Text Type conventions


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Text Type Conventions and Styles Document


List of Text Types: 1.

Blog 2.

Diary (journal) 3.

Review (of a film, CD, book, play, TV show, concert, video game, restaurant or cafe) 4.

Set of instructions / guidelines 5.

Brochure, pamphlet, leaflet, flyer, advertisement 6.

Interview 7.

News report 8.

Official report 9.

Opinion Article or Lead Newspaper Editorial (from Senior Editor) 10.

Article (feature) 11.

Personal letter or personal e-mail 12.

Letter to the editor 13.

Letter giving an opinion 14.

Letter giving advice 15.

Letter of complaint 16.

Letter of application (for a job or course) 17.

Letters of apology, request, or asking for advice 18.

Info-graphics 19.

Op-Ed 20.

Speeches 21.

Tabloid 22.

Autobiography 23.

Memoir 24.

Biography 1

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Pastiche 26.

Satire 27.

Screenplays 28.

Song lyrics 29.

Poetry 30.

Radio broadcasts 31.

Text messages 32.

Websites 33.

Forums/chat rooms 34.

Public Service Announcements 35.

Post Cards 36.

Cartoons 37.

Charts and Graphs 38.

Appeals 39.

Commentary 40.

Essay 41.

Travel Writing 42.

Parody 43.

Short stories 44.

Novel 45.

Facebook posting 46.

Obituary 47.


Text type




Personal blog is an ongoing commentary or diary (though unlike a diary it may contain explanatory words or phrases)

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Written in 1 st person (avoid “CU” or “GR8” or texting/SMS language) Subject line Name of person writing blog 2


Diary (journal)

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Often more than just a way to communicate; it becomes a way to reflect on life Includes observations, descriptions of events, or other material Shows feelings

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Date and time (most recent post appears first) At least two entries Comments from readers; links; photos

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To reflect, to introspect, to explore personal emotions, thoughts, fears, concerns etc.

To objectify those thoughts, feelings and concerns by writing them down. About you – not meant to be read by anyone but the writer Very personal, intimate, and introspective Can be a straightforward account of the events of the day AND/OR a way to examine your life Shows thoughts, feelings, reflections, and ideas about the world around you, specific events, etc.

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Contains your voice (i.e.

it sounds like you) Written in 1 st person Date Often runs over a series of dates with the goal of exploring the story of your life. Grammar (begin sentences with phrases like:

I wonder, I guess, I suppose, I think, I reckon, I imagine, I hope, I doubt

; consider using verbs in the conditional tense:

I wonder what will happen if I go.


I wonder what would happen if I went.

[theoretical situation in the present],

I wonder what would have happened if I had gone.

[theoretical situation in the past]) 3.

Review (of a film, CD, book, play, TV show, concert, video game, restaurant or cafe)

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Communicate a clear opinion about the subject matter Opinion should be based on evidence: facts and details Should be authoritative – you must sound knowledgeable Summarize key information

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Link to Diary Exemplars: http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Diary

Date, reviewer

Title, subtitle (that reflects opinion or perspective) Hook/lead Paragraphs, Intro should columns justify why it’s being reviewed (recently released; writer, musician dies)

Some summary spoilers!) of plot (don’t retell!


Critique of characters/themes Original?

Relevant today?) (Convincing?

Opinion and evaluation with a

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recommendation (e.g.

4 out of 5 stars) Use of terminology from genre (e.g.

refrain, chorus) Link to Review Exemplars and How to 4.

Set of instructions / guidelines

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Usually gives step-by-step guidance about how to do, approach, or fix something Usually chronologically ordered (begins at start of process, finishes up at the end)

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Use headings to capture reader’s attention Use bullet points or numbers Limit amount of information in each step: Be precise (specific) and concise (brief) Write clearly 3


Brochure, pamphlet, leaflet, t flyer, advertisemen

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Sometimes written to give advice – these are less systematically ordered and more personal in style Explains each step of the process/operation Very factual

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Start with a short paragraph that gives context / background to the guidelines Create a title that explains what the instructions are "How to..." Begin each sentence with an action verb (e.g.

pick up, take, hold, etc.) Address the reader using "you" or "your" Limit each step to one main idea Use short, clear sentences with words that are common Reinforce steps with a picture, illustration or diagram Include any cautions, warnings, or dangers Leave out redundant or confusing information Put steps in the most logical sequence Conclude with a brief summary such as, “By following these guidelines” Advice on how to write a Set of Instructions How to write instructions incorporating pictures

Provides descriptive information to inform, sell, promote, or raise awareness about a certain issue

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Take readers straight to important information Address audience clearly and directly Eye-catching title Headings, sub-headings, bullet-points, and numbers to highlight key information Short sections or paragraphs Simple and straightforward language Contact information Some factual information (statistics, etc.) Creative use of language (alliteration, puns, series of adjs.) High proportion of adjectives and adverbs Some language rules may be broken Use of rhetorical devices A testimonial(s) 6.


