Riesterer

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18.02.2013
Technology Leadership
in
Pumped Storage Plants
by
Increasing Flexibility & Reliability
from the
Manufacturers point of view
J.C. Riesterer
www.andritz.com
ANDRITZ HYDRO
is a global supplier of
electromechanical
systems and services
(“From Water to Wire") for
hydropower plants.
The company is a leader
in the world market for
hydraulic power
generation.
1 Gates
2 Penstocks
3 Inlet valve
4 Turbine
5 Generator
6 Automation, Control & Protection
7 Medium voltage switchgear
8 Power transformer
9 High voltage switchgear (GIS)
10 Transmission line
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www.andritz.com
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18.02.2013
Francis reversible pump-turbines
Andritz Hydro has:
Supplied more than 380 units
Installed approx. 30,000 MW
Over 50 years of experience
Basic Requirements:
 Full automatic operation
 All possible modes of operation
 No cavitation & low vibration
 High efficiency & reliability
Future Requirements:
 High number of starts and stops
 Quickest change between all
operation modes
 Highest robustness and availability
www.andritz.com
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Pumped Storage Equipment is comprehensive High Tech Plant
Technology
Static
Frequency
Converter
Automation (SFC)
turbine
Motor
generator
and
Control
Torque
converter
Penstock
and
Gates
Spherical
valve
4
pump
Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
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18.02.2013
Operator needs from manufacturer
Technology Leadership
To meet future grid and operation requirements
This means:
Further increase of flexibility
Further increase of robustness
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Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
Example of a typical 300 MW pump-turbine unit:
The weight corresponds to the weigth of 500 cars
The power corresponds to the power of 3000 cars
Numerical Flow simulation:
Approx. 10 Mio calc. points for a CFD Tu computation
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Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
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18.02.2013
Increase the flexibility of Pumped Storage Units is now required :
 to start and stop more frequently the units to follow the power demands in the grid
 for fast change over times (full load in less than 30 s)
 to have larger storage capacity
Manufacturers followed this demand with increased R&D tasks
 to develop Variable Speed Units ( e. g. Goldisthal since 2002)
to operate in hydraulic short circuit ( e.g. Geesthacht since 1997)
 to use Full Size Converter Technology for any speed range
 to allow operation range of the Pump-Turbine Units from 0-100 % Power
To meet New Grid Code requirements (Double Peak Test)
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Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
More flexibility by using Variable Speed
Example Goldisthal, Germany
In operation since 2002
 4x 265 MW Reversible Pump-Turbine units
 2 units with variable speed supplied by AH
 Advantages
 regulation of pump power
 fast dynamic response times
 higher efficiency for variable head
All Generators designed &
supplied by Andritz Hydro
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Pump-Turbine common
design and supply by
Andritz Hydro & Voith
Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
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18.02.2013
Faster change over times:
by using short circuit operation
Already in operation since 1997 in the
1958 built pump turbine station
Geesthacht:
Increasing operation hours from
3000 to 8000 hours per year
Modern example for the short circuit
Ternary pumped storage unit Kops 2
To and from headwater
to tailwater
Hydraulic short circuit
Partly to headwater,
partly to turbine
Hydraulic short circuit
Partly to tailwater,
partly to pump
from tailwater
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Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
Faster change over times:
Example Kops 2, Austria
3Ternary units (3-machine sets)
In operation since 2009
3 x 200 MVA / 180 MW Tu / 150 MW Pu
Pelton Turbines
supplied by Andritz Hydro
500 (925) rpm
One of the fastest PSP in the world
Full load in 20-30 s ( Tu and Pu mode)
Generators
supplied by Andritz Hydro
Stator and bearings
supplied by Alstom
Pump and hydraulic torque
converter
supplied by Voith
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18.02.2013
Faster change over time to meet future requirements
Request from the “Grid - Transmission Code”:
Challenge of a reversible pump turbine to pass
the “double peak test” (e.g. Vianden 11)
Only possible with powerful frequency converters
Double peak test
Example:
Change over from full
load in turbine mode to
full load in pump mode:
Usual time in the past:
420 s
Fastest time after
optimization:
< 300 s
Request < 300 sec
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Benefits of converter technology for pumped storage plants:
They allow variable speed and faster change of
operation mode for pump storage units
 increase flexibility in plant management
 increase efficiency in operation
 Increase benefits of the PSP
Source: ABB
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Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
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18.02.2013
New development to achieve faster change over times:
by improvement of all pumped storage plant
components including new development of
automatic time steps from sequential to
parallel
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Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
Increase the Operation Range from 0-100%
Is a challenge in the hydraulic and
mechanical turbine development:
Turbines designed for frequency control and grid
stability -> running more often partial load
Forces on runner change very often between full
load, partial load and no load
High dynamic forces in no load and low partial load
Fatigue through frequent starts
Last developments due to focused R&D
•
•
•
Highly sophisticated tools for
mechanical analysis takes care of
Start/Stop
No-load
CFD: time-dependent pressure forces
FEM: lifetime analysis
Target
• Robust runner design for operation
in partial load
• Estimation of lifetime for new
components
• and estimation of residual lifetime for
components already in operation
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Measured blade stress
Startup/SNL
full load
SNL
Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
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18.02.2013
Robust Design:
Centrifugal force of one pole (mass 11t)
at rated speed ... 7.000t
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE REFLECTION
1 Mercedes bus
80 Taurus
Locomotives
at runaway … 23.000t
at load rejection …… 18.000t
50 fully loaded 747
Centrifugal force on all
10 poles incl. rotor hub
...230.000t
10 Space shuttles incl.
carrier rockets
Technology leadership in calculation of fatigue stressed
components
Example from the VGB – Power Tech Project Group
Example: Pole end plate of a generator
Huge loads and a high number of load cycles influence the
lifetime
 High standard material
 Design optimization due to modern
FEM and lifetime calculation
 Robust Design
Expected lifetime of this part is now
100 times longer than before
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Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
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18.02.2013
New Trend to increase the flexibility of Pumped Storage Plants
Development of smaller pump turbines with full size converter
Advantages:
 Smaller reservoirs
 Number of Locations of pumped storage are increased
(close to wind farms)
 Standardized concept for the complete pumped storage unit
 Compact dimensions
 Broad regulation flexibility
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Andritz Hydro Ravensburg February 2013
Technology Leadership / Summary Pumped Storage Plants (PSP)
PSP are already very flexible and reliable Plants.
Without these plants we would already face blackouts
The manufacturers highly skilled and experienced engineers are
working to increase the flexibility and the reliability of the equipment
PSP are the only proven and economical solutions not only to store
surplus of electrical energy but also to react within seconds to load
fluctuations in the grid.
These fluctuations have increased and will further
increase tremendously due to the growing volatile wind
and solar electricity share in the EU grid.
Modernization and fast implementation of new PSP is a
must !
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18.02.2013
What do we need ?
 A strong and predictable energy market
in Europe will enhance the leadership of
the industry globally
 EU-R&D and innovation programs need
to support hydropower technology
 Highest education standards for highly
skilled engineering jobs in R&D, for
design & manufacturing and for the
operation.
The EU was a pioneer in PSP in the past and should
remain know-how leader in the future
Thank you for your attention
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www.andritz.com
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