal​ ​comment
• Use​ ​anecdotes,​ ​imagery,​ ​description,​ ​and
rhetorical​ ​questions
• Register​ ​determines​ ​language​ ​(e.g.​ ​informal
includes​ ​contractions​ ​–​ ​can’t,​ ​won’t​,​ ​etc.​ ​–
and​ ​vocabulary​ ​like​ ​cool,​​ ​weird​,​ ​or​ c​ hill​)
• Create​ ​a​ ​familiar​ ​tone​ ​with​ ​informal,
colloquial​ ​(slang)​ ​and​ ​first​ ​person​ ​narrative
Important​ ​Steps​ ​for​ ​writing​ ​a​ ​solid​ ​Feature
Article​ ​(from​ ​the​ ​NY​ ​Times)
Example​ ​of​ ​a​ ​Feature​ ​Article
Link​ ​to​ ​How​ ​to​ ​Write​ ​a​ ​Feature​ ​Article
11.​ ​Personal
letter
or​ ​personal
e-mail
● To​ ​connect,​ ​to​ ​share​ ​persona​ ​information,​ ​to
update​ ​a​ ​friend​ ​on​ ​recent​ ​events,​ ​to​ ​apprise.
● Refers​ ​to​ ​reason​ ​for​ ​writing​ ​(e.g.​ ​share​ ​news
and​ ​information,​ ​apologize,​ ​give​ ​thanks,
congratulate,​ ​invite,​ ​give​ ​condolences)
● Usually​ ​consists​ ​of​ ​personal​ ​topics​ ​and
expresses​ ​personal​ ​feelings,​ ​thoughts
7
● Informal​ ​register
● Include​ ​address
● Begin​ ​with​ ​date​ a​ nd​ ​greeting​ ​(​e.g.​ ​Dear,​ ​OR
Hi,​ ​Hello,​)
● Explain​ ​reason​ ​for​ ​writing
● Share​ ​good​ ​and​ ​bad​ ​news
● Ask​ ​about​ ​recipient
● Ask​ ​questions​ ​you​ ​want​ ​answered
● End​ ​with​ ​closing​ ​remarks​ ​(e.g.​ ​thank​ ​or​ ​wish
recipient​ ​well)​ ​wish​ ​,​ ​closing,​ ​and​ ​signature
● Contains​ ​paragraphs
● Use​ ​informal,​ ​conversational​ ​–​ ​BUT​ ​correct
–language;​ ​imagine​ ​the​ ​recipient​ ​standing​ ​in
front​ ​of​ ​you​ ​(e.g.​ ​contractions,
abbreviations,​ ​slang,​ ​smiley​ ​faces,​ ​!)
● Avoid​ ​words​ ​in​ ​text​ ​message​ ​(SMS)​ ​form,
swear​ ​words,​ ​and​ ​inappropriate​ ​language
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
● Use​ ​simple,​ ​short​ ​sentences​ ​and​ ​connectors
(e.g.​ ​then,​ ​later)
E-mail​ ​differences
● Begin​ ​with​ ​these​ ​lines:
◦ From:
◦ To:
◦ Date:
◦ Subject:
● When​ ​writing​ ​an​ ​informal​ ​e-mail,​ ​avoid
using​ ​chatty​ ​language​ ​and​ ​do​ ​not​ ​focus​ ​on
authenticity​ ​at​ ​the​ ​expense​ ​of​ ​organization
and​ ​methodical​ ​development​ ​of​ ​ideas
12.​ ​Letter​ ​to
the​ ​editor
13.​ ​Letter
giving​ ​an
opinion
Some​ ​examples​ ​of​ ​Personal​ ​Letters
How​ ​to​ ​Write​ ​a​ ​Personal​ ​Letter
● Written​ ​to​ ​express​ ​a​ ​point​ ​of​ ​view,​ ​to​ ​list
● Formal​ ​register
arguments​ ​supporting​ ​this​ ​opinion​ ​and​ ​to​ ​reject ● Include​ ​your​ ​address
those​ ​against​ ​it
● Begin​ ​with​ ​date​ ​and​ ​greeting​ ​(​“Dear​ ​Sir:​ ​or
● Similar​ ​to​ ​opinion​ ​essays,​ ​but​ ​in​ ​letter​ ​format
Dear​ ​Madam:”​)
● May​ ​end​ ​by​ ​restating​ ​opinion​ ​or​ ​offering
● State​ ​purpose;​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​article,​ ​date,​ ​writer,
suggestions​ ​for​ ​action
title,​ ​and​ ​newspaper​ ​issue
● State​ ​the​ ​issue/topic​ ​and​ ​whether​ ​you
approve​ ​or​ ​disapprove
● Support​ ​your​ ​argument​ ​with​ ​examples,
clarifications,​ ​and​ ​details
● Refute​ ​any​ ​counter-arguments
● Provide​ ​suggestions​ ​or​ ​solutions​ ​to
solve/handle​ ​the​ ​problem​ ​or​ ​topic
● End​ ​with​ ​closing​ ​remarks,​ ​closing,​ ​and
signature
How​ ​to​ ​Write​ ​ ​a​ ​Letter​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Editor
● Written​ ​to​ ​give​ ​an​ ​opinion​ ​,​ ​to​ ​advise…
(approve/disapprove,​ ​agree/disagree)​ ​on​ ​a
topic/issue
● Respectful​ ​tone
8
● Semi-formal​ ​to​ ​formal​ ​register
● Include​ ​your​ a​ ddress
● Begin​ ​with​ ​date​ ​and​ ​greeting​ ​(​“Dear​ ​Sir:​ ​or
Dear​ ​Madam:”​)
● State​ ​purpose;​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​article,​ ​date,​ ​writer,
title,​ ​and​ ​newspaper​ ​issue
● State​ ​opinion
● Support​ ​your​ ​argument​ ​with​ ​justifications,
examples,​ ​and​ ​details
● Refute​ ​any​ ​counter-arguments
● End​ ​with​ ​closing​ ​remarks,​ ​closing,​ ​and
signature
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
14.​ ​Letter
giving​ ​advice
● Written​ ​to​ ​give​ ​advice​ ​upon​ ​someone’s​ ​request ● Formal,​ ​semi-formal​ ​or​ ​informal​ ​register
● Should​ ​give​ ​solutions
● State​ ​purpose;​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​the​ ​original​ ​request
● May​ ​include​ o
​ pinions​ ​and​ ​reference​ ​to​ ​personal
made​ (​ in​ ​e-mail,​ ​letter,​ ​etc.)