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To gain first hand information about an issue, a person, a subject. Questions should lead to an understanding of 1) the topic and 2) the personality of the interviewee A dialogue in question-and-answer style Link to How To Write a Brochure

Title (with a hook)

Date, interviewer’s name

Introductory paragraph explaining who the interviewee is, her connection to the issue (i.e.

job, position), and where and why the interview is taking place 4


News report 8.

Official report

To be published (don’t write a transcript of the conversation)

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First question should establish rapport (

“Thanks for talking to our magazine.”

) Ask “open” questions (Begin with:

what, how, why, who, where

); avoid yes/no If discussing personal issues, start with less sensitive topics (background, facts) and move on to specifics Last question could be about future plans (

“So what do you see as the next stage?”

) Final paragraph should conclude interview and thank and wish the interviewee well Use cohesive devices (transitions) and, perhaps, humor

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Presents newsworthy information about events that have just happened Factual

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Formal register Begin with a headline; use subheadings Write date and byline Provide the 5 W’s (who, what, why, when, where) in the lead paragraph Provide further facts and details including statements and direct quotes in the explanatory paragraphs; explain how the events occurred Report similar incidents and least important information in the final paragraphs Use short paragraphs Rhetorical devices (indirect speech, passive voice, objective, concise) INVERTED PYRAMID: structural device for news articles where in the most important information and facts are put near the top of the article, including an engaging LEAD

the assumption being that most people so not read all news articles to completion

. They want the main points of the news quickly. LEAD: opening sentence which answers as much of the who, what, where, when and why as grammatically possible.

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Presents information in a coherent, formal manner (e.g.

police report, witness statement, or social worker’s report) Often argues for a certain position or solution to a specific issue or problem

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Advice on how to write a News Article

Formal register

Begin with background information about the issue or conflict Explain what happened Summarize Conclude findings with a and short recommendations summary of the ideas 5


Opinion Article or Lead Newspaper Editorial (from Senior Editor) 10.

Article (feature)

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presented Present facts, statistics, and details Use objective, descriptive language It may or may not be addressed to anyone, as long as this is not confused with the formal letter style Organize with subheadings and bullet points (but do not inappropriately replace continuous prose) • Written to 1) provide an opinion on a current event 2) provide balanced support regarding issues, but persuasive language to get readers to agree writer’s personal opinion. 3) Ask the reader to review or adapt their opinion on an issue, or see things from a new angle.

Possibly asks reader to take action. • Mainly to inform, though may also persuade and educate; they offer a personalized perspective on a current issue. • Not concerned with news events – instead it explores a range of issues, opinions, experiences, and ideas • Can inform, entertain, and persuade readers, or simply satisfy a reader’s curiosity about a subject Link to an example of a Police Report: http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Police-Repo rt

Includes a Headline that is relevant to the issue and implies the opinion of the writer.

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Formal register, academic, persuasive language


though register can also vary according to audience. Informative, precise and persuasive • Provides balanced information from both sides • Explains issue and opinion of writer early in the piece. • Anticipates counter-balance arguments and works to refute them. • May have a “call-to-action” which provides information for “next steps” a reader may take if they are moved by the opinion article. • Give all the information the reader needs to make a final decision • Conclude with a general comment, opinion, or assessment • May use longer sentences and more developed paragraphs than a regular news article. Tips for Writing an Editorial/Opinion Article 5 Steps to Good Editorials How to Organize an Editorial • Audience (wide or narrow, e.g.

all residents of a city or teenagers) determines register • Often offer a combination of the subjective (persona, individual story) with the objective (facts, stats, expert opinions, data). • Begin with a headline (gives main idea and gets attention), date, name of publication, 6


