The Crucible pg. 3-28 Notes 8/29/2018 Setting – Salem, Massachusetts 1692 Government in Salem – Theocracy (God and religious officials) Theocracy and dependence on religion may play a role in the accusations of witchcraft later on Residents of Salem rely on hard work and religion Disagreements and arguments in the community Unknown world around the settlement (American forest), possible danger may lead to more distrust Reverend Parris – religious figure w. large presence in community, strict/stern, values his command and power over congregation (paranoid of losing power) Reverend John Hale of Beverly – “witchcraft expert” Rev. Parris wants to consult Betty Parris –10 yr. old daughter of Rev. Parris, comatose sick state (unconscious), rumored to be a victim of witchcraft, accused of “flying” Abigail Williams – niece of Rev. Parris, questioned by uncle, reputation may be in question Tituba – slave of Rev. Parris, possibly will be accused of witchcraft because of strange religion and antics Rev. Parris is angry because he caught Abigail, Betty, Tituba, and others dancing in woods at night; he is scared of losing his position due to the witchcraft accusations Women are shown to have little to no power in Salem (men are commanding and strict) Elizabeth Proctor – former employer of Abigail, fired Abigail, not present at church meetings recently Rumors that Elizabeth does not like Abigail, describing Abigail as a “soiled woman”, may have tarnished Abigail’s reputation (not hired by anyone else recently) Thomas Putnam – holds grudge against others in Salem (may be manipulative), brother-in-law not accepted by ministry Mrs. Putnam – wife of Thomas Putnam, seven children died right after birth Mrs. Putnam wanted Tituba to contact spirits of her dead children because she thinks a witch murdered them Ruth – daughter of Thomas and Mrs. Putnam, sick just like Betty Mercy Lewis – servant for the Putnams Mary Warren – servant for the Proctors, worried about being accused of witchcraft Abigail drank blood to kill Elizabeth Proctor, wants a relationship with John Proctor Abigail was fired because of affair with John Proctor John Proctor – farmer, had affair with Abigail, strict, believes that Salem is filled with lies, quick-witted John and Abigail’s affair along with Abigail’s desire to be with John may lead to future problems as well as accusations of witchcraft Betty cannot stand the religious psalm, screams and mutters, people believe she is affected by witchcraft Rebecca Nurse – wife of Francis Nurse, believes that Betty is suffering from regular sickness and stress Francis Nurse – husband of Rebecca Nurse, highly respected, successful, grudge with Thomas Putnam related to land and exemplified by Putnam’s brother-in-law’s rejection Giles Corey – 83 yr. old farmer, described as strong despite age Proctor and Rebecca worried about witchcraft accusations in Salem Rev. Parris may be using witchcraft accusations to his own advantage Putnam wants Parris to consult Hale for possible witchcraft Proctor and Putnam have dispute; Proctor does not always go to church, but Putnam believes that his wealth means he should have more power Parris and Giles have dispute; Parris wants payment for firewood and salary, Giles disagrees and claims that Parris is abusing his power Quote and Analysis “I have trouble enough without I come five mile to hear him preach only hellfire and bloody damnation…there are many others who stay away from church these days because you hardly ever mention God anymore.” –John Proctor (Miller 27) In this quote, John Proctor reveals his disliking towards how Reverend Parris preaches to his congregation. It can be inferred that Parris tends to focus on the negative aspects when preaching instead of the good, and does so to rile up his audience and hold their attention. Preaching about “hellfire and bloody damnation” may also allow Parris to hold greater power over his congregation and retain his high position in the community. This quote also reveals that Proctor, amongst other townsfolk, have begun to realize that Parris only cares for his own power and is not focused on the well-being of others, leading to less church attendees. As a result, Parris is paranoid of losing his power, and acts in such a manner. Readers may also be able to insinuate that the way Parris preaches about negative aspects of religion may lead to the townsfolk turning against each other during the witch trials. The Crucible pg. 29-60 Notes 8/29/2018 Reverend Hale – witchcraft expert, intellectual nature, proud of his knowledge Hale brings many heavy books, shows how he is an expert at understanding witchcraft Proctor attempts to remain neutral in the argument of whether or not witchcraft is real Rebecca leaves, believes everyone is taking the situation too seriously Giles – bad reputation, disliked by many (blamed for