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Chemistry
Project File
Topic-
TO EXTRACT ESSENTIAL OILS PRESENT IN
SAUNF(ANISEED),AJWAIN(CAROM) AND
ELAICHI(CARDAMOM)”
Submitted by
Submitted to
Mr.Arvind Pareek
XII A
2
Acknowledgement
I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere
thanks to the principal Mrs. J.Sen Mam, Tagore
Public School, Jaipur for her encouragement and for
all the facilities that she provided in this project
work. I sincerely appreciate this magnanimity by
taking me into her fold for which I shall herein
indebted to her. I extent my hearty thanks to Mr.
Arvind Pareek sir, Chemistry teacher, who guided me
to the successful completion of this project . I take
this opportunity to express my deep sense of
gratitude for his invaluable guidance, attitude and
immense motivation, which has sustained my efforts
at all stage of this project work
Submitted by
Rahul Dugar
XII A
3
Certificate
This is to certify that Rahul Dugar has satisfactorily
completed the project in chemistry on “TO EXTRACT
ESSENTIAL OILS PRESENT IN SOUNF(ANISEED),AJWAIN(CAROM)
AND ELAICHI(CARDAMOM)” prescribed by the AISSCE course
in the school in the year 2013-14. I have examined the
project and hereby accord by my approval of it. As a
study carried out and presented in the manner required
for its acceptance. This doesn’t necessarily endorse or
accept every statement made, opinion expressed or
conclusion drawn. It only signifies the acceptance of the
project for which it is submitted.
Mrs. J.Sen
(Principal)
Mr. Arvind Pareek
(Head of Chemistry Dept.)
4
CONTENTS
S.NO CONTENTS PAGE NO.
1
INTRODUCTION
2
EXPERIMENT
3
THEORY
4
5
PROCEDURE AND
REQUIREMENTS
6
OBSERVATION
CONCLUSION AND
PRECAUTIONS
7
BIBLIOGRAPHY
5
INTRODUCTION
We are all familiar with the pleasant odours coming out from
flowers, spices and many trees. The essence or aromas of plants are due
to volatile oils present in them. These smelling volatile oils present in
plants are called essential oils. Cinnamon, clove, cumin, eucalyptus,
garlic, jasmine, peppermint, rose, sandalwood, spearmint, thyme,
wintergreen are a few familiar examples of valuable essential oils. The
term “essential oils” literally means “oils derived from the essence” of
plants. Essential oils are mainly used for their pleasant odours and
flavors in perfumes and as flavoring agents in foods. Some are used in
medicines (e.g., camphor, wintergreen, eucalyptus) others as insect
repellants (e.g., citronella).
Chemically essential oils are composed of complex mixtures
of ester, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. They are
essentially non-polar compounds and are thus soluble in non-polar solvents
such as petroleum ether, benzene etc. Essential oils may occur in all parts of the
plant, but they are often concentrated in the seeds or flowers. They are
obtained from the plants by the process of steam distillation and extraction. The
technique of steam distillation permits the separation of volatile components
6
from non-volatile materials without raising the temperature of the distillation
above 100° C. Thus steam distillation reduces the risk of decomposition
of essential oils.
7
Experiment
To extract essential oil present in







Saunf (aniseed)
Ajwain(carom)
Elaichi(cardamom)