Personal letter or personal e-mail • Can offer an opinion about current affairs, but can also just give a personal or humorous perspective on modern day life • Give a personal perspective on the subject – a point of view / angle that makes the article interesting or unique

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and writer’s name • Intro should provide a hook and background info • Body paragraphs use subheadings, facts, statistics, specific names/places/dates, quotes/opinions from experts, personal views, and visual aids (e.g.

photographs, tables, diagrams, maps) • End with satisfying conclusion (restate main idea, encourage a change, make a prediction, or leave reader with something to think about) • Go beyond surface facts and direct quotes – add color, descriptive detail, background, and personal comment • Use anecdotes, imagery, description, and rhetorical questions • Register determines language (e.g.

informal includes contractions –

can’t, won’t

, etc.

– and vocabulary like

cool, weird

, or


) • Create a familiar tone with informal, colloquial (slang) and first person narrative

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To connect, to share persona information, to update a friend on recent events, to apprise. Refers to reason for writing (e.g.

share news and information, apologize, give thanks, congratulate, invite, give condolences) Usually consists of personal topics and expresses personal feelings, thoughts

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Important Steps for writing a solid Feature Article (from the NY Times) Example of a Feature Article Link to How to Write a Feature Article

Informal register

Include address

Begin with date and greeting (


Dear, OR Hi, Hello,

) Explain reason for writing Share good and bad news Ask about recipient Ask questions you want answered End with closing remarks (e.g.

thank or wish

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recipient well) wish , closing, and signature Contains paragraphs Use informal, conversational – BUT correct –language; imagine the recipient standing in front of you


contractions, abbreviations, slang, smiley faces, !)

Avoid words in text message (SMS) form, swear words, and inappropriate language 7


Letter to the editor 13.

Letter giving an opinion

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Use simple, short sentences and connectors (e.g.

then, later) E-mail differences

Begin with these lines:





When writing an informal e-mail, avoid using chatty language and do not focus on authenticity at the expense of organization and methodical development of ideas

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Written to express a point of view, to list arguments supporting this opinion and to reject those against it Similar to opinion essays, but in letter format May end by restating opinion or offering suggestions for action Some examples of Personal Letters How to Write a Personal Letter

Formal register

Include your address

Begin with date and greeting (

“Dear Sir: or Dear Madam:”


State purpose; refer to article, date, writer, title, and newspaper issue

State the issue/topic and whether you approve or disapprove

Support your argument with examples, clarifications, and details

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Refute any counter-arguments Provide suggestions or solutions to

solve/handle the problem or topic End with closing remarks, closing, and signature How to Write a Letter to the Editor

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Written to give an opinion , to advise

(approve/disapprove, agree/disagree) on a topic/issue Respectful tone

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Semi-formal to formal register Include your address Begin with date and greeting (

“Dear Sir: or Dear Madam:”

) State purpose; refer to article, date, writer, title, and newspaper issue State opinion Support your argument with justifications, examples, and details Refute any counter-arguments End with closing remarks, closing, and signature 8


Letter giving advice 15.

Letter of complaint 16.

(for Letter a job of application or course)

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Written to give advice upon someone’s request Should give solutions May include opinions and reference to personal experience

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Formal, semi-formal or informal register State purpose; refer to the original request made (in e-mail, letter, etc.) Give advice – be precise and concise Provide clarifications, justifications, examples, and details End with closing remarks, closing, and signature Grammar (useful phrases:

If I were you, I would

, You ought to

, You should

, Why don’t you

, What about

, Make sure you

, Have you considered



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Written to express displeasure about a product or service; often asks for a refund or replacement Should explain what you want the organization to do Respectful, friendly tone

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Formal register Include your address and contact info Begin with date and greeting; use the name of the recipient to enable better interaction Explain complaint Justify complaint and give examples Explain what you want the organization to do – provide solutions, recommendations or suggestions Keep a respectful tone – do not sound patronizing and avoid offensive language Be concise and precise End with closing remarks, closing, and signature How to Write a Letter of Complaint to a Business Example of a Letter of Complaint

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Written to express interest in attending an institution or receiving a job Highlights your qualifications (abilities, strengths, and experience)

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Formal register Include your address, contact info, and when you can be reached Begin with date and greeting State reason for writing (e.g.

mention course you are applying for and where you learned about it) Explain your interest and qualifications (

e.g. Why have you chosen this course/university or job?

