SAN-Technologies

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Storage Area
Network
Technologies
November 2014
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Course objectives
After completing this course, you should be able to:
• Explain disk connectivity options and disk technologies
• Identify storage area network (SAN) host components and technologies, including the HP Virtual
Connect FlexFabric
• Discuss advanced Fibre Channel technologies such as Fibre Channel addressing, zoning, fabric
segmentation, and quality of service (QoS)
• Explain iSCSI SAN and technologies such as Net RAID
• Discuss SAN security
• Explain data protection terms and technologies
• Discuss storage area network design
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Disk technologies
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Parallel SCSI
• A SCSI standard established by ANSI in 1986, but still evolving
• The Common Command Set (CCS) was developed in parallel with the ANSI SCSI-1, SCSI-2, SCSI-3,
and SCSI-4 standards
• The SCSI-1 standard was too permissive and allowed too many vendor-specific options
• The result was incompatibility between products from different vendors, which made for confusion on:
− Speed and feed: Fast, Ultra, Ultra2, narrow, and wide
− Command sets: Common Command Set, Enhanced Command Set
− Termination: Passive, Active, Forced Perfect Termination
• Ultra320 and Ultra640 (AKA Fast-320) are the last offerings
IMPORTANT: When referring to SCSI disks, you need to know specific details about the interface type and
signaling method.
NOTICE: Ultra640 standard reached the limits of speed/cable lengths, that made it impractical for more than two
devices. Most manufacturers skipped over Ultra640 for Serial Attached SCSI instead.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Serial ATA (SATA)
• Hot-plug and Native Command Queuing (NCQ) support
• Transfer rates up to 300 MB/s for SATA2 and 600 MB/s for SATA3, using half-duplex
• SATA3.1 introduced support for Solid State Disks (SSD) and the Zero-Power Optical Disk Drive
• SATA3.2 combines SATA commands with the PCI Express interface to achieve device speeds up to
16 Gb/s
• Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF) is 1.2 million hours
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Serial Attached SCSI
• SAS uses the full-duplex architecture, effectively doubling the transfer speeds
• The current SAS standard provides speed of 12 Gb/s, with a maximum theoretical speed of 16 Gb/s
• The maximum number of attached devices is 128 (compared to 16 for Parallel SCSI)
• A single SAS domain can address up to 65,535 devices using a fanout expander
• The MTBF is increased to 1.6 million hours
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Near-line SAS
• Serial Attached SCSI provides backward compatibility with SATA
• The near-line SAS drive is combination of a regular SATA drive with a SAS interface
• The near-line SAS drives enable all of the enterprise features of SAS
• Because near-line SAS uses SATA drives, performance and MTBF are limited by the SATA
technology
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Native Command Queuing
What is Native Command Queuing (NCQ)?
• NCQ is a technology designed to increase the performance of SATA drives.
• Disks are enabled to internally optimize the order in which read/write commands are executed.
• NCQ is reducing the amount of unnecessary HDD head movement.
• NCQ is supported on the HP Smart Array P400, P400i, E500, and P800 disk controllers.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
NCQ performance gains
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
SAS domains
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Solid State Drives
• Based on Flash memory technology
• Use the same communication protocols as
magnetic disk drives
• Based on two technologies
− Single-Level Cell (SLC)
− Multi-Level Cell (MLC)
Solid State Drive functional diagram
NOTE: Solid State Hybrid Drives (SSHDs) combine the large capacity of HDD with the speed of the SSD
used for caching to improve performance and keep the price low.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Single-level cell
• As the name suggests, SLC Flash stores one bit
value per cell, which basically is a voltage level
− The bit value is interpreted as a “0” or a “1”
• Because there are only two states, it represents
only one bit value
− Each bit can have a value of “programmed” or
“erased”
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Value
State
0
Programmed
1
Erased
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Multi-level cell
• An MLC cell can represent multiple values
• These values can be interpreted as four distinct
states: 00, 01, 10, or 11
Value
State
00
Fully programmed
01
Partially programmed
10
Partially erased
11
Fully erased
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Comparing SLC and MLC
Characteristic
SLC
MLC
Density
16 Mb
32 Mb
64 Mb
Read speed
100ns
120ns
150ns
Block size
64 Kb
128 Kb
Architecture
x8
X8/x16
Endurance
100,000 cycles
10,000 cycles
Industrial
Commercial
Operating temperature
NOTE: MLC is less desirable for use in server
storage.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
SSD wear leveling
What is wear leveling?