8
Aniseed Essential oil
Aniseed, on steam distillation, yields an essential oil, known as `Oil of
Aniseed`, which has now replaced the fruits for medicinal and flavoring
purposes. Aniseed oil is a colorless or pale-yellow liquid having the
characteristic odour and taste of the fruit. The yield of oil generally
varies from 1.9 to 3.1 per cent. Higher values up to 6 per cent have been
reported from Syrian aniseed. Crushing of fruits prior to distillation
gives better yields of oil. The material should be distilled soon after the
crushing to prevent any loss of oil due to evaporation.
Aniseed oil is a highly refractive liquid, which solidifies on
cooling. The congealing point depends much on the anethole content and
is a valuable criterion for evaluating the oil. Exposure of the oil to air
causes polymerization, and some oxidation also takes place with the
formation of anisaldehyde and anisic acid. The chief constituent of
aniseed oil is anethole, which is present to the extent of 80 to 90 per cent
and is mainly responsible for the characteristic flavor of the oil. The oil
also contains methyl chavicol , p-methoxyphenyl acetone, and small
amount of terpenes and sulfur containing compounds of disagreeable
odour.
9
USES OF ANISEED OIL:Ø In aromatherapy, aniseed essential oil is used to treat colds and flu.
Ø Aniseed oil can be made into a liquid scent and is used for
both hunting and fishing. It is put on fishing lures to attract fish.
Ø Anethole, the principal component of anise oil, is a precursor that can
eventually produce 2,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde which is can be used in
the clandestine synthesis of psychedelic drugs such as 2C-B, 2C-I and
DOB.
Ø Oil of aniseed is also reported to be used as an aromatic carminative to
relieve flatulence, and as an ingredient of cough lozenges in combination
with liquorice.
Ø Essential oil is also used externally as an insecticide against small
insects such as head lice, mites and vermin. It also has fungicidal
properties.
10
Carom essential oil:
Carom seeds are also known as ajwain , Thymol seeds, Onum ,
Ajma , Ajmodika and bishops weed. They are the tiny, cute, delicate and
oval shaped herbs with a penetrating fragrance. Carom seed belongs to
the family of cumin and parsley. These seeds have been used since years
as they consists number of medical properties. Because of their strong
aroma, carom seeds are highly used for the Indian culinary.
Carom seeds are sharp and hot with the burning taste, that’s why
few seeds are enough to bring the flavor in any Indian recipe. Carom
seeds can be whole or powdered one. It is always advisable to buy whole
carom seeds as they can be easily turned into powder form just by
grinding them in a smooth powder.
11
USES OF CAROM SEEDS:These seeds are used for the tempering or tadka’s in the dishes.
Ajwain has strong, dominant and distinctive taste and flavor, that’s
why few seeds are enough to bring exotic fragrance to the vegetarian
and non-veg food.
Ajwain can be used for making pickles as well.
The aroma and unique taste of ajwain is used for making various types
of roti’s, parathas, thepla’s and so on.
They are specially used in different types of meat, snack recipes and
dal recipes to enhance the flavor.
Soups, stocks and stews can be flavored with few seeds of ajwain.
Ajwain are highly incorporated for making various salad dressings
and Indian bakery items.
12
Cardamom Essential oil:
Cardamom provides a warming and stimulating tonic .Cardamom is also
an excellent choice for the digestive system. I am sure I don’t have to tell
you that Cardamom is greatly admired and extensively used as a
culinary spice all over the world. You can also try a gargle with
Cardamon if you suffer with halitosis (bad breath). Why not try 1 drop
Cardamon and one drop of Peppermint in a small amount of water as an
effective way to freshen your breath!
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USES FOR CARDAMOM
1 Smoothies
Add some cardamom to fruit smoothies to give them an extra edge. It doesn’t
matter what flavor the basic smoothie is – in fact, the more exotic the better.
2 Fruit loaves
If you want to jazz up your banana bread or add a bit of life to your tired fruit
loaf recipe, then a touch of ground cardamom will make a world of difference.
Just add the spice when you are mixing in the rest of the dry ingredients and
you will get a lovely warm, rich flavor from the finished loaf.
3 Bread
As with fruit loaves, a sprinkling of cardamom will do wonders for your
bread rolls and loaves. Don’t worry about the cardamom turning savory
breads into sweet; the spice will just a hint of warmth to the flavor and you
can add as little or as much as you like, depending on taste.
4 Puddings
Many desserts benefit from the addition of cardamom – rice pudding works
especially well, but you could also try adding a little ground cardamom to ice
cream, set custards, yogurt, and baked fruit.
5 Casseroles
A few pods added to a casserole dish will give a lamb, chicken or vegetable
casserole an extra zing and makes a great entertaining or moving house meal.
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REQUIREMENTS:Steam generator (Copper Vessel), round bottom flask (500 ml), conical
flask, condenser, glass tubes, iron stand, sand bath, separatory funnel,
tripod stands, burners, Ajwain(Carum), Petroleum ether(6080°C),Saunf(Aniseed) .
PROCEDURE:Set the apparatus as shown in the picture of Experimental Setup. The
apparatus consists of a steam generator connected to the round bottom
flask through a glass inlet tube. The flask is connected to a water
condenser through a glass outlet tube. Condenser is further attached to a
receiver through an adaptor. Take about 750 ml of water in the steam
generator and start heating to produce steam. In the round bottom flask
take about 75 gm of crushed saunf. A vigorous current of steam from
steam generator is passed through the round bottom flask. A part of the
steam condenses in the round bottom flask. As more and more steam is
passed, the steam volatile components of saunf pass through the
condenser along with steam. These contents on condensation are
collected in the receiver. The contents in the round bottom flask may be
heated by a bunsen burner to prevent excessive condensation of steam.
15
The process of steam distillation is continued for about half an hour.
Transfer the distillate to a separating funnel and extract with 20 ml
portions of petroleum ether 3 times. Combine the petroleum ether
extracts in a 250 ml conical flask and dry it with the help of anhydrous
sodium sulphate. Remove the solvent from the dried filtrate by careful
distillation in a water bath. The essential oil is left behind in the
distillation flask. Find the weight of the extracted essential oil. Note the
colour, odour and weight of the essential oil.
16
OBSERVATIONS:Name of Item
1.) SAUNF
(ANISEED):2.) AJWAIN
(CAROM):-
Weight Initial Weight
of Item Weight of bottle
taken
(x)
+
100 gm
75 gm
10gm
10 gm
Weight
of
essential
essential oil
oil
extracted
(y)
(y-x)
Percentage
of essential
oil
(y/100)*100
Colour
of the
oil
Odour of
the oil
11.25
gm
1.25 gm
1.25 %
Colour-
Saunf
like
smell.
11 gm
1 gm
-less
1.33%
Colour-less
Ajwain
like
smell
17
Conclusion
“HENCE
WE HAVE
EXTRACTED ESSENTIAL OILS
FROM
75 GM
OF
SOUNF(ANISEED),
AJWAIN(CAROM) AND ELAICHI(CARDAMOM)”
Precautions

If you accidentally spill essential oils – Clean any spillage with an
absorbent material such as kitchen roll.


If you accidentally get essential oils in your eye – Flush with copious amounts of
MILK for at least 15 minutes and seek medical advice if symptoms persist.


If you accidentally swallow essential oils – Rinse mouth with MILK and
seek medical attention.


Handling – Do not eat, drink or smoke when handling. Respect
good personal hygiene.


Always mix with carrier oil before applying to the skin. Never apply
to inflamed or broken skin.


Do not use neat on skin.

Do not take internally. If pregnant seek medical advice before using.

18

Storage – Store in a cool, dry place away from heat and direct sunlight.
Always use original containers. Avoid contact with polished surfaces
and plastic.


Keep essential oils away from children and pets
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
COMPREHENSIVE CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL CLASS-XII. Ø
HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/ANISE Ø
HTTP://WWW.ESSENTIALOILS.CO.ZA/ESSENTIAL-OILS/ANISEED.HTM
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