What benefit can the university gain from your enrolment or the company from your hiring?

) End with closing remarks (


how you will apply the knowledge you gain from the course

), closing, and signature 9


Letters of apology, request, or asking for advice 18. Info-graphics 19.


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To apologize, to request something. Letters of apology are typically written to somebody that the writer feels they have hurt. Is generally heart-felt and meaningful. Request letters is are written when you need certain information, permission, favor, service or any other matter which requires a polite and humble request. How to write a Letter of Application for a job

Written in 1 st person

Include your address and contact info

Addresses the person appropriately

(Semi-formal to formal register) Offers apology or asks for request/advice

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in the beginning of the letter Gives an explanation End with closing remarks, closing, and signature

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To inform, quickly and efficiently through visual information which attracts the eye and is easy to comprehend. A way of explaining complex scenario’s or large amounts of data in a visually stimulating format Can provide a unique perspective that can be difficult to project using words alone.

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Focused on a valuable topic Easy to read and understand (Charts, Graphs, Visuals, Numbers, Statistics) Highlights tons of reliable and interesting data (data density) Creatively visualizes data and information (i.e.

font size, sub-headings, images, icons are all used to great effect). Grab viewer’s attention Presents information simply

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To offer an educated opinion which represents the official stance of a publication. A newspaper article that expresses the opinions of a named writer who is usually unaffiliated with the newspaper’s editorial board. It appeals to a mass-media audience. It appears on the page opposite the editorial page of a newspaper.

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Examples of Infographics: http://arts2090bettinaroy.wordpress.com/201 2/04/26/information-graphics/

● ● Short sentences Simple verb Active verbs sentence object) voice (see Grabber title (8 construction rather reverse words than for or less!) (subject passive Important point first, not last! voice examples) Almost no use of numbers or math in Short words from common vocabulary Use of quotations by people: Subjective rather than Objective Use of people's first and last names for "human interest" Affiliation language (Business, University, Titles, Location) for persuasion ● Who, what, when, where, why, how

writetodone.com/how-to-write-a-strong-opini on-piecie-for-your-blog 10



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To inform, to persuade, to move emotionally, to inspire, to commemorate, to sanctify with eloquence. The purpose often is to persuade and a call to action, but other purposes may include to inform, to eulogize, to comfort, etc. Allows you to focus on one topic throughout the speech. It will be understandable, yet thought-provoking, to the intended audience

● ● ● ● Should make use of rhetorical devices in order to accomplish its purpose Have one or two highly memorable lines. (Can be accomplished through the use of anaphora) Makes mention of one or more of the following

historical people or events, facts, proverbs, religious references, allusions in general.

The speech should sound trustworthy to the intended audience . Often relies on ETHOS, PATHOS and/or LOGOS for its persuasive effect. 21.


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To entertain, to sensationalize, to provide gossipy information on an event which appeals

to It pop without culture, allows form. hard you evidence) to to scandalize, present the to infer news in (often condensed

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You can make sensational use of illustrations exaggerated and material.

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It grabs the readers attention with shocking headlines and vivid images.

● ● ● Link to “I Have a Dream” by Martin Luther King: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=smEqnn klfYs ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● News featuring sex escapades, murder and gore, Key the sports, Attention source Interesting,   audience  and of scandals Lack of fact-checking.  shocking   information of grabbing/shocking is all sorts.  headlines   often and   gossip.  appealing   Headlines.   Generally a simple sentence structure  Columns are narrow and easy to read.   Personal anecdotes or quotes from people   often included  Answers the six basic questions: Who?





Why?  Basic point is to attract reader’s attention.   Often based on rumors. rather than verified   facts  Barely credible sources      seem more dramatic      where sensationalism triumphs   factual reporting.

  journalism   over   Many pictures.     Contains stories not usually found in   reputable newspapers or magazines.  Damages peoples’ reputations by lies.      


22. Autobio-grap hy

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to leave a message to future generations to pass on your heritage to put closure to a period or episode to process experiences to preserve family history to share what and who you are

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Biased    Link to “How To Write a Tabloid Article” Focus on FOUR major things:   ● Who you are in life (how would you  ● ● describe your personality),   What life means to you,   What major life events or critical have had an impact on your life.  issues  ● What your outlook on the future is. 



