Lesson Plan on EnergyProduction

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2016-2017
Henderson Collegiate
Plan
Teacher: Friedlander
Science Lesson
Unit: Astronomy
Assessment Question
Which process produces the energy
that allows the stars of the universe to
radiate visible light?
a. Convection
b. Nuclear fusion
c. Insolation
d. Radioactive decay
Lesson #: 75
Lesson Date: 1/26/17
Exit Ticket Questions
Include exemplar answers
1. The following table summarizes two
nuclear processes. Which energy
process represents nuclear fusion?
a. Energy Process A
b. Energy Process B
c. Both Energy Processes A and B
d. Neither Energy Process A or B
Enduring Understanding/
Daily Question
Fusion is all about US.
Fission is all about the I.
2. After our class debate, what is your
stance on the use of nuclear energy
as a source of electricity in the
United States? (Check the box next
to the answer you most agree with.)
a. I am for the use of nuclear energy
b. I am against the use of nuclear
energy
c.
I believe more research is needed
to make a decision
Objective
Criteria for Success/Procedural Understanding
Objective: SWBAT assess the risks and benefits of  Compare nuclear energy produced by stars
transitioning towards the use of nuclear energy in
with traditional combustion energy
the United States.
 Differentiate between nuclear fusion and
nuclear fission

Debate the benefits and consequences of
Conceptual Understanding:
investing in nuclear energy
Traditionally we get our electricity through
combustion, burning a fossil fuel in the
presence of oxygen to produce energy.
Nuclear power plants can produce a greater
amount of energy by splitting apart heavy
atoms into smaller in a reactor. The sun and
stars can produce a still greater amount of
energy via nuclear fusion, two atoms fusing
together to form a larger nucleus.
Notes/Reminders
Instructional Goal
Address side conversations or students talking out at
the wrong time by:
 Resetting the expectation whole group
 Using a tone change and executing a sideline or
send out when a student then violates the
expectation
 Using an anonymous correction if you can't tell
where the noise is coming from
Do Now (8 min)
- Spiral of previous skills
- Prime students for today’s
lesson
Include written directions
EXEMPLAR ANSWERS
and work habits
Above and beyond
1. Using the map on the right, Draw an X
on the region of the Earth that is rotating
at the fastest speed. Draw an O on the
region of the Earth rotating at the slowest
speed.
2. What point on the Planet
experiences the greatest amount
of gravitational pull?
a. The Poles
b. The equator
c. The northern hemisphere
d. All points on the Earth receive
the same gravitational pull
3. Begin reading and annotating the text below.
To this point, we have discussed how the Earth was formed and how the Earth moves—but
the Earth is dependent on something very important—energy production. Earth is able to
sustain life in part, because energy from the Sun helps to power many of the essential
processes that exist on Earth (photosynthesis, the water cycle, etc.)! In order to learn how
the Sun produces energy, we have to first talk about all of the ways in which energy can be
made. The first of which is combustion.
Combustion Reaction Defined
Chemical reactions are very common. A chemical reaction is any process by which the
atoms of one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances. There are
numerous types of chemical reactions. They are typically classified by what happens during
the reaction to the reactants as well as the type of product that is formed as a result of the
reaction. A combustion reaction is a reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with
oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light. CO
Examples of Combustion Reactions
Combustion reactions are very common because oxygen readily reacts with many
substances. One combustion reaction that has been very important throughout history is the
burning of coal. Coal is composed of carbon. Whenever the coal is heated, it reacts with
oxygen in the atmosphere and burns, giving off a large amount of heat. This is why coal has
been used for a long time as a source of heat and energy.
Today’s Mountain Climber will discuss two more ways that energy is produced – Nuclear
Fission and Nuclear Fusion!
Reading Check: Combustion reactions always involve
a.
b.
c.
d.
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Carbon
Nitrogen
I would say add an above and beyond (because you’ve been forgetting to add it to your LPs), but this
one seems to be a hybrid already with question #3 being a reading. That said, always be thinking about
your Ians or your Chaes or your other high-flyers who will often finish with spare time. How are you
pushing your top while not sacrificing your middle?