experience
● Give​ ​advice​ ​–​ ​be​ ​precise​ ​and​ ​concise
● Provide​ ​clarifications,​ ​justifications,
examples,​ ​and​ ​details
● End​ ​with​ ​closing​ ​remarks,​ ​closing,​ ​and
signature
● Grammar​ ​(useful​ ​phrases:​ ​If​ ​I​ ​were​ ​you,​ ​I
would…,​ ​You​ ​ought​ ​to…,​ ​You​ ​should…,​ ​Why
don’t​ ​you…,​ ​What​ ​about…,​ ​Make​ ​sure
you…,​ ​Have​ ​you​ ​considered…​)
15.​ ​Letter​ ​of
complaint
● Written​ ​to​ ​express​ ​displeasure​ ​about​ ​a​ ​product
or​ ​service;​ ​often​ ​asks​ ​for​ ​a​ ​refund​ ​or
replacement
● Should​ ​explain​ ​what​ ​you​ ​want​ ​the​ ​organization
to​ ​do
● Respectful,​ ​friendly​ ​tone
● Formal​ ​register
● Include​ y​ our​ ​address​ ​and​ ​contact​ ​info
● Begin​ ​with​ ​date​ ​and​ ​greeting;​ ​use​ ​the​ ​name
of​ ​the​ ​recipient​ ​to​ ​enable​ ​better​ ​interaction
● Explain​ ​complaint
● Justify​ ​complaint​ ​and​ ​give​ ​examples
● Explain​ ​what​ ​you​ ​want​ ​the​ ​organization​ ​to
do​ ​–​ ​provide​ ​solutions,​ ​recommendations​ ​or
suggestions
● Keep​ ​a​ ​respectful​ ​tone​ ​–​ ​do​ ​not​ ​sound
patronizing​ ​and​ ​avoid​ ​offensive​ ​language
● Be​ ​concise​ ​and​ ​precise
● End​ ​with​ ​closing​ ​remarks,​ ​closing,​ ​and
signature
How​ ​to​ ​Write​ ​a​ ​Letter​ ​of​ ​Complaint​ ​to​ ​a
Business
Example​ ​of​ ​a​ ​Letter​ ​of​ ​Complaint
16.​ ​Letter​ ​of
application
(for​ ​a​ ​job​ ​or
course)
● Written​ ​to​ ​express​ ​interest​ ​in​ ​attending​ ​an
institution​ ​or​ ​receiving​ ​a​ ​job
● Highlights​ ​your​ ​qualifications​ ​(abilities,
strengths,​ ​and​ ​experience)
● Formal​ ​register
● Include​ y​ our​ ​address,​ ​contact​ ​info,​ ​and
when​ ​you​ ​can​ ​be​ ​reached
● Begin​ ​with​ ​date​ ​and​ ​greeting
● State​ ​reason​ ​for​ ​writing​ ​(e.g.​ ​mention
course​ ​you​ ​are​ ​applying​ ​for​ ​and​ ​where​ ​you
learned​ ​about​ ​it)
● Explain​ ​your​ ​interest​ ​and​ ​qualifications​ ​(​e.g.
Why​ ​have​ ​you​ ​chosen​ ​this​ ​course/university
or​ ​job?​ ​What​ ​benefit​ ​can​ ​the​ ​university​ ​gain
from​ ​your​ ​enrolment​ ​or​ ​the​ ​company​ ​from
your​ ​hiring?​)
● End​ ​with​ ​closing​ ​remarks​ ​(​e.g.​ ​how​ ​you​ ​will
apply​ ​the​ ​knowledge​ ​you​ ​gain​ ​from​ ​the
course​),​ ​closing,​ ​and​ ​signature
9
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
17.​ ​Letters​ ​of
apology,
request,​ ​or
asking​ ​for
advice
● To​ ​apologize,​ ​to​ ​request​ ​something.
● Letters​ ​of​ ​apology​ ​are​ ​typically​ ​written​ ​to
somebody​ ​that​ ​the​ ​writer​ ​feels​ ​they​ ​have​ ​hurt.
Is​ ​generally​ ​heart-felt​ ​and​ ​meaningful.
● Request​ ​letters​ ​is​ ​are​ ​written​ ​when​ ​you​ ​need
certain​ ​information,​ ​permission,​ ​favor,​ ​service
or​ ​any​ ​other​ ​matter​ ​which​ ​requires​ ​a​ ​polite​ ​and
humble​ ​request.
18.
Info-graphics
●
●
●
To​ ​inform,​ ​quickly​ ​and​ ​efficiently​ ​through
visual​ ​information​ ​which​ ​attracts​ ​the​ ​eye​ ​and
is​ ​easy​ ​to​ ​comprehend.
A​ ​way​ ​of​ ​explaining​ ​complex​ ​scenario’s​ ​or
large​ ​amounts​ ​of​ ​data​ ​in​ ​a​ ​visually​ ​stimulating
format
Can​ ​provide​ ​a​ ​unique​ ​perspective​ ​that​ ​can​ ​be
difficult​ ​to​ ​project​ ​using​ ​words​ ​alone.
How​ ​to​ ​write​ ​a​ ​Letter​ ​of​ ​Application​ ​for​ ​a​ ​job
● Written​ ​in​ ​1st​​ ​ ​person
● Include​ ​your​ ​address​ ​and​ ​contact​ ​info
● Addresses​ ​the​ ​person​ ​appropriately
(Semi-formal​ ​to​ ​formal​ ​register)
● Offers​ ​apology​ ​or​ ​asks​ ​for​ ​request/advice
in​ ​the​ ​beginning​ ​of​ ​the​ ​letter
● Gives​ ​an​ ​explanation
● End​ ​with​ ​closing​ ​remarks,​ ​closing,​ ​and
signature
●
●
●
●
●
●
Focused​ ​on​ ​a​ ​valuable​ ​topic
Easy​ ​to​ ​read​ ​and​ ​understand​ ​(Charts,
Graphs,​ ​Visuals,​ ​Numbers,​ ​Statistics)
Highlights​ ​tons​ ​of​ ​reliable​ ​and​ ​interesting
data​ ​(data​ ​density)
Creatively​ ​visualizes​ ​data​ ​and​ ​information
(i.e.​ ​font​ ​size,​ ​sub-headings,​ ​images,​ ​icons
are​ ​all​ ​used​ ​to​ ​great​ ​effect).