● ● ● ● To reflect, to review, to come to a better understanding of one’s life; usually written from a more mature perspective as one recounts their life experiences, the choices they’ve made and how that has shaped the person they’ve become. Takes a snapshot of a moment in someone’s life. Written in more colorful language than an autobiography. Allows you to include the most relevant information’s.   Examples of Autobiographies:

The Diary of  Anne Frank

(Ann Frank);


(Tina  Fey)  ● ● ● Should have a problem, conflict and a  resolution.  Should include validated facts.  Colorful metaphors, similes, descriptions,  dialogue Examples of and feelings.  Memoirs: (Jennifer Walls) 


(Elie Weisel); 


(Andre Agassi);

The Glass Castle




● ● It allows the writer to turn her fierce critical eye on him/herself. It is always satisfying to read a writer who sharply and deftly attacks the hypocrisies and delusions of the world around him, but we trust that writer more completely when he also attacks himself, when he does not hold himself to a different standard, or protect himself from scrutiny. ● ● ● Personal writing should seem honest.

The reader likes personal writing to feel “honest.” (This does not mean that the memoir is “honest”—who knows how the writer really felt about something that happened 20 years ago, or yesterday.

It just needs to


honest.)   ● The standards of craft in personal writing  should not be lower than in fiction.

There is  no reason why something true should be  sloppily or boringly written.

Many writers  seem to feel that they are “expressing  themselves” if they just get their feelings  down on the page, but expressing yourself      is not enough.  A memoir should have a beginning, a  middle, and an end.

There should be a  problem, a conflict, and a resolution. 




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    ● Personal writing should entertain the reader.

  ● even if your subject is extreme or shocking, it won’t be interesting in any but the most prurient terms, unless it is written well, and surprisingly. ● ● ● To create, to pay respect to an author’s style, to mimic, to show an appreciation for the techniques an accomplished author is known for. A pastiche is an exercise in literary criticism: it involves changing one or more elements in a work of prose or poetry in order to examine the effects of stylistic variations.

Writers can use pastiches to hone their own style, and a pastiche may even lead further, to an original story or essay. ● ● The “style” of a Pastiche depends largely   on   the   style   of   the   author   being   mimicked… a pastiche of Hemingway   pastiche   of   Shakespeare,   Hunter   Thompson or Emily Dickinson.


Some     examples of how one might approach   pastiche include altering:   Plot: Take any story and outline its plot.

  Change the plot outline from a tragedy to a               his   own   plays:   typically   a 

deus   ex   machina

          and bails everyone out of trouble. The     ● ● the last, implausible scene. And that,   Molière seems to imply, is the point.  Setting: Change the setting of a story. If                   it to a small town or jungle or vice-versa.

  Likewise, if the action takes place in the   present, change it to the past or future. If                 of note, give it one in a way that is more   than decoration.  Character: Transform a character from   male to female or vice-versa. How will that     possible. Can your character be a villain or               looking like one? What’s the least you can       ● the story?  Point of view: Rewrite a scene in a story   from the point of view of another character   (something like the “Rashomon effect”). Or  



Satire 27. Screenplays ●

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Song lyrics

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To poke fun at, to parody, to satirize, to exaggerate, to ridicule, to point out the absurdity of a social issue.

This allows you to poke fun at different aspects in life such as people, government, politics, facts, tragic events. To make a social commentary by pointing out the absurdity or hypocrisy of a current social issue (ex.

Political Correctness, Gender Roles, Nationalism/Patriotism, Ignorance etc.) In the most basic terms, a screenplay is a 90-120 page document written in Courier 12pt font on 8 1/2" x 11" bright white three-hole punched paper. In our case we would make this much shorter. To the can describe, Often people powerful have emotions a audience. and to emote, react ways… to both powerful reactions to elicit music the effect of in on the a music the reaction visceral, and the listener. moods, from lyrics change a scene by adding senses other than   sight and hearing.  ● Dialogue: Take a scene in a novel or play   and change the level or mode of language:   how would the characters speak if they   were from another region or social class?  ● the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues. ● Often shows the “flipside” of an social  issue to draw attention to the absurdity of  the prevailing sentiment.  ● Notable satirists include Jonathan Swift,  Voltaire, The Simpsons, Matt Stone and  Trey Parker, Family Guy, Sascha Baron  Cohen, Jon Stewart, Stephen Colbert  Satirical Techniques  Satirical Techniques #2  Link to The Onion  Link to Private Eye (UK)  Link to The Spoof  ● A screenplay can be an original piece, or  based on a true story or previously written  ● ● ● piece, like a novel, stage play or newspaper  article.