• Technology used to increase the overall
endurance of NAND-based SSDs
• Each NAND cell supports up to 100,000
read/write operations
• Wear leveling continuously remaps logical SCSI
blocks to different physical pages in the NAND
array, ensuring that reads and writes remain
equally distributed
• Logical-to-physical mapping is maintained as a
pointer array in the high-speed DRAM on the
SSD controller
− This index is then copied to a special region of
NAND to enable rebuilding of the map in the
case of a sudden power loss
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
SSD over-provisioning
• On high-end SSDs, it is possible to over-provision by 25% above the stated storage capacity
• Distributes the total number of reads and writes across a larger population of NAND blocks and pages
over time
• The SSD controller gets additional buffer space for managing page writes and NAND block erases
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
SmartSSD Wear Gauge
NOTE: SmartSSD Wear Gauge is part of the Array Configuration Utility (ACU) in the HP Intelligent
Provisioning that is embedded in HP ProLiant Gen8 and newer servers.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Disk enclosures
• A disk enclosure is a specialized casing designed
to hold and power disk drives while providing a
mechanism to allow them to communicate to one
or more separate computers
• In enterprise terms, “disk enclosure” refers to a
larger physical disk chassis
• Disk enclosures do not have RAID controllers
• Disk enclosures can be connected directly to the
hosts
HP D2700 6Gb Drive Enclosure
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fault-tolerant cabling
Fault-tolerant cabling allows any drive
enclosure to fail or be removed while
maintaining access to other enclosures
• P2000 G3 Modular Storage Array (MSA)
• Two D2700 6Gb enclosures
• The I/O module As on the drive enclosures are
shaded green
• The I/O module Bs on the drive enclosures are
shaded red
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Straight-through cabling
Straight-through cabling can sometimes
provide increased performance in the array,
it also increases the risk of losing access to
one or more enclosures in the event of an
enclosure failure or removal
• P2000 G3 Modular Storage Array (MSA)
• Two D2700 6Gb enclosures
• The I/O module As on the drive enclosures are
shaded green
• The I/O module Bs on the drive enclosures are
shaded red
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
LUN masking
• Enables host visibility of LUNs within the storage
array
• LUN granularity
• Independent of zoning
• Can be implemented at the host, fabric, or array
level
• Used for data security
• Selective Storage Presentation on HP 3PAR and
EVA Arrays
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Storage virtualization
HP 3PAR Storage Virtualization
Scheme
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fat (thick) or thin provisioning
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
HP Storage Arrays
Consolidation and performance
HP XP7
EVA
P6000
Storage
HP 3PAR
StoreServ
10000
HP XP
P9500
HP 3PAR
StoreServ
7000
HP
StoreVirtual
4000 Storage
1536 TB maximum
1/10 GbE iSCSI
ports
8 Gb FC ports
4 PB maximum
HP P2000
MSA Array
System
1200TB maximum
384 TB maximum
8 Gb FC ports
1/8 Gb FC ports
720 TB
maximum
10 Gb/sec iSCSI
ports
8 Gb FC ports
6 Gb/sec SAS
ports
1/10 GbE iSCSI
ports
(4) 3PAR 7000
6-core 1.8 GHz
controller nodes
2 PB maximum 247 PB external
storage
3.2 PB maximum 255 PB external maximum
storage
8 Gb FC ports
maximum
10 Gb/sec iSCSI
ports
1/10 Gb/s iSCSI
(8) 3PAR quad-core
ports
2.8GHz P10000
controller nodes
Business continuity and availability
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Storage area network hosts
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
SAN hosts
• Multiple HBAs to connect to different SAN fabrics
• Need to be members of a zone in each fabric
• Need to have visibility to the disk array ports
within the zone to allow them to map storage
presentations
• Might have additional multipath drivers or
software to enable failover and policy-based load
balancing in a redundant fabric SAN design
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Hosts and Fibre Channel
• To communicate with Fibre Channel
infrastructure, the host requires a host bus
adapter (HBA)
• Each HBA port physically connects to the fabric
and becomes visible to the SAN
• Port behavior depends on the HBA driver
configuration and type and on the configuration of
the fabric port
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Converged network adapter
• Converged network adapter (CNA) combines:
− Traditional host bus adapters for Fibre Channel (FC-HBA) and Ethernet network interface cards
(NICs)
− Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) protocol
− Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE)
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
N_Port ID virtualization
What is NPIV?