Grab​ ​viewer’s​ ​attention
Presents​ ​information​ ​simply
Examples​ ​of​ ​Infographics:
http://arts2090bettinaroy.wordpress.com/201
2/04/26/information-graphics/
19.​ ​Op-Ed
●
●
●
●
To​ ​offer​ ​an​ ​educated​ ​opinion​ ​which​ ​represents
the​ ​official​ ​stance​ ​of​ ​a​ ​publication.
A​ ​newspaper​ ​article​ ​that​ ​expresses​ ​the
opinions​ ​of​ ​a​ ​named​ ​writer​ ​who​ ​is​ ​usually
unaffiliated​ ​with​ ​the​ ​newspaper’s​ ​editorial
board.
It​ ​appeals​ ​to​ ​a​ ​mass-media​ ​audience.
It​ ​appears​ ​on​ ​the​ ​page​ ​opposite​ ​the​ ​editorial
page​ ​of​ ​a​ ​newspaper.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Short​ ​sentences​ ​(8​ ​words​ ​or​ ​less!)
Simple​ ​sentence​ ​construction​ ​(subject
verb​ ​object)
Active​ ​voice​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​passive​ ​voice​ ​in
verbs​ ​(see​ ​reverse​ ​for​ ​examples)
Short​ ​words​ ​from​ ​common​ ​vocabulary
Almost​ ​no​ ​use​ ​of​ ​numbers​ ​or​ ​math
Grabber​ ​title
Important​ ​point​ ​first,​ ​not​ ​last!
Use​ ​of​ ​quotations​ ​by​ ​people:​ ​Subjective
rather​ ​than​ ​Objective
Use​ ​of​ ​people's​ ​first​ ​and​ ​last​ ​names​ ​for
"human​ ​interest"
Affiliation​ ​language​ ​(Business,
University,​ ​Titles,​ ​Location)​ ​for
persuasion
Who,​ ​what,​ ​when,​ ​where,​ ​why,​ ​how
writetodone.com/how-to-write-a-strong-opini
on-piecie-for-your-blog
10
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
20.​ ​Speeches
●
●
●
●
To​ ​inform,​ ​to​ ​persuade,​ ​to​ ​move​ ​emotionally,
to​ ​inspire,​ ​to​ ​commemorate,​ ​to​ ​sanctify​ ​with
eloquence.
The​ ​purpose​ ​often​ ​is​ ​to​ ​persuade​ ​and​ ​a​ ​call​ ​to
action,​ ​but​ ​other​ ​purposes​ ​may​ ​include​ ​to
inform,​ ​to​ ​eulogize,​ ​to​ ​comfort,​ ​etc.
Allows​ ​you​ ​to​ ​focus​ ​on​ ​one​ ​topic​ ​throughout
the​ ​speech.
It​ ​will​ ​be​ ​understandable,​ ​yet
thought-provoking,​ ​to​ ​the​ ​intended​ ​audience
●
●
●
●
●
Should​ ​make​ ​use​ ​of​ ​rhetorical​ ​devices​ ​in
order​ ​to​ ​accomplish​ ​its​ ​purpose
Have​ ​one​ ​or​ ​two​ ​highly​ ​memorable​ ​lines.
(Can​ ​be​ ​accomplished​ ​through​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of
anaphora)
Makes​ ​mention​ ​of​ ​one​ ​or​ ​more​ ​of​ ​the
following​ ​historical​ ​people​ ​or​ ​events,​ ​facts,
proverbs,​ ​religious​ ​references,​ ​allusions​ ​in
general.
The​ ​speech​ ​should​ ​sound​ ​trustworthy​ ​to
the​ ​intended​ ​audience​.
Often​ ​relies​ ​on​ ​ETHOS,​ ​PATHOS​​ ​and/or
LOGOS​​ ​for​ ​its​ ​persuasive​ ​effect.
Link​ ​to​ ​“I​ ​Have​ ​ ​a​ ​Dream”​ ​by​ ​Martin​ ​Luther
King:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=smEqnn
klfYs
21.​ ​Tabloid
●
●
●
●
To​ ​entertain,​ ​to​ ​sensationalize,​ ​to​ ​provide
gossipy​ ​information​ ​on​ ​an​ ​event​ ​which​ ​appeals
to​ ​pop​ ​culture,​ ​to​ ​scandalize,​ ​to​ ​infer​ ​(often
without​ ​hard​ ​evidence)
It​ ​allows​ ​you​ ​to​ ​present​ ​the​ ​news​ ​in​ ​condensed
form.
You​ ​can​ ​make​ ​use​ ​of​ ​illustrations​ ​and
sensational​ ​exaggerated​ ​material.
It​ ​grabs​ ​the​ ​readers​ ​attention​ ​with​ ​shocking
headlines​ ​and​ ​vivid​ ​images.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
11
​ ews featuring sex escapades, murder and
N
gore,​ ​sports,​ ​and​ ​scandals​ ​of​ ​all​ ​sorts.
Attention​ ​grabbing/shocking​ ​headlines
Key​ ​source​ ​of​ ​information​ ​is​ ​often​ ​gossip.
Vivid use of adjectives to shock/entertain
the​ ​audience
Lack​ ​of​ ​fact-checking.
Interesting, shocking and appealing
Headlines.
Generally​ ​a​ ​simple​ ​sentence​ ​structure
Columns​ ​are​ ​narrow​ ​and​ ​easy​ ​to​ ​read.
Personal anecdotes or quotes from people
often​ ​included
​Answers the six basic questions: Who?
What?​ ​When?​ ​Where?​ ​How?​ ​Why?
​Basic​ ​point​ ​is​ ​to​ ​attract​ ​reader’s​ ​attention.
Often based ​on rumors. rather than verified
facts
​Barely​ ​credible​ ​sources
​Often exaggerate on stories making them
seem​ ​more​ ​dramatic
Yellow journalism is a type of ​journalism
where sensationalism triumphs
over
factual​ ​reporting.​
Many​ ​pictures.
Contains stories not usually found in
reputable​ ​newspapers​ ​or​ ​magazines.
Damages​ ​peoples’​ ​reputations​ ​by​ ​lies.
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
●
22.
Autobio-grap
hy
●
●
●
●
●
●
to​ ​leave​ ​a​ ​message​ ​to​ ​future​ ​generations
to​ ​pass​ ​on​ ​your​ ​heritage
to​ ​put​ ​closure​ ​to​ ​a​ ​period​ ​or​ ​episode
​ ​to​ ​process​ ​experiences
to​ ​preserve​ ​family​ ​history
to​ ​share​ ​what​ ​and​ ​who​ ​you​ ​are
Biased
Link​ ​to​ ​“How​ ​To​ ​Write​ ​a​ ​Tabloid​ ​Article”
Focus​ ​on​ ​FOUR​ ​major​ ​things:
● Who​ ​you​ ​are​ ​in​ ​life​ ​(how​ ​would​ ​you
describe​ ​your​ ​personality),
● What​ ​life​ ​means​ ​to​ ​you,
● What​ ​major​ ​life​ ​events​ ​or​ ​critical​ ​issues
have​ ​had​ ​an​ ​impact​ ​on​ ​your​ ​life.