At its heart, a screenplay is a  blueprint for the film it will one day  become.

Professionals on the set including  the producer, director, set designer and  actors all translate the screenwriter's vision  using their individual talents.

Since the  creation of a film is ultimately a  collaborative art, the screenwriter must be  aware of each person's role and as such, the  script should reflect the writer's knowledge.  ●   Like poetry, Song lyrics generally describe some aspect or experience of being human. And , as such, they can employ all of the poetic devices described below.

  Often song lyrics follow a rhythm and rhyme scheme (something that may be absent in free verse poetry).

  The very basic structure of song lyrics includes verses, a bridge, and a chorus, which are often structured thusly:  



Poetry 30.

Radio broadcast 31.

Text messages 32.

Websites 33. Forums/chat rooms 34.

Service Announceme nt Public

● ● ●

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Verse #1-Chorus-Verse #2-Chorus-Bridge-(possible instrumental piece like a guitar solo)-outtro Chorus.

  Genres include: Rock, Metal, Hip-hop,   Dance, Techno, Folk, Rap, Country, Classic etc.

  ● ● To describe, to emote, to offer insight into a complex idea, to explore the human condition, to use figurative language to explain a difficult concept. The central message, or the human experience being explored in a poem, is often called the


of the poem.


thematic statement

is the conclusions, or insights a poem may make about a specific human experience. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Poetry relies on a range of poetic devices to  achieve it’s goal; these devices can be  broadly categorized as:   1)


(rhyme scheme/ rhythm,  stanza patterns, free verse etc.)  2)

Figurative Language

(metaphor,  paradox, allusion, simile, symbol, imagery  etc.)  3)

Sound Devices

(cacophony, alliteration,  onomatopoeia, rhyme (again!)  4)


(speaker, perspective, tone, irony  etc.) 

Poems are rarely literal

… instead they  tend to use creative and descriptive  language to explore, share or illuminate an  aspect of the human experience.

Instead of  saying “It was a sad day”, a poet might  describe “Dark clouds hung over the  greying pavements/Hushed and sloppy  leaves caught/in paralyzed puddles.” 


poems describe something; 


poems tell stories.  A beginner’s Guide to Writing a Poem  ●   ●

To socialize.

To share opinions, to explore a topic, to efficiently get a wide range of people together (virtually) to discuss a topic of mutual interest.

To inform, to warn, to draw attention to a matter of public important/concern. 15


Post Cards To share, to socialize, to offer an update on a vacation and the experiences one is having. 36.


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Post cards generally have three aspects to their structure: 1) PICTURE SIDE: A picture of something indicative of the place being visited by the writer.

For example, The Eiffel Tower in Paris, or a tranquil beach in Thailand. There may be print (on the picture side, or with Written Side, which identifies and/or describes the picture.) 2) WRITTEN SIDE: On the reverse side, a space for writing a brief message


Usually this is one-half of the written side. Depending on the hand-writing of the writer, there is usually only room for a brief update and some pleasantries here. 3) WRITTEN SIDE: A place for writing the address of the intended recipient.

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To entertain To satirize society; to draw attention to social absurdity, conventions or traditions. Political Cartoons: To provide a quick witty comment on a current political situation. More and more, Post Cards have become something that is sent via email, facebook, instagram, etc.

as these platforms cut out the delivery time required for surface mail. How to Write a PostCard ● Entertainment: cartoons which entertain (“Peanuts”, “Calvin and Hobbes”, “The Far Side”) often use a combination of panels, drawing, characters and word bubbles to convey a quick and witty account of an event or human experience. 37.

Charts and Graphs

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To inform in a graphic, easy to understand, manner. To provide an efficient and visual way to compare a lot of collected data. Satire: Political cartoons are often a single panel.

They do not rely on regularly recurring characters as a serialized cartoon might

instead they offer an enlightened, satirical look at current political figures and situations through a combination of hyperbole, irony, drawing, word bubbles, labels and puns, among other satirical tools. Examples of a wide range of Political Cartoonists How to analyze/write Political Cartoons

Charts often include data in a visual, easy to understand way.