• N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV) is an industry-standard Fibre Channel protocol that provides a means
to assign multiple Fibre Channel addresses on the same physical link.
• NPIV makes a single Fibre Channel port appear as multiple virtual ports, each having its own N_Port
ID and virtual WWN.
• HP offers an NPIV-based Fibre Channel interconnect option for server blades called Virtual Connect.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
NPIV
• NPIV allows a single HBA, called an “N_Port,” to register multiple World Wide Port Names (WWPNs)
and N_Port identification numbers
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Server virtualization with NPIV
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
HP Virtual Connect Fibre Channel
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
HP Virtual Connect FlexFabric
• Up to four physical functions for each server
blade adapter network port
• The physical function corresponds to the HBA
• Four physical functions share the 10 Gb link
• One of the four physical functions can be defined
as the Fibre Channel HBA, and the remaining
three will act as NICs
• Each physical function has 100% hardware-level
performance, but the bandwidth might be finetuned to quickly adapt to virtual server workload
demands
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Boot from SAN
What is boot from SAN?
The process of booting a server using
external storage devices over a SAN
• Used for server and storage consolidation
• Minimizes server maintenance and reduces
backup time
• Allows for rapid infrastructure changes
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Multipath concept
• Multipath I/O (MPIO) provides automatic path
failover between the server and the disk arrays
• Some multipath solutions provide load balancing
over multiple HBA paths
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Path failover
• Failover is handled by MPIO, and it is supported
via services, drivers, and agents
• It is transparent to the applications
• The administrator has to configure the primary
and alternate paths
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Load balancing
• MPIO provides load balancing across all installed HBAs (ports) in a server
• There are various load-balancing policies, depending on the multipath software:
− Round robin
− Least I/O
− Least bandwidth
− Shortest queue (requests, bytes, service time)
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Microsoft Multi-Port IO
• Uses redundant physical paths to eliminate single points of failure between servers and storage
• Increases data reliability and availability
• Reduces bottlenecks
• Provides fault tolerance and load balancing
• Two components:
− Drivers developed by Microsoft
− Device-specific modules (DSMs) developed by storage vendors to Microsoft standards
NOTICE: Starting with Windows Server 2008, Microsoft provides native multipathing (Microsoft MPIO)
software.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fibre Channel
advanced features
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fibre Channel addressing
• Fibre Channel switch ports use a 24-bit address scheme
− Allows for 16 million addresses
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fibre Channel name and address
• 24-bit addresses are automatically assigned by the topology to remove the overhead of manual
administration
• Unlike the WWN addresses, port addresses are not built-in
• The switch is responsible for assigning and maintaining the port addresses
• The switch maintains the correlation between the port address and the WWN address of the device
on that port
• The Name server is a component of the fabric operating system running on the switch
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fibre Channel port address (1 of 2)
• A 24-bit port address consist of three parts:
− Domain—Bits from 23 to 16
− Area—Bits from 15 to 08
− Port or arbitrated loop physical address (AL_PA)—Bits from 07 to 00
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8 bits
8 bits
8 bits
Domain
Area
Port
239 addresses
256 addresses
256 addresses
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fibre Channel port address (2 of 2)
Domain
Area
Port
• The address of the switch
itself
• 256 possible addresses, but
some bits are reserved
• Only 239 addresses are
actually available
− This means that you can
have up to 239 switches in
your SAN environment
• Provides 256 addresses
• Identifies the individual
FL_Ports supporting loops
• Can be used as the identifier
of a group of F_Ports
• Provides 256 addresses
• Identifies the attached N_ports
and NL_Ports
Available addresses:
239 x 256 x 256 =
15,663,104
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Simple Name Server
• The Name server stores information about all of the devices in the fabric
• An instance of the Name server runs on every Fibre Channel switch in a SAN
• A switch service that stores names, addresses, and attributes for up to 15 minutes and provides them
as required to other devices in the fabric
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
10-bit addressing mode
• The number of physical ports on the switch is limited to 256 by the number of bits in the Area part of
the Fibre Channel address.
• Director switches, such as Brocade DCX and DCX 4, support Virtual Fabric, where the number of
required ports might easily grow to more than 256.
• To support up to 1,024 ports in a Virtual Fabric, use the 10-bit addressing mode.
• The 10-bit addressing mode uses the 8-bit Area_ID and the borrowed upper 2 bits from the AL_PA
portion of the port ID.