Oral Drill ( 2 min)
- Script the questions and
correct responses
- Include vocabulary and
spiraled content daily
Intro to New
Material
(10 min)
-
-
-
Include the
conceptual and
procedural
understanding
Include the
reading
passage/chart/gr
aph/map/etc. that
you will be using
to deliver
information
Script CFU you
will ask about the
mini lesson
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
What type of radiation travels from the Sun to the Earth? Shortwave, ultraviolet
What type of weather is associated with a high pressure system clear and cool
What type of radiation is emitted by the Earth longwave, infrared
What degree of latitude is the equator? 0 degrees
Non-point source pollution washed off a large area is called runoff
What gases are responsible for acid rain? Sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide
Model of the solar system with the sun at the center heliocentric
Cloudy, rainy weather are associated with which type of pressure system? Low Pressure
How does the speed of the Earth change as it gets closer to the sun? Faster
What is the wobbling motion of the Earth’s axis called precession
Due to precession the Earth’s seasons reverse ever what number of years? 13,000
What properties allow a surface to reflect the most solar radiation? light and smooth
Hook/Vegas
Script
Indicate when in the
lesson it will be used
TS: On the bulletin board outside my classroom, there is a
picture explaining that our Sun is kind of like a nuclear power
plant.
Framing the
Lesson
Must Include
 Connection to
EU/DQ
 Conceptual and
Procedural
Can include:
 CFU’s of
background info to
understand today’s
objectives
TS: But it might be more accurate to say that our Sun actually
works as a kind of reverse nuclear power plant. Today’s text is
going to start out by
describing how a nuclear
power plant produces energy,
something we’ve already
been introduced to by (PUT
STUDENT GROUP NAMES ON
A STICKY NOTE). Now we’re
going to compare that to the
energy produced by the sun.
Independent Text
TS: Today we are going to look into the difference between the nuclear energy
produced by plants here on Earth and the Sun in space. Then we’re going to have a
class debate on whether we should pursue nuclear energy as an alternative source to
fossil fuels. Go ahead and take 8 minutes to read through Mountain Climber #75.
Procedural Lap Lens: (annotations checklist)
- Circle new vocabulary
- Underline key ideas
- Write marginal notes to summarize paragraphs
Nuclear fission is the process in
which a the large nucleus of an atom
splits into two smaller nuclei with the
release of energy. In other words,
fission the process in which a nucleus
is divided into two or more fragments,
and neutrons and energy are
released.
The mass changes and associated
energy changes in nuclear reactions
are significant. For example, the energy released from the nuclear reaction of 1 kg of
uranium is equivalent to the energy released during the combustion of about four billion
kilograms of coal.
The Process – In the simplest form, nuclear fission is the splitting of a nucleus into
fragments which is accompanied by a very large release of energy.
Nuclear Power Plants
Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission
to generate power. The nuclei of uranium
atoms, as well as the nuclei of other large
atoms, can undergo nuclear fission
naturally. The first nuclear fission reaction
discovered involved uranium-235. Nuclear
power plants use uranium-235 nucleus to
undergo fission by hitting them with
neutrons, as shown by the model in the
following diagram.
The figure represents the process of
nuclear fission when a neutron strikes a
uranium-235 nucleus. Barium-141 and
krypton-92 are just two of many possible products of this fission reaction. In fact, scientists
have identified more than 200 different product isotopes from fission of a uranium-235
nucleus.
Nuclear Chain Reaction
Each fission of uranium-235 releases additional neutrons, as shown in this figure. If one
fission reaction produces two neutrons, these two neutrons can cause two additional
fissions. If those two fissions release four neutrons, those four neutrons split other nuclei,
and could then produce four more fissions,
and so on, resulting in a nuclear chain
reaction as shown in this figure.
This situation in the figure below is one
type of nuclear chain reaction; a continuous
series of nuclear fission reactions, a selfsustaining process in which one reaction
initiates the next.
The number of fissions and the amount of
energy released can increase rapidly. In an
uncontrolled chain reaction, huge amounts
of energy are released very quickly, as
shown here.
In fact, the tremendous energy of
an atomic bomb is the result of an
uncontrolled chain reaction. In contrast,
nuclear power plants use controlled chain reactions. The energy released from the nuclei in
the uranium fuel is used to generate electrical energy.
What Powers the Sun?
Without our sun, life on Earth wouldn't exist. It's the light and heat given off by it that allows
us to thrive on our planet. Yet the sun itself, our nearest star, is nearly 93 million miles away
from the earth. To be able to provide light and heat all the way out to our planet and even
beyond it requires a massive amount of energy. So the sun has to be hot. Really, really hot.