● What​ ​your​ ​outlook​ ​on​ ​the​ ​future​ ​is.
Examples​ ​of​ ​Autobiographies:​ ​The​ ​Diary​ ​of
Anne​ ​Frank​ ​(Ann​ ​Frank);​ ​Bossypants​ ​(Tina
Fey)
23.​ ​Memoir
●
●
●
●
24.​ ​Biography
●
●
●
To​ ​reflect,​ ​to​ ​review,​ ​to​ ​come​ ​to​ ​a​ ​better
understanding​ ​of​ ​one’s​ ​life;​ ​usually​ ​written
from​ ​a​ ​more​ ​mature​ ​perspective​ ​as​ ​one
recounts​ ​their​ ​life​ ​experiences,​ ​the​ ​choices
they’ve​ ​made​ ​and​ ​how​ ​that​ ​has​ ​shaped​ ​the
person​ ​they’ve​ ​become.
Takes​ ​a​ ​snapshot​ ​of​ ​a​ ​moment​ ​in​ ​someone’s
life.
Written​ ​in​ ​more​ ​colorful​ ​language​ ​than​ ​an
autobiography.
Allows​ ​you​ ​to​ ​include​ ​the​ ​most​ ​relevant
information’s.
●
It​ ​allows​ ​the​ ​writer​ ​to​ ​turn​ ​her​ ​fierce​ ​critical​ ​eye
on​ ​him/herself.
It​ ​is​ ​always​ ​satisfying​ ​to​ ​read​ ​a​ ​writer​ ​who
sharply​ ​and​ ​deftly​ ​attacks​ ​the​ ​hypocrisies​ ​and
delusions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world​ ​around​ ​him,​ ​but​ ​we​ ​trust
that​ ​writer​ ​more​ ​completely​ ​when​ ​he​ ​also
attacks​ ​himself,​ ​when​ ​he​ ​does​ ​not​ ​hold​ ​himself
to​ ​a​ ​different​ ​standard,​ ​or​ ​protect​ ​himself​ ​from
scrutiny.
●
Personal​ ​writing​ ​should​ ​seem​ ​honest.​ ​The
reader​ ​likes​ ​personal​ ​writing​ ​to​ ​feel
“honest.” (This​ ​does​ ​not​ ​mean​ ​that​ ​the
memoir​ ​is​ ​“honest”—who​ ​knows​ ​how​ ​the
writer​ ​really​ ​felt​ ​about​ ​something​ ​that
happened​ ​20​ ​years​ ​ago,​ ​or​ ​yesterday.​ ​It
just​ ​needs​ ​to​feel ​honest.)
12
●
●
Should​ ​have​ ​a​ ​problem,​ ​conflict​ ​and​ ​a
resolution.
Should​ ​include​ ​validated​ ​facts.
Colorful​ ​metaphors,​ ​similes,​ ​descriptions,
dialogue​ ​and​ ​feelings.
Examples​ ​of​ ​Memoirs:​ ​Night​ ​(Elie​ ​Weisel);
Open​ ​(Andre​ ​Agassi);​ ​The​ ​Glass​ ​Castle
(Jennifer​ ​Walls)
●
●
The​ ​standards​ ​of​ ​craft​ ​in​ ​personal​ ​writing
should​ ​not​ ​be​ ​lower​ ​than​ ​in​ ​fiction.​ ​There​ ​is
no​ ​reason​ ​why​ ​something​ ​true​ ​should​ ​be
sloppily​ ​or​ ​boringly​ ​written.​ ​Many​ ​writers
seem​ ​to​ ​feel​ ​that​ ​they​ ​are​ ​“expressing
themselves”​ ​if​ ​they​ ​just​ ​get​ ​their​ ​feelings
down​ ​on​ ​the​ ​page,​ ​but​ ​expressing​ ​yourself
is​ ​not​ ​enough.
A​ ​memoir​ ​should​ ​have​ ​a​ ​beginning,​ ​a
middle,​ ​and​ ​an​ ​end.​ ​There​ ​should​ ​be​ ​a
problem,​ ​a​ ​conflict,​ ​and​ ​a​ ​resolution.
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
25.​ ​Pastiche
●
Personal​ ​writing​ ​should​ ​entertain​ ​the
reader.
●
even​ ​if​ ​your​ ​subject​ ​is​ ​extreme​ ​or​ ​shocking,​ ​it
won’t​ ​be​ ​interesting​ ​in​ ​any​ ​but​ ​the​ ​most
prurient​ ​terms,​ ​unless​ ​it​ ​is​ ​written​ ​well,​ ​and
surprisingly.
●
To​ ​create,​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​respect​ ​to​ ​an​ ​author’s​ ​style,​ ​to
mimic,​ ​to​ ​show​ ​an​ ​appreciation​ ​for​ ​the
techniques​ ​an​ ​accomplished​ ​author​ ​is​ ​known
for.
A​ ​pastiche​ ​is​ ​an​ ​exercise​ ​in​ ​literary​ ​criticism:​ ​it
involves​ ​changing​ ​one​ ​or​ ​more​ ​elements​ ​in​ ​a
work​ ​of​ ​prose​ ​or​ ​poetry​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​examine​ ​the
effects​ ​of​ ​stylistic​ ​variations.​ ​Writers​ ​can​ ​use
pastiches​ ​to​ ​hone​ ​their​ ​own​ ​style,​ ​and​ ​a
pastiche​ ​may​ ​even​ ​lead​ ​further,​ ​to​ ​an​ ​original
story​ ​or​ ​essay.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
13
The “style” of a Pastiche depends largely
on the style of the author being
mimicked… a pastiche of Hemingway
would have very different elements to a
pastiche of Shakespeare, Hunter S.
Thompson or Emily Dickinson. Some
examples of how one might approach
pastiche​ ​include​ ​altering:
Plot: Take any story and outline its plot.
Change the plot outline from a tragedy to a
comedy or vice-versa. Molière did that with
his own plays: typically a d​ eus ex
machina​ comes on stage in the final scene
and bails everyone out of trouble. The
action is comic but the plot is tragic up to
the last, implausible scene. And that,
Molière​ ​seems​ ​to​ ​imply,​ ​is​ ​the​ ​point.