8 bits
8 bits
Domain
Area
239 addresses
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1024 addresses
2 bits
6 bits
Port
64 addresses
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Arbitrated loop addressing
• In an arbitrated loop, only one of the three bytes
is used
− The least significant 8 bits
− Known as the AL_PA
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Arbitrated loop order sets
• An ordered set is a group of four transmission
characters.
• An arbitrated loop has several order sets that are
used in:
− Loop arbitration
− Opening of loop circuits
− Closing of loop circuits
• Loop arbitration is a complex process of
transmitting signals (order sets).
• The two types of order sets are:
− Frame delimiters—Exists at the start or the
end of the frame
− Primitive—Order sets without frames
Port Arbitration Activity Example
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fabric flow control
• An Arbitrated Loop uses arbitration, and a switched fabric uses flow control to prevent data overruns
at the receiver side.
• Fibre Channel implements a credit-based flow-control mechanism to prevent frame dropping.
• The transmitter (Tx) can send frames in the amount of the buffer-to-buffer (B2B) credits reported by
the receiver (Rx).
• For each packet sent, the Rx port needs to send an R_Rdy (Receiver_Ready, Fibre Channel
Primitive) signal.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Types of flow control
• Fibre Channel defines two types of flow control:
− Buffer-to-buffer (port to port)
− End-to-end (source to destination)
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fibre Channel class of service
• Fibre Channel defines several classes of service (CoS), which can be used by applications to provide
the optimal type of delivery priority and flow control, depending on the type of application data.
• Each CoS uses a connection-oriented, packet-switched, or quality of service (QoS) communication
strategy.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fabric zoning
• A method of restricting server access to storage
resources that are not allocated to that server
• Similar to LUN masking
• Implemented on the switch
• Operates on the basis of port identification
(WWPN)
• Zoning types:
− Software based—Restricts only the fabric
name service to show only an allowed subset of
devices
− Hardware based—Restricts the actual
communication across a fabric
− Port based—Zoning applied to the switch port
to which a device is connected
− WWN based—Zoning that restricts access by a
51 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
device WWN
Hard and soft zoning
Hard zoning
• A member is identified by its port number
• Known as “hard” zoning
• Enforced by a switch at a hard level
Soft zoning
• A member is identified by its port WWN
• Known as “soft” zoning
• Enforced by the Name server, which returns
filtered responses to port queries
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Software zone enforcement
• The Name server service in the fabric masks the Name server entries that a host should not access.
• When the host logs in to the fabric, it discovers only the unmasked Name server entries.
• Software-enforced zoning has no mechanism that prevents a host from accessing storage.
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Hardware zone enforcement
• Hardware enforcement
− Frame-based
− Session-based
• Performed by the Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) in fabric switches
• A proactive security mechanism
• Every port has a filter that allows only the traffic defined by the zoning configuration to pass through
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Zoning decisions
Zoning by HBA
Zoning by OS
Zoning by application
• Each zone has one HBA (the
initiator)
• Each of the target devices is
added to the zone
• If the HBA also accesses tape
devices, a separate zone is
created for the HBA and the
associated tape devices
• Zoning by HBA limits
disruptions and the number of
fabric change notifications
• The minimum required zoning
method
• Multiple HBAs with the same
operating system are grouped
with the accessed storage
ports
• Prevents the interaction of the
HBAs with incompatible
operating systems
• Combines multiple operating
systems in the same zone
• Allows for potential disruptions
• More susceptible to
administrative errors
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Traffic isolation zones
• Traffic isolation (TI) allows data paths to be
specified
• TI zoning has the following benefits:
− Separates direct attached storage device
(DASD) and tape traffic
− Selects traffic for diverse Inter-Switch Link (ISL)
routes
− In conjunction with long-distance channel
extension equipment, it guarantees bandwidth
for certain mission-critical data
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Brocade QoS zones
• A Quality of Service (QoS) zone adds trafficshaping capabilities to regular zones
• The priority of a traffic flow is set to High or Low,
based on the name of the zone
− High-priority zone name:
QoSH<id>_<zonename>
− Low-priority zone name:
QoSL<id>_<zonename>
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
LSAN zones
• A Logical SAN provides device connectivity
between fabrics without merging the fabrics
• It consists of zones in two or more edge or
backbone fabrics that contain the same devices
• Members must be identified by their port WWN,
because port IDs are not necessarily unique
across fabrics
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Fabric segmentation
• Fabric segmentation occurs when two or more switches are joined together by ISLs but they do not
communicate with each other
• Possible causes for fabric segmentation are:
− Zone type mismatch
− Zone content mismatch
− Zone configuration mismatch
− Duplicate domain IDs
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
iSCSI storage area network
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
The value of an iSCSI SAN architecture
• Built on top of a dedicated or existing Gigabit
Ethernet infrastructure
• Uses the familiar TCP/IP technology
• The IP protocol is universal and it works
seamlessly, regardless of the equipment vendor
• Customers can leverage the 10Gb Ethernet
• iSCSI components can be virtualized
• Removes distance limitations
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Built for virtualization
HP StoreVirtual Technology
• Simple management for virtualized environments
Simple
• All-inclusive licensing with enterprise-class storage features
• Virtualization platform integration for increased functionality and ease of
use
• Nondisruptively scale performance and capacity
Scalable
Highly
available
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• One homogenous storage pool with iSCSI and Fibre Channel
connectivity
• Proven five 9s high availability and reliability
• Multisite disaster recovery with transparent failover
• Online data mobility across systems, locations, and technology changes
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
HP StoreVirtual for iSCSI and Fibre Channel
For customers:
• With disjointed storage pools across
Fibre Channel and iSCSI networks
− Leverages a single storage architecture
for all applications in the enterprise
• Standardizing on Ethernet-based
technologies
− Provides easier migration options when
going from Fibre Channel to iSCSI
• Looking for an all-inclusive enterprise
feature set
Centralized
managemen
t
console
Fibre Channel 10GbE IP network
(SAN/iQ OS/iSCSI)
network
iSCSI clients
FC
clients
HP
StoreVirtual
4330 or 4730
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© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
HP StoreVirtual storage clustering
• HP StoreVirtual offers storage clustering as a way
to:
− Aggregate all components for performance
− Load balance data across all nodes
− Offer nondisruptive scalability
− Create a tiered environment for different
performance requirements
− Offer online volume migration
− Simplify management through a centralized
management console
64
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Scale-out architecture
Start with the current needs
• Use storage nodes to build clusters
• Leverage all critical resources
Grow as needed
• Scale performance and capacity linearly
• Data remains online as you grow
Build single or multiple tiers
• SSD, SAS, and Nearline SAS clusters
• Migrate data with Peer Motion
65
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Seamless and nondisruptive data mobility
StoreVirtual Peer Motion
• Systems
• Tiers
• Locations
• Form factors
• Disk types
• Different generations
• Physical and virtual platforms
Peer Motion
Seamlessly move volumes between:
43
30
43
30
43
30
43
30
In a matter of minutes—Swap out or swap in entire
clusters and upgrade technology nondisruptively
All data remains online and available
66
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Network RAID
• Creates redundant copies of blocks that reside on
different storage nodes
• The mirroring level cannot exceed the number of
nodes in the cluster
• Supports 2-, 3-, and 4-way mirroring
• Requires 2, 3, or 4 times as much storage
67
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Network RAID 0
• Every block of data will be written once.
• Blocks are striped across the nodes.
• The failure of one node means the loss of the
whole volume because there is no redundancy.
68
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Network RAID 10
• Network RAID 10 data is striped and mirrored
across two storage systems.
• Network RAID 10 is the default data protection
level assigned when creating a volume, as long
as there are two or more storage systems in the
cluster.
• Data in a volume configured with Network RAID
10 is available and preserved in the event that
one storage system becomes unavailable.
69
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Network RAID 10+1
• Network RAID 10+1 data is striped and mirrored
across three or more storage systems.
• Data is available and preserved in the event that
any two storage systems become unavailable.
70
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Network RAID 10+2
• Network RAID 10+2 data is striped and mirrored
across four or more storage systems.
• Data is available and preserved in the event that
any two storage systems become unavailable.
• Network RAID 10+2 is designed for multisite
SANs, to preserve data in the event of an entire
site becoming unavailable.
71
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Network RAID 5
• Data is divided into stripes.
• Each stripe is stored on three of the storage
systems, and parity is stored on the fourth
system.
• Data is available and preserved in the event that
any single storage system becomes unavailable.
72
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Network RAID 6
• Network RAID 6 divides the data into stripes.
• Each stripe is stored on four of the storage
systems in the cluster, and parity is stored on the
fifth and sixth systems.
• Data is preserved and available in the event that
any two storage systems become unavailable.
73
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Storage area network security
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
SAN security
• Storage security is the act of protecting the data that resides in the SAN from unauthorized access.
• Security is an Internet Protocol (IP) issue, not a Fibre Channel issue.