The core of the sun extends from the very center of the out to about 0.2 solar radii. Inside
this zone, pressures are million of times more than the surface of the Earth, and the
temperature reaches more than 15 million Kelvin (that’s 26,000,000˚F!). The core of the Sun
serves as the site of nuclear fusion.
Nuclear fusion is a reaction where two atomic nuclei fuse together to create a larger
nucleus and in the process release an enormous amount of energy, several times that of
fission. You can view a fusion reaction like a car collision you might see in a movie. Two
cars slam into each other and get stuck permanently together while little pieces of them go
flying off in every direction. Nuclear fusion is much the same where the cars are atomic
nuclei and the little pieces are various particles and waves given off. Within our Sun, 600
million tons of hydrogen are being converted into helium every second! This reaction
releases a tremendous amount of heat and energy.
Nuclear Fusion in Stars
The main sources of nuclear fusion in our universe are stars like our sun. Every star in the
sky is powered by some form of nuclear fusion, including the carbon fusion cycle, the triplealpha process, and the type of fusion that commonly occurs in our sun, proton-proton
fusion. The various forms of nuclear fusion are differentiated by the initial atoms undergoing
the process and the atom resulting from the fusion.
Reading Check Question:
Fusion, Fission, Fission, and Fusion
TS: So along with being an important reaction for sustaining life on Earth, nuclear fusion also
happens to look really cool. Check out the following video, and have your pencil ready to take
notes on any points you missed or want to stamp from the text.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W1ZQ4JBv3-Y
GP Work Habits
TurnTalk: Take 20 seconds to discuss your answers to the reading check question with your
partner.
Tall Hands: Define a nuclear fusion reaction and a nuclear fission reaction in your own words.
Procedural Lap Lens:
TS: For my first lap, I am looking for everyone to stamp the key differences between fusion
and fission in their writing.
Conceptual Lap Lens:
TS: For my second lap, I want to see you use these definitions to create your own original
equation or diagram demonstrating each type of reaction.
Highest Leverage
GP problem
Problem and Exemplar
Answer
*If this is a section
of the MI, please
indicate
Anticipated
Misconception
Response to Data
*for MC, name the misconception
for each answer choice
*for main idea, write what you will
look for to see if they are taking
shortcuts or misunderstand the text
Write an equation or
diagram that shows the
process of nuclear
fusion and fission.
a. Fusion:
b. Fission:
The misconception would be
that the only difference is
atoms splitting or merging.
It’s also important to note the
different sizes of atoms in
play. Fusion will always have
the largest atom formed by
smaller atoms, fission will
always have a larger atom
splitting into smaller atoms.
Both equations should also
show a release of energy to
be technically accurate
If on track:
Proceed directly to IP.
If 50% or less are off track:
Showcall the exemplar, have
students name why it is
strong
If more than 50% are off
track:
Have students draw the
diagram version, showing
smaller atoms merging into a
big one for fusion and a big
one splitting into smaller
ones for fission
Written/Discussion Questions
Guided Practice
(5 min)
-
Script questions
How will you
stamp the
conceptual
understanding?
indicate if the question will be written (W) slates (S)
discussion (D) cold call (CC) Turn and Talk (TT)
Partner Problems (PP)
Exemplar Answers
(script what you want from kids)
Can include “stretch it” questions as a reward for the
correct answer or the prompts you will use in a discussion
1.
In your own words, explain the difference between nuclear fusion and
fission.
Fission: Large, heavy atom splits to form 2+ smaller atoms and energy.
Fusion: small, lighter atoms merge together to form a single heavier atom
and energy.
2.
Through which process does the Sun create energy?
a. Nuclear fusion
b. Nuclear fission
c. Combustion
d. Electromagnetic shock
3.
Write an equation or diagram that shows the process of nuclear fusion and
fission.
a. Fusion:
Atom + atom = larger atom + energy
b. Fission:
Larger atom + neutron = smaller atoms + energy
IP Work Habits
- Checklists
- Feedback Codes
TS: We have a shorter Solo Climb today to make time for our debate.
Procedural Lap Lens:
TS: For my first lap, I will be looking for full markup of questions before providing feedback
for multiple choice 1 and 2.
Conceptual Lap Lens:
TS: For my second lap, I will be looking for your analysis of why we are interested in
researching nuclear energy despite its risks. Your answer should include at least one piece of
textual evidence.