Setting: Change the setting of a story. If
the action takes place in a big city, change
it to a small town or jungle or vice-versa.
Likewise, if the action takes place in the
present, change it to the past or future. If
the story seems to have no particular setting
of note, give it one in a way that is more
than​ ​decoration.
Character: Transform a character from
male to female or vice-versa. How will that
affect dialogue and action? Or turn a villain
into a hero by making the fewest changes
possible. Can your character be a villain or
hero by actions alone, without talking or
looking like one? What’s the least you can
do to avoid inconsistency? And, of course,
how do these changes affect the meaning of
the​ ​story?
Point of view: Rewrite a scene in a story
from the point of view of another character
(something like the “Rashomon effect”). Or
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
●
26.​ ​Satire
●
●
●
27.
Screenplays
●
●
To​ ​poke​ ​fun​ ​at,​ ​to​ ​parody,​ ​to​ ​satirize,​ ​to
exaggerate,​ ​to​ ​ridicule,​ ​to​ ​point​ ​out​ ​the
absurdity​ ​of​ ​a​ ​social​ ​issue.
This​ ​allows​ ​you​ ​to​ ​poke​ ​fun​ ​at​ ​different​ ​aspects
in​ ​life​ ​such​ ​as​ ​people,​ ​government,​ ​politics,
facts,​ ​tragic​ ​events.
To​ ​make​ ​a​ ​social​ ​commentary​ ​by​ ​pointing​ ​out
the​ ​absurdity​ ​or​ ​hypocrisy​ ​of​ ​a​ ​current​ ​social
issue​ ​(ex.​ ​Political​ ​Correctness,​ ​Gender​ ​Roles,
Nationalism/Patriotism,​ ​Ignorance​ ​etc.)
In​ ​the​ ​most​ ​basic​ ​terms,​ ​a​ ​screenplay​ ​is​ ​a
90-120​ ​page​ ​document​ ​written​ ​in​ ​Courier​ ​12pt
font​ ​on​ ​8​ ​1/2"​ ​x​ ​11"​ ​bright​ ​white​ ​three-hole
punched​ ​paper. In​ ​our​ ​case​ ​we​ ​would​ ​make​ ​this
much​ ​shorter.
change a scene by adding senses other than
sight​ ​and​ ​hearing.
Dialogue: Take a scene in a novel or play
and change the level or mode of language:
how would the characters speak if they
were​ ​from​ ​another​ ​region​ ​or​ ​social​ ​class?
the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​humor,​ ​irony,​ ​exaggeration,​ ​or
ridicule​ ​to​ ​expose​ ​and​ ​criticize​ ​people's
stupidity​ ​or​ ​vices,​ ​particularly​ ​in​ ​the
context​ ​of​ ​contemporary​ ​politics​ ​and​ ​other
topical​ ​issues.
● Often​ ​shows​ ​the​ ​“flipside”​ ​of​ ​an​ ​social
issue​ ​to​ ​draw​ ​attention​ ​to​ ​the​ ​absurdity​ ​of
the​ ​prevailing​ ​sentiment.
● Notable​ ​satirists​ ​include​ ​Jonathan​ ​Swift,
Voltaire,​ ​ ​The​ ​Simpsons,​ ​Matt​ ​Stone​ ​and
Trey​ ​Parker,​ ​Family​ ​Guy,​ ​Sascha​ ​Baron
Cohen,​ ​Jon​ ​Stewart,​ ​Stephen​ ​Colbert
Satirical​ ​Techniques
Satirical​ ​Techniques​ ​#2
Link​ ​to​ ​The​ ​Onion
Link​ ​to​ ​Private​ ​Eye​ ​(UK)
Link​ ​to​ ​The​ ​Spoof
● A​ ​screenplay​ ​can​ ​be​ ​an​ ​original​ ​piece,​ ​or
based​ ​on​ ​a​ ​true​ ​story​ ​or​ ​previously​ ​written
piece,​ ​like​ ​a​ ​novel,​ ​stage​ ​play​ ​or​ ​newspaper
article.​ ​At​ ​its​ ​heart,​ ​a​ ​screenplay​ ​is​ ​a
blueprint​ ​for​ ​the​ ​film​ ​it​ ​will​ ​one​ ​day
become.​ ​Professionals​ ​on​ ​the​ ​set​ ​including
the​ ​producer,​ ​director,​ ​set​ ​designer​ ​and
actors​ ​all​ ​translate​ ​the​ ​screenwriter's​ ​vision
using​ ​their​ ​individual​ ​talents.​ ​Since​ ​the
creation​ ​of​ ​a​ ​film​ ​is​ ​ultimately​ ​a
collaborative​ ​art,​ ​the​ ​screenwriter​ ​must​ ​be
aware​ ​of​ ​each​ ​person's​ ​role​ ​and​ ​as​ ​such,​ ​the
script​ ​should​ ​reflect​ ​the​ ​writer's​ ​knowledge.
●
●
28.​ ​Song​ ​lyrics
●
●
To​ ​describe,​ ​to​ ​emote,​ ​to​ ​elicit​ ​a​ ​reaction​ ​from
the​ ​audience.
Often​ ​people​ ​react​ ​to​ ​music​ ​in​ ​visceral,
powerful​ ​ways…​ ​both​ ​the​ ​music​ ​and​ ​the​ ​lyrics
can​ ​have​ ​a​ ​powerful​ ​effect​ ​on​ ​the​ ​moods,
emotions​ ​and​ ​reactions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​listener.
●
●
●
14
Like​ ​poetry,​ ​Song​ ​lyrics​ ​generally​ ​describe
some​ ​aspect​ ​or​ ​experience​ ​of​ ​being​ ​human.
And​ ​,​ ​as​ ​such,​ ​they​ ​can​ ​employ​ ​all​ ​of​ ​the
poetic​ ​devices​ ​described​ ​below.
Often​ ​song​ ​lyrics​ ​follow​ ​a​ ​rhythm​ ​and
rhyme​ ​scheme​ ​(something​ ​that​ ​may​ ​be
absent​ ​in​ ​free​ ​verse​ ​poetry).
The​ ​very​ ​basic​ ​structure​ ​of​ ​song​ ​lyrics
includes​ ​verses,​ ​a​ ​bridge,​ ​and​ ​a​ ​chorus,
which​ ​are​ ​often​ ​structured​ ​thusly:
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
●
●
Verse​ ​#1-Chorus-Verse
#2-Chorus-Bridge-(possible​ ​instrumental
piece​ ​like​ ​a​ ​guitar​ ​solo)-outtro​ ​Chorus.