Often this information

is comparative (ex.

The number of students from each different country at ISB). They can also be used to ascertain trends which may anticipate future outcomes. 16

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Charts include many conventions including labels, X and Y axes, scaled numbers and a visual aspect. Types of charts include Pie Charts, Histograms, Bar Chart and Line Charts. 38.

Appeals 39. Commentary

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To offer an intellectual, emotional and personal response to a piece of literature or text type, to appreciate the literary, rhetorical and linguistic devices and author has used, and the effects they have.

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Commentaries on works of literature or other text types often analyze a work of literature (poem, prose passage etc.) or a non-literary text type (advertisement, editorial, brochure, diary entry). They often include an intro, which introduce the main message of the passage, and then several body paragraphs that highlight the stylistic devices the passage depends upon.

These could include structure, figurative language, rhetorical devices, sound devices, imagery (word and visual), purpose, intended audience, tone


the final paragraph of a commentary often concludes by summing up the main message and purpose of the passage. 40.

Essay 41.

Travel Writing 42.

Parody 43.

Short stories 44.

Novel 45.

Facebook Post

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Mainly to socialize (as part of the “social network) According to creator, Mark Zukerberg, Facebook was created "to make the world more open and connected” (Feb 5, 2012) To make social communication more efficient. To share interests, articles, likes, photos, ideas,

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events, social life etc. AUDIENCE: variable according to the settings the profile owner chooses, but ostensibly only A PERSONAL PROFILE: which contains personal information about the profile owner including work history, jobs, relationship status, likes, photos, favourites, a record of posts/communications etc. LANGUAGE: specific grammatical rules are not always observed on Facebook posts. Instead, the emphasis is on quick, efficient communication. 17



the friends you “accept” should be able to see your whole profile page.

There are settings which allow anyone access to your profile. Increasingly, Facebook has been used to advertise and market products.

Companies understand the attraction many 18-29 year olds have to Facebook and use it as a tool to attract consumers.

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Short hand terms such as LOL (“laugh out loud”), TTYL (“Talk To You Later”), GTG (“Got To Go”), BRB (“Be Right Back”), YOLO (“You Only Live Once”) are common. Communications threads are developed as friends join in conversations. Users are encouraged to “like”, “comment” or “share” posts.

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to report the recent death of a person , typically along with an account of the person's life, those who survive the deceased, and information about the upcoming funeral . To briefly, and publically, commemorate the dead. AUDIENCE: the general public; usually of a local community or city. An Obituary is usually published in the “Classified Advertisements” section of a local newspaper.

The newspapers usually charge a fee for the publication of an obituary. Link to example of Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/leadingbyexample

Usually written by a family member or someone close to the family (though

funeral homes will write obituaries for a fee). The language is very straightforward and

● ● ●

factual. The tone is meant to remain factual, subdued and relatively unemotive (i.e.

An obituary is not written in the grandiose, emotional language of a eulogy – a speech given during a funeral) Obituaries commonly include the following:

Full name (some people put a maiden name in parenthesis); Date of death; Where the person was living at the time of death; Date of birth; Birthplace; Key survivors (spouse, children) and their names; Time, date, place of memorial or burial services (if you want the public invited)

They may also include:

Cause of death; Biographical information, life story, or major life events (covering as much or as little as you'd like); Survivors who are grandchildren, siblings, nieces and nephews, friends, or pets; Memorial tribute information, such as "in lieu of flowers, donations may be made to such-and-such hospice or such-and-such nonprofit organization"



Eulogy An, often emotional speech, given on at the funeral or wake of someone who has passed away. * to recollect; to commemorate; to remember; to celebrate the life of someone who many people cared for; to highlight; to elicit love, laughter, tears, appreciation, smiles from the audience.

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Link to an example of an obituary: http://abcnewspapers.com/obituary-placemen ts-example-and-instructions/ Often given by a member of the family, or someone very close to the deceased. Tone: can vary according to the personality of the speaker


but often is solemn, commemorative.

Can also be humourous in an attempt to celebrate the positive memories of the deceased


but, overall, a eulogy shows deep care and a sense of loss. May use quotes, poetry from outside sources. Often refers to memories and positive events from the deceased’s life


and an invitation as to how the deceased should be remembered. Link: http://www.write-out-loud.com/free-sample-eu logies.html


Study collections