thefts, fires) Martha – wife of Giles, may be wrongfully convicted of witchcraft because of Giles’ accusations Giles claims wife is reading strange books, he cannot pray when she is in the house Giles is inadequate when it comes to prayers, only recently learned – accusations are not accurate Parris reports that he saw a kettle in the woods, Abigail claims it contained soup Parris believes he saw something moving in the kettle, Abigail claims a frog leaped in Abigail blames Tituba to divert suspicion away from herself, makes herself feel less guilty Abigail reports that Tituba forced her to drink chicken blood Tituba retorts that Abigail begged her to conjure a charm, claims that others are responsible Devil and white men refers to Tituba’s disdain of the situation Tituba and Abigail both pass blame on to others, receives absolution Hale severely questions Tituba, forcing her to commit herself to God again Tituba blames Sarah Good and Goody Osburn, Mrs. Putnam agrees (Osburn was midwife for three of her dead children) Abigail blames Betty for communing with the devil, ranting names of random citizens Abigail and Betty break under authority, Abigail manipulates the situation to gain advantage People named by Abigail and Betty are accused of being witches Elizabeth is afraid that Abigail will accuse her of witchcraft to become Proctor’s new wife Mary Warren claims that she helped Elizabeth by denying accusations against her Mary gives Elizabeth a doll, may be assisting Abigail against Elizabeth Quote and Analysis “He is different now – drawn a little, and there is a quality of deference, even of guilt, about his manner now.” [Stage Directions] (Miller, 59) This quote reveals that Hale is now starting to feel guilty about the possible deaths and accusations against so many people. The contrast between his composure before as seemingly intellectual has reverted to a drawn in, more sentimental manner. Hale may have realized that the situation is going too far, as Rebecca and Elizabeth have both become possible targets for accusations of witchcraft. Hale sees himself as the person responsible for setting the accusations in motion, hence believing that he is also the one who is responsible for the lives of the 39 accused townsfolk. He himself is now doubting the validity of the accusations themselves, as can be noted from how he is acting introverted. The Crucible pg. 61-76 Notes 9/1/2018 Reverend Hale visits and reports that both Rebecca Nurse and Elizabeth Proctor have been mentioned in the court in association with witchcraft Hale notes Proctor’s son is not baptized, Proctors have not been to church recently Proctor disagrees with Parris’s style of preaching Hale asks Proctor to state the Ten Commandments Proctor remembers all commandments except the one related to adultery This denotes Proctor’s affair with Abigail, Proctor is still affected Wives of Giles Corey and Francis Nurse arrested for witchcraft Rebecca – accused of murdering Mrs. Putnam’s children Martha – accused of cursing a man (death of pigs) Ezekiel Cheever – court clerk of Salem, quick to accuse Elizabeth Herrick – town marshal of Salem, dutiful Cheever and Herrick come to arrest Elizabeth for witchcraft Abigail found stabbed with needle, needle found in Mary’s doll (given to Elizabeth) Mary’s doll used as evidence against Elizabeth, needle planted by Mary Heavily insinuated that Mary worked with Abigail to plant the needle and accuse Elizabeth Abigail wants Elizabeth dead so she can become Proctor’s new wife, stabbed herself Mary does not like how the Proctors treat her Elizabeth is chained and lead away despite Proctor’s protests Proctor realizes Mary and Abigail’s plan and shouts at Mary Mary declines to help in fear for her own reputation, maintains friendship with Abigail Quote and Analysis “Make your peace with it! Now Hell and Heaven grapple on our backs, and all our old pretense is ripped away – make your peace! Peace. It is a providence, and no great change; we are only what we always were, but naked now. Aye, naked! And the wind, God’s icy wind, will blow!” –John Proctor (Miller 76) After Elizabeth’s arrest, John Proctor realizes that Mary and Abigail plotted together to plant the needle in the doll and falsely accuse Elizabeth of practicing witchcraft. In this quote, Proctor urges Mary to drop her false pretense and reveal publicly that the witchcraft accusations are simply a fabrication devised by Abigail. By referencing “peace”, Proctor wants Mary to face the facts and confess truthfully what she had done, but Proctor may also be referring to himself and how he must take responsibility for his sin of committing adultery with Abigail. Proctor must accept the fallout of his own wrongdoings and he is cognizant of his own opinion that if he “makes peace” with God by accepting his consequences, then God will be more in favor of him.