Genres​ ​include:​ ​Rock,​ ​Metal,​ ​Hip-hop,
Dance,​ ​Techno,​ ​Folk,​ ​Rap,​ ​Country,​ ​Classic
etc.
●
29.​ ​Poetry
●
●
To​ ​describe,​ ​to​ ​emote,​ ​to​ ​offer​ ​insight​ ​into​ ​a
complex​ ​idea,​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​the​ ​human​ ​condition,
to​ ​use​ ​figurative​ ​language​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​a​ ​difficult
concept.
The​ ​central​ ​message,​ ​or​ ​the​ ​human​ ​experience
being​ ​explored​ ​in​ ​a​ ​poem,​ ​is​ ​often​ ​called​ ​the
theme​ ​of​ ​the​ ​poem.​ ​ ​A​ ​thematic​ ​statement​​ ​is
the​ ​conclusions,​ ​or​ ​insights​ ​a​ ​poem​ ​may​ ​make
about​ ​a​ ​specific​ ​human​ ​experience.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
30.​ ​Radio
broadcast
31.​ ​Text
messages
32.​ ​Websites
●
●
To​ ​socialize.
33.
Forums/chat
rooms
●
To​ ​share​ ​opinions,​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​a​ ​topic,​ ​to
efficiently​ ​get​ ​a​ ​wide​ ​range​ ​of​ ​people​ ​together
(virtually)​ ​to​ ​discuss​ ​a​ ​topic​ ​of​ ​mutual​ ​interest.
34.​ ​Public
Service
Announceme
nt
●
To​ ​inform,​ ​to​ ​warn,​ ​to​ ​draw​ ​attention​ ​to​ ​a
matter​ ​of​ ​public​ ​important/concern.
●
15
Poetry​ ​relies​ ​on​ ​a​ ​range​ ​of​ ​poetic​ ​devices​ ​to
achieve​ ​it’s​ ​goal;​ ​these​ ​devices​ ​can​ ​be
broadly​ ​categorized​ ​as:
1)​ ​Structural​ (​ rhyme​ ​scheme/​ ​rhythm,
stanza​ ​patterns,​ ​free​ ​verse​ ​etc.)
2)​ ​Figurative​ ​Language​​ ​(metaphor,
paradox,​ ​allusion,​ ​simile,​ ​symbol,​ ​imagery
etc.)
3)​ ​Sound​ ​Devices​​ ​(cacophony,​ ​alliteration,
onomatopoeia,​ ​rhyme​ ​(again!)
4)​ ​Voice​​ ​(speaker,​ ​perspective,​ ​tone,​ ​irony
etc.)
Poems​ ​are​ ​rarely​ ​literal​…​ ​instead​ ​they
tend​ ​to​ ​use​ ​creative​ ​and​ ​descriptive
language​ ​to​ ​explore,​ ​share​ ​or​ ​illuminate​ ​an
aspect​ ​of​ ​the​ ​human​ ​experience.​ ​ ​Instead​ ​of
saying​ ​“It​ ​was​ ​a​ ​sad​ ​day”,​ ​a​ ​poet​ ​might
describe​ ​“Dark​ ​clouds​ ​hung​ ​over​ ​the
greying​ ​pavements/Hushed​ ​and​ ​sloppy
leaves​ ​caught/in​ ​paralyzed​ ​puddles.”
Lyric​​ ​poems​ ​describe​ ​something;
narrative​​ ​poems​ ​tell​ ​stories.
A​ ​beginner’s​ ​Guide​ ​to​ ​Writing​ ​a​ ​Poem
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
35.​ ​Post​ ​Cards
To​ ​share,​ ​to​ ​socialize,​ ​to​ ​offer​ ​an​ ​update​ ​on​ ​a
vacation​ ​and​ ​the​ ​experiences​ ​one​ ​is​ ​having.
●
●
●
●
36.​ ​Cartoons
●
●
●
37.​ ​Charts​ ​and
Graphs
To​ ​entertain
To​ ​satirize​ ​society;​ ​to​ ​draw​ ​attention​ ​to​ ​social
absurdity,​ ​conventions​ ​or​ ​traditions.
Political​ ​Cartoons:​ ​To​ ​provide​ ​a​ ​quick​ ​witty
comment​ ​on​ ​a​ ​current​ ​political​ ​situation.
●
●
Post​ ​cards​ ​generally​ ​have​ ​three​ ​aspects​ ​to
their​ ​structure:
1)​ ​PICTURE​ ​SIDE:​​ ​A​ ​picture​ ​of​ ​something
indicative​ ​of​ ​the​ ​place​ ​being​ ​visited​ ​by​ ​the
writer.​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​The​ ​Eiffel​ ​Tower​ ​in
Paris,​ ​or​ ​a​ ​tranquil​ ​beach​ ​in​ ​Thailand.
There​ ​may​ ​be​ ​print​ ​(on​ ​the​ ​picture​ ​side,​ ​or
with​ ​Written​ ​Side,​ ​which​ ​identifies​ ​and/or
describes​ ​the​ ​picture.)
2)​ ​WRITTEN​ ​SIDE:​​ ​On​ ​the​ ​reverse​ ​side,​ ​a
space​ ​for​ ​writing​ ​a​ ​brief​ ​message…​ ​Usually
this​ ​is​ ​one-half​ ​of​ ​the​ ​written​ ​side.
Depending​ ​on​ ​the​ ​hand-writing​ ​of​ ​the
writer,​ ​there​ ​is​ ​usually​ ​only​ ​room​ ​for​ ​a
brief​ ​update​ ​and​ ​some​ ​pleasantries​ ​here.
3)​ ​WRITTEN​ ​SIDE:​​ ​A​ ​place​ ​for​ ​writing​ ​the
address​ ​of​ ​the​ ​intended​ ​recipient.
More​ ​and​ ​more,​ ​Post​ ​Cards​ ​have​ ​become
something​ ​that​ ​is​ ​sent​ ​via​ ​email,​ ​facebook,
instagram,​ ​etc.​ ​as​ ​these​ ​platforms​ ​cut​ ​out​ ​the
delivery​ ​time​ ​required​ ​for​ ​surface​ ​mail.