• To provide proper protection, all aspects of data security must be addressed.
• On average, more resources are spent on protecting web servers than on protecting SANs.
75
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Security model
• The security of a computer system is responsibility of a security manager.
• Three types of attacks, corresponding to the three aspects of information security:
− Data can be made unavailable for access
− Data can be deleted or modified without permission
− Data can be examined without permission
• Security can be implemented at three levels in the SAN:
− Storage array level
− Fabric level
− Host level
76
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Elements of storage security
77
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Differentiating data security and data protection
Data protection deals with information dependability
• Reliability, availability, fault protection, performance, and so on
Information security includes the following core principles:
• Confidentiality
• Integrity
• Availability
• Possession
• Authenticity
78
• Utility
• Privacy
• Authorized use
• Nonrepudiation
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Transitive trust problem
• SAN security must not be treated separated from the security of other parts of IT infrastructure such
as networking.
• If there is a network security breach, SAN data becomes exposed even if the storage infrastructure
remains intact.
• Risk mitigation includes:
− Identification (authentication)
− Authorization (LUN and tape access permissions)
− Audit
− Encryption (data on disk and tape and data in transit)
79
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SAN security: Where and how to implement it
Where?
How?
• Enable authentication for:
− User
− Management
− Server
− Switch
• To prevent unauthorized access:
− Use multilevel passwords.
− Use Access Control Lists (ACLs).
− Use centralized access control or Domain
authentication.
80
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Fabric Access Control Lists (ACLs)
• The Brocade Fabric OS provides following
policies:
− Fabric configuration server (FCS) policy
− Device connection control (DCC) policies
− Switch connection control (SCC) policy
• The FCS, DCC, and SCC policy members are
specified by the device port WWN, the switch
WWN, domain IDs, or switch names,
depending on the policy
Valid methods for specifying policy members:
81
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Device authentication
• The authentication of devices is an effort
expended by a device to ensure the identity of
another device with which it is communicating.
82
• Levels of authentication
− None
− Trusting the device address
− Challenging the device to prove its identity
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Device authorization
• Authorization is used to perform the selective
presentation of devices and LUNs
83
• Levels of authorization:
− No authorization
• Used on DAS
− LUN masking and selective LUN presentation
based on the WWN
− iSCSI
• By using ACLs at the device level or per
LUN
− NAS
• Authorization using supported operating
system methods
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Data encryption
• Data transferred across an untrusted connection must be secured.
• Data encryption is necessary to prevent unauthorized access in the case of lost media
− Lost CD, DVD, tape, or disk
• In general, data can be encrypted:
− In flight
• Fibre Channel, Ethernet, WAN
− At rest
• On a disk or tape
84
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Management security
• An important aspect of security that is applicable to SANs
• Management security includes:
− The authentication of administrators
− Single sign-on technologies (Active Directory, LDAP, and so on)
− Selective administration capability
− Role-based access
− Error tracking
− A centralized management view
85
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Data protection
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Data protection overview
• The primary goal of data protection is to maintain the availability of data.
• RAID is designed to protect data against bit and byte errors.
− RAID is not backup!
87
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Challenges in data protection
• Long backup windows
• Long recovery times
• Protection gaps
• Inconsistent recovery
• Impacts on production applications
• Disaster recovery
• Compliance
88
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Recovery Time and Recovery Point Objectives
• The Recovery Time Objective (RTO) is the goal for how quickly you need to have your information
available after downtime has occurred.
• The Recovery Point Objective (RPO) describes the point in time to which data must be restored to
successfully resume processing.