Highest Leverage
IP problem
Problem and Exemplar
Answer
1. The sun and other stars
are powered by nuclear
fusion. Which of these
statements correctly
describes the process
Anticipated
Misconceptions
The misconception would
be for students to see
nuclear fusion and fission
as total opposites, with
one process releasing
energy and one absorbing
Response to Data
If on track:
Proceed to debate
If 50% or less are off
track:
Showcall the
misconception, have
that occurs during
nuclear fusion in stars?
a. Four hydrogen
nuclei combine to
become a helium
nucleus, absorbing
energy.
b. Four helium nuclei
combine to
become a
hydrogen nucleus,
releasing energy.
c. Four hydrogen
nuclei combine
to become a
helium nucleus,
releasing energy.
d. Four helium nuclei
combine to
become a
hydrogen nucleus,
absorbing energy.
Independent
Practice
(5 min)
-
-
Define the
assignment and
how long
students will
work
energy. It is important for
them to understand (and
show in work habits) that
they are both just
different processes for
releasing nuclear energy.
another student hit the
homerun disprove
If more than 50% are off
track:
Re-read the text, then
choral response for both
processes releasing
energy (Fusion
combines atoms to
release energy. Fusion
combines atoms to…
Fission splits atoms to
release energy. Fission
splits atoms to…)
Choral response can
also be used to stamp
the fuse vs. split point if
that’s where the
confusion is
What will students be doing to practice the skill independently to synthesize information and
demonstrate higher-level mastery? (Copy and paste from classwork)
Include Exemplar Answers
SOLO CLIMB #75
1. The sun and other stars are powered by nuclear fusion. Which of these
statements correctly describes the process that occurs during nuclear
fusion in stars?
a. Four hydrogen nuclei combine to become a helium nucleus, absorbing
energy.
b. Four helium nuclei combine to become a hydrogen nucleus, releasing
energy.
c. Four hydrogen nuclei combine to become a helium nucleus,
releasing energy.
d. Four helium nuclei combine to become a hydrogen nucleus, absorbing
energy.
2. Matter in a stellar nebula begin to give off heat and light when it reaches a
temperature of 15,000,000 degrees Celsius. Why is this temperature
necessary for a star to begin radiating energy?
a. Carbon nuclei remain stable until high temperatures are reached.
b. Hydrogen atoms require high temperatures for the nuclei to fuse.
c. High temperatures provide the energy needed for combustion to begin
d. High temperature are needed to increase the kinetic energy of heavy
atoms
3. Given that combustion reactions are typically safer than nuclear fission
reactions, why do you think we still use nuclear fission in power plants?
The energy released from the nuclear reaction of 1 kg of uranium is equivalent to the
energy released during the combustion of about four billion kilograms of coal. The
pollution released is also easier to contain. Nuclear energy also shows more potential
for growth with research, as we are still discovering processes to produce ever
increasing amounts of energy.
Nuclear Power
Debate (20 min)
TS: We’re going to look into the pro’s and cons of nuclear energy through a couple of videos.
Each video will make several points defending their point of view, so make sure you are
actively listening and ready to form your own opinion based on the facts you are given.
Pros of Nuclear Energy:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVbLlnmxIbY
Cons of Nuclear Energy:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HEYbgyL5n1g
TS: You will have 4 minutes to write your response to question 1, and then we can jump right
into the debate!
1. Should the United States continue to pursue nuclear energy as an alternative to burning
fossil fuels? Defend your answer in the space below:
2. Use the remainder of the space on this page to take any additional notes on our class
debate of nuclear energy.
Closing/ Summary
(3 min)
-
Include what
students will do
or say to
internalize the
before students
begin an exit
ticket
How will you have students summarize the lesson? What will you do/ask to “make it stick”?
TS: Go ahead and knock out the Hangdog Question for today. After you finish
question 1, you will have the chance to vote on whether you support or
approve of nuclear energy based on today’s results, and I’ll let you know the
results!
1. The following table summarizes two nuclear processes. Which energy
process represents nuclear fusion?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Energy Process A
Energy Process B
Both Energy Processes A and B
Neither Energy Process A or B
2. After our class debate, what is your stance on the use of nuclear energy
as a source of electricity in the United States? (Check the box next to
the answer you most agree with.)
a. I am for the use of nuclear energy
b. I am against the use of nuclear energy
c. I believe more research is needed to make a decision
Student responses will vary
Exit Ticket – Method of Data Collection:
Open Response Exemplar Answer:
Tallies (if applicable)
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