How​ ​to​ ​Write​ ​a​ ​PostCard
● Entertainment:​ ​cartoons​ ​which​ ​entertain
(“Peanuts”,​ ​“Calvin​ ​and​ ​Hobbes”,​ ​“The​ ​Far
Side”)​ ​often​ ​use​ ​a​ ​combination​ ​of​ ​panels,
drawing,​ ​characters​ ​and​ ​word​ ​bubbles​ ​to
convey​ ​a​ ​quick​ ​and​ ​witty​ ​account​ ​of​ ​an
event​ ​or​ ​human​ ​experience.
Satire:​ ​Political​ ​cartoons​ ​are​ ​often​ ​a​ ​single
panel.​ ​ ​They​ ​do​ ​not​ ​rely​ ​on​ ​regularly​ ​recurring
characters​ ​as​ ​a​ ​serialized​ ​cartoon​ ​might…
instead​ ​they​ ​offer​ ​an​ ​enlightened,​ ​satirical​ ​look
at​ ​current​ ​political​ ​figures​ ​and​ ​situations
through​ ​a​ ​combination​ ​of​ ​hyperbole,​ ​irony,
drawing,​ ​word​ ​bubbles,​ ​labels​ ​and​ ​puns,
among​ ​other​ ​satirical​ ​tools.
Examples​ ​of​ ​a​ ​wide​ ​range​ ​of​ ​Political
Cartoonists
How​ ​to​ ​analyze/write​ ​Political​ ​Cartoons
To​ ​inform​ ​in​ ​a​ ​graphic,​ ​easy​ ​to​ ​understand, ● Charts​ ​often​ ​include​ ​data​ ​in​ ​a​ ​visual,​ ​easy
manner.
to​ ​understand​ ​way.​ ​ ​Often​ ​this​ ​information
To​ ​provide​ ​an​ ​efficient​ ​and​ ​visual​ ​way​ ​to
is​ ​comparative​ ​(ex.​ ​The​ ​number​ ​of​ ​students
compare​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​collected​ ​data.
from​ ​each​ ​different​ ​country​ ​at​ ​ISB).
● They​ ​can​ ​also​ ​be​ ​used​ ​to​ ​ascertain​ ​trends
which​ ​may​ ​anticipate​ ​future​ ​outcomes.
16
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
●
Types​ ​of​ ​charts​ ​include​ ​Pie​ ​Charts,​ ​Histograms,
Bar​ ​Chart​ ​and​ ​Line​ ​Charts.
38.​ ​Appeals
39.
Commentary
Charts​ ​include​ ​many​ ​conventions​ ​including
labels,​ ​X​ ​and​ ​Y​ ​axes,​ ​scaled​ ​numbers​ ​and​ ​a
visual​ ​aspect.
●
●
To​ ​offer​ ​an​ ​intellectual,​ ​emotional​ ​and
●
personal​ ​response​ ​to​ ​a​ ​piece​ ​of​ ​literature​ ​or
text​ ​type,
to​ ​appreciate​ ​the​ ​literary,​ ​rhetorical​ ​and
linguistic​ ​devices​ ​and​ ​author​ ​has​ ​used,​ ​and​ ​the
effects​ ​they​ ​have.
●
Commentaries​ ​on​ ​works​ ​of​ ​literature​ ​or
other​ ​text​ ​types​ ​often​ ​analyze​ ​a​ ​work​ ​of
literature​ ​(poem,​ ​prose​ ​passage​ ​etc.)​ ​or​ ​a
non-literary​ ​text​ ​type​ ​(advertisement,
editorial,​ ​brochure,​ ​diary​ ​entry).
They​ ​often​ ​include​ ​an​ ​intro,​ ​which
introduce​ ​the​ ​main​ ​message​ ​of​ ​the
passage,​ ​and​ ​then​ ​several​ ​body​ ​paragraphs
that​ ​highlight​ ​the​ ​stylistic​ ​devices​ ​the
passage​ ​depends​ ​upon.​ ​ ​These​ ​could
include​ ​structure,​ ​figurative​ ​language,
rhetorical​ ​devices,​ ​sound​ ​devices,​ ​imagery
(word​ ​and​ ​visual),​ ​purpose,​ ​intended
audience,​ ​tone…​ ​the​ ​final​ ​paragraph​ ​of​ ​a
commentary​ ​often​ ​concludes​ ​by​ ​summing
up​ ​the​ ​main​ ​message​ ​and​ ​purpose​ ​of​ ​the
passage.
Mainly​ ​to​ ​socialize​​ ​(as​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​“social
●
network)​ ​According​ ​to​ ​creator,​ ​Mark
Zukerberg,​ ​Facebook​ ​was​ ​created​ ​"to​ ​make
the​ ​world​ ​more​ ​open​ ​and​ ​connected”​ ​(Feb​ ​5,
2012)
To​ ​make​ ​social​ ​communication​ ​more
efficient.
●
To​ ​share​ ​interests,​ ​articles,​ ​likes,​ ​photos,​ ​ideas,
events,​ ​social​ ​life​ ​etc.
AUDIENCE:​​ ​variable​ ​according​ ​to​ ​the​ ​settings
the​ ​profile​ ​owner​ ​chooses,​ ​but​ ​ostensibly​ ​only
A​ ​PERSONAL​ ​PROFILE:​​ ​which​ ​contains
personal​ ​information​ ​about​ ​the​ ​profile
owner​ ​including​ ​work​ ​history,​ ​jobs,
relationship​ ​status,​ ​likes,​ ​photos,
favourites,​ ​a​ ​record​ ​of
posts/communications​ ​etc.
LANGUAGE:​​ ​specific​ ​grammatical​ ​rules​ ​are
not​ ​always​ ​observed​ ​on​ ​Facebook​ ​posts.
Instead,​ ​the​ ​emphasis​ ​is​ ​on​ ​quick,​ ​efficient
communication.
40.​ ​Essay
41.​ ​Travel
Writing
42.​ ​Parody
43.​ ​Short
stories
44.​ ​Novel
45.​ ​Facebook
Post
●
●
●
●
17
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
●
the​ ​friends​ ​you​ ​“accept”​ ​should​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​see
your​ ​whole​ ​profile​ ​page.​ ​ ​There​ ​are​ ​settings
which​ ​allow​ ​anyone​ ​access​ ​to​ ​your​ ​profile.
Increasingly,​ ​Facebook​ ​has​ ​been​ ​used​ ​to
advertise​​ ​and​ ​market​ ​products.​ ​ ​Companies
understand​ ​the​ ​attraction​ ​many​ ​18-29​ ​year
olds​ ​have​ ​to​ ​Facebook​ ​and​ ​use​ ​it​ ​as​ ​a​ ​tool​ ​to
attract​ ​consumers.