RPO
RTO
Time
Last Backup
89
Event
Data Restored
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Data protection
• Physical tapes
− Traditional destination for backup sets
− Shelf life of up to 30 years
− Requires tape library solutions to handle
complex backup environments
• Virtual Tapes
• Replication
− Local
− Remote
• Clustering
90
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Data protection topologies
• Direct backup
− A fast but expensive solution
− Data is backed up to locally attached tape
drives
− Complex administration
• Centralized server backup
− Client-server architecture
− One server has a tape library attached
− Uses a LAN to transport data
• The LAN might become a bottleneck
91
• Centralized SAN backup
− A LAN is used only to initiate and control a
data backup
− Data is moved over the SAN
− Tape libraries are connected to the SAN fabric
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Tape libraries
• Dedicated SAN-based devices
• High performance, capacity, and availability
• Compatible with the latest tape technologies
• Contain sophisticated robotics to automate tapechanging
• Provide data encryption to comply with standards
92
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Virtual tape libraries
• Emulate physical tapes and libraries to back up
software
• Capable of supporting parallel jobs
• Reduce backup time
• Granular recovery enables fast single-file restores
• Fibre Channel and iSCSI connectivity
HP StoreOnce Backup
93
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Remote Copy introduction
• Array-based remote replication solution for an
HP 3PAR Storage Array
• Supported modes:
− Synchronous
− Asynchronous periodic
− Asynchronous long distance
• Supported transports:
− Fibre Channel
− Ethernet
− Fibre Channel over IP
94
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Fibre Channel-based Remote Copy
High performance
• Used for campus-distance solutions
• Offers low latency and high bandwidth
Flexible
• Direct or Fibre Channel SANs are supported
• Extended-distance technologies
− Longwave links
− FCIP bridging or routing
95
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Native IP-based Remote Copy
Native IP eliminates the need for
expensive converters
• Distance flexibility
• Cost-effective
Designed to be transport agnostic
• Native Gigabit Ethernet TCP/IP today
• Other protocols will be quickly assimilated
96
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Synchronous mode operation
4
2
Host
server
3
1
Write request
6
Primary
acknowledges
the Host
97
Data is written to
the cache on two
nodes
Data is written to
cache on two
nodes
Write request
is forwarded
Primary
Storage Array
5
Secondary or
Backup Storage
Array
Secondary or
Backup
acknowledges the
Primary
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Asynchronous periodic operation
2
Only the most
recent data is
written to the
cache on the
nodes
Data is written to
the cache on two
nodes
Host
server
1
Write request
3
Primary
acknowledges
the Host
98
Primary
Storage Array
Only the most
recent data is
copied over,
“deltas”
Secondary or
Backup Storage
Array
Scheduled or manual resynchronization
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Synchronous long distance
Fibre Channel sync
mode
• The same volume is protected on two arrays.
− One in synchronous mode
− One in asynchronous mode
• Customers need to replicate the delta changes
from one of the disaster recovery sites in case of
a failure
• In the case of a failure, a full sync of a volume is
not required
A
Bidirectional between
Source and Sync targets
A
’
B
’
Metropolitan distance
(Source – Sync site)
B
Sync
Site,
Target 1
Source
A
’
DR Site,
Target 2
Continental distance
(Source, Sync – DR Site)
99
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Deduplication
100 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Deduplication in remote and branch office
setups
101 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Storage area network design
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
SAN design considerations
Distance &
Geographic
Layout
Connectivity &
Capacity
Scalability
Availability
Performance
Management &
Security
103 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Planning considerations
• Inventory of the current environment
• Growth plan
• Current storage configuration
• LAN and SAN structure
• Application uses
• Traffic loads
• Peak periods
• Current performance
• Current constraints
• Use of the existing fiber cables
• Use of the existing components
104 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
HP standard supported SAN topologies
HP simplified design
HP SAN design considerations
Three approaches to designing a SAN
• Based on the scope and requirements for a
given business application, HP SAN topologies
depend on the required:
− Size
− Availability
− Performance
− Extendibility
• You can implement:
− An HP standard SAN fabric topology design
− A subset or variation of an HP standard SAN
fabric topology design
− A custom SAN fabric topology design
TIP: HP SAN design rules are explored in the SAN Design Guide available at:
http://www.hp.com/go/sandesign
105 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
HP SAN Design Reference Guide
106 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
SAN fabric topology overview
Single-switch fabric
Cascaded fabric
Meshed fabric
Ring fabric
Core-edge fabric
107 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Single-switch fabric
The smallest SAN, consists of:
• A Fibre Channel switch
• A storage system
• A server
The benefits of a single-switch fabric
include:
• Easy installation and configuration of servers and
storage
• Maximum fabric performance because all
communicating devices connect to the same
switch
• Support for local, centralized, and distributed data
access needs
108 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Cascaded fabric
Cascading enables you to:
• Achieve optimum I/O activity by connecting servers and storage to
the same switch in a cascaded fabric
• Easily scale the fabric over time by adding cascaded switches
The benefits of a cascaded fabric include:
• The ability to connect SANs in diverse geographic locations
• Ease of scalability for increased server and storage connectivity
• Shared backup and management support
• Optimum local performance when communicating devices are
connected to the same switch in the cascaded fabric