●
●
●
Short​ ​hand​ ​terms​ ​such​ ​as​ ​LOL​ ​(“laugh​ ​out
loud”),​ ​TTYL​ ​(“Talk​ ​To​ ​You​ ​Later”),​ ​GTG
(“Got​ ​To​ ​Go”),​ ​BRB​ ​(“Be​ ​Right​ ​Back”),​ ​YOLO
(“You​ ​Only​ ​Live​ ​Once”)​ ​are​ ​common.
Communications​ ​threads​ ​are​ ​developed​ ​as
friends​ ​join​ ​in​ ​conversations.
Users​ ​are​ ​encouraged​ ​to​ ​“like”,​ ​“comment”
or​ ​“share”​ ​posts.
Link​ ​to​ ​example​ ​of​ ​Facebook​ ​Page:
https://www.facebook.com/leadingbyexample
46.​ ​Obituary
● to​ ​report​ ​the​ ​recent​ ​death​ ​of​ ​a​ ​person​,
typically​ ​along​ ​with​ ​an​ ​account​ ​of​ ​the​ ​person's
life,​ ​those​ ​who​ ​survive​ ​the​ ​deceased,​ ​and
information​ ​about​ ​the​ ​upcoming ​funeral​.
● To​ ​briefly,​ ​and​ ​publically,​ ​commemorate​ ​the
dead.
● AUDIENCE:​​ ​the​ ​general​ ​public;​ ​usually​ ​of​ ​a
local​ ​community​ ​or​ ​city.
● An​ ​Obituary​ ​is​ ​usually​ ​published​ ​in​ ​the
“Classified​ ​Advertisements”​ ​section​ ​of​ ​a​ ​local
newspaper.​ ​ ​The​ ​newspapers​ ​usually​ ​charge​ ​a
fee​ ​for​ ​the​ ​publication​ ​of​ ​an​ ​obituary.
18
● Usually​ ​written​ ​by​ ​a​ ​family​ ​member​ ​or
someone​ ​close​ ​to​ ​the​ ​family​ ​(though
funeral​ ​homes​ ​will​ ​write​ ​obituaries​ ​for​ ​a
fee).
● The​ ​language​ ​is​ ​very​ ​straightforward​ ​and
factual.
● The​ ​tone​​ ​is​ ​meant​ ​to​ ​remain​ ​factual,
subdued​ ​and​ ​relatively​ ​unemotive​ ​(i.e.​ ​An
obituary​ ​is​ ​not​ ​written​ ​in​ ​the​ ​grandiose,
emotional​ ​language​ ​of​ ​a​ ​eulogy​ ​–​ ​a​ ​speech
given​ ​during​ ​a​ ​funeral)
● Obituaries​ ​commonly​ ​include​ ​the
following:​ ​Full​ ​name​ ​(some​ ​people​ ​put​ ​a
maiden​ ​name​ ​in​ ​parenthesis);​ ​Date​ ​of
death;​ ​Where​ ​the​ ​person​ ​was​ ​living​ ​at
the​ ​time​ ​of​ ​death;​ ​Date​ ​of​ ​birth;
Birthplace;​ ​Key​ ​survivors​ ​(spouse,
children)​ ​and​ ​their​ ​names;​ ​Time,​ ​date,
place​ ​of ​memorial​ or​ ​burial​ ​services​ ​(if
you​ ​want​ ​the​ ​public​ ​invited)
● They​ ​may​ ​also​ ​include:​ ​Cause​ ​of​ ​death;
Biographical​ ​information,​ ​life​ ​story,​ ​or
major​ ​life​ ​events​ ​(covering​ ​as​ ​much​ ​or
as​ ​little​ ​as​ ​you'd​ ​like);​ ​Survivors​ ​who
are​ ​grandchildren,​ ​siblings,​ ​nieces​ ​and
nephews,​ ​friends,​ ​or​ ​pets;​ ​Memorial
tribute​ ​information,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​"in​ ​lieu​ ​of
flowers,​ ​donations​ ​may​ ​be​ ​made​ ​to
such-and-such ​hospice​ or
such-and-such​ ​nonprofit​ ​organization"
Conor​ ​Duffy
International​ ​School​ ​Bangkok
Link​ ​to​ ​an​ ​example​ ​of​ ​an​ ​obituary:
http://abcnewspapers.com/obituary-placemen
ts-example-and-instructions/
47.​ ​Eulogy
An,​ ​often​ ​emotional​ ​speech,​ ​given​ ​on​ ​at​ ​the
funeral​ ​or​ ​wake​ ​of​ ​someone​ ​who​ ​has​ ​passed
away.
Often​ ​given​ ​by​ ​a​ ​member​ ​of​ ​the​ ​family,​ ​or
someone​ ​very​ ​close​ ​to​ ​the​ ​deceased.
​ ​*​ ​to​ ​recollect;​ ​to​ ​commemorate;​ ​to​ ​remember;
to​ ​celebrate​ ​the​ ​life​ ​of​ ​someone​ ​who​ ​many
people​ ​cared​ ​for;​ ​to​ ​highlight;​ ​to​ ​elicit​ ​love,
laughter,​ ​tears,​ ​appreciation,​ ​smiles​ ​from​ ​the
audience.
Tone:​​ ​can​ ​vary​ ​according​ ​to​ ​the​ ​personality​ ​of
the​ ​speaker…​ ​but​ ​often​ ​is​ ​solemn,
commemorative.​ ​ ​Can​ ​also​ ​be​ ​humourous​ ​in​ ​an
attempt​ ​to​ ​celebrate​ ​the​ ​positive​ ​memories​ ​of
the​ ​deceased…​ ​but,​ ​overall,​ ​a​ ​eulogy​ ​shows
deep​ ​care​ ​and​ ​a​ ​sense​ ​of​ ​loss.
May​ ​use​ ​quotes,​ ​poetry​ ​from​ ​outside​ ​sources.
Often​ ​refers​ ​to​ ​memories​ ​and​ ​positive​ ​events
from​ ​the​ ​deceased’s​ ​life…​ ​and​ ​an​ ​ ​invitation​ ​as
to​ ​how​ ​the​ ​deceased​ ​should​ ​be​ ​remembered.
Link:
http://www.write-out-loud.com/free-sample-eu
logies.html
19
Download
Related flashcards

Grammar

21 cards

Punctuation

19 cards

Markup languages

43 cards

Parts of speech

13 cards

Semantics

36 cards

Create Flashcards