• Cost efficiency resulting from the large number of available switch
ports
• Support for local data access and the occasional centralized data
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
109access
Meshed fabric
Built on top of a group of switches, uses
multiple ISLs for fabric resiliency
• If one ISL fails, data is automatically rerouted
through an alternate path in the fabric
The benefits of a meshed fabric include:
• The ability to meet multiple data access needs
• Multiple paths for internal fabric resiliency
• Ease of scalability
• Shared backup and management support
• Less impact on performance from intra-switch traffic
110 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
ISL connections in a meshed fabric
111 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Ring fabric
A ring of interconnected switches that
enables you to:
• Scale the fabric in a modular fashion
• Achieve optimum I/O performance by connecting
a group of servers and storage to one switch
The benefits of a ring fabric include:
• Modular design and ease of scalability by adding
a switch and other devices
• Multiple paths for internal fabric resiliency
• Support for a mix of local data access and the
occasional centralized data access
112 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Ring fabric with satellite switches
113 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Core-edge fabric (1 of 2)
HP recommends using a core-edge fabric
wherever possible
• A core-edge fabric has one or more Fibre
Channel switches (called core switches) that
connect to the edge switches in the fabric
The core-edge fabric is optimal for:
• Many-to-many connectivity environments that
require high performance
• Unknown or changing I/O traffic patterns
• SAN-wide storage pooling
Core-edge fabric (typical depiction)
114 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Core-edge fabric (2 of 2)
Core-edge fabric topologies can be depicted hierarchically
• The physical implementation is typically the same as in the depiction
The benefits of a core-edge fabric include:
• Typically, a maximum of two hops between switches
• Equal, centralized access to the devices in the core
Core-edge fabric (hierarchical depiction)
• Increased fabric and switch redundancy with two or more switches
in the core
• Full many-to-many connectivity with evenly distributed bandwidth
• Support for centralized and distributed data access
• The ability to designate an optimally located core switch as the
primary management switch, with direct connections to all switches
115 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Topology data access
Local (one-to-one)
• Data access between a local server and a storage system connected to the same switch
Centralized (many-to-one)
• Data access between multiple, dispersed servers and one centrally located storage system
Distributed (many-to-many)
• Data access between multiple, dispersed servers and storage systems
116 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Data access performance by SAN fabric
topology
117 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Topology maximums
• The maximum number of supported switches and ports for specific fabric topologies can vary.
• The number of switches and ports depends on:
− The number of hops in the fabric topology
− The number of ISLs
• Consider the following:
− User ports are for servers and storage.
− It is assumed that you have the minimum number of ISLs.
• If you require more ISLs, this reduces the number of user ports available for server and storage
connections.
− If you connect a Storage Management Appliance to the fabric, this further reduces the number of
ports available for server and storage connections.
118 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
B-series switch and port topology maximums
119 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
C-series switch and port topology maximums
120 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
H-series switch and port topology maximums
121 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Data availability
The data availability level required for your SAN environment is based on:
• The administrative requirements
− Examples: Backup schedules, operating procedures, and staffing
• The protection level for applications or data
• The hardware redundancy
Data availability is arranged in 4 levels:
• Level 1: Single-connectivity fabric
• Level 2: Single resilient fabric
• Level 3: Single resilient fabric with multiple device paths
• Level 4: Multiple fabrics and device paths (NSPOF)
122 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Single-connectivity fabric
Level 1
• Maximum connectivity
• No fabric resiliency or redundancy
• Each switch has one path to other switch or fabric
• Each server or storage system has one path to
the fabric
123 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Single resilient fabric
Level 2
• Provides fabric path redundancy by using multiple
ISLs between switches
• Each server and storage system has one path to
the fabric
• There is no interruption in I/O activity in the event
of a switch port or ISL failure
124 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Single resilient fabric with multiple device
paths
Level 3
• Provides multiple server and storage system
paths to the fabric to increase availability
• There is no interruption of I/O in the event of a
switch, server HBA, or storage system path
failure
IMPORTANT: HP recommends that each server HBA
and each storage system has a path to a different switch
to increase availability.
125 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Multiple fabrics and device paths (NSPOF)
Level 4
• Provides multiple data paths between servers
and storage systems, but the paths connect to
physically separate fabrics
• Provides the highest availability and no single
point of failure (NSPOF) protection
• Minimizes the vulnerability to fabric failures
• Using two fabrics might increase the
implementation costs, but it also increases the
total number of available ports
126 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Data availability level considerations
127 © Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
Thank you
© Copyright 2014 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. HP Confidential – For training purposes only.
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