Chapter 19 Outline Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean (1500-1750) I. The Ottoman Empire A. Expansion and Frontiers -The Ottoman Empire began as a small state in northwest Anatolia, and succeeded largely due to their strategic hold on the Dardanelles straight. This meant that they could regulate all trade and travel going between Europe and Asia. The Ottomans also maintained a strong army, combining Christian gunpowder tactics with Turkish horseback tactics. (The population was made up of Turkish horseback riders, zealous Muslims, and Islam converts) Their strong military won several key battles against their Christian enemies, including defeating the seemingly invincible Constantinople state. -Suleiman the Magnificent led one of the greatest assaults on the Christian Europe, ousting groups like the Knights of the Hospital of St. John. The Ottomans also gained control of the Red Sea, helping to regulate trade and controlling many of the ports. The Portuguese became a problem though, raiding and attacking merchant ships. The Ottomans weren’t hugely concerned about it however, and didn’t act very much naval-wise. B. Central Institutions -The military traditions for the Ottomans originally came from the Turkish horseback riders and their early military tactics and weapons reflected this. However after the conquests of the Christian states, the Ottomans not only used new tactics, but new troops as well. Christian slaves and prisoners of war were forced into military slavery, and they were often times forced to fight against people of their own religion. -The Ottomans also used Janissaries, or converted troops who trained year round and fought on foot using guns. In order to maintain their large armies and bureaucracies, the government would impose a law that forced families to give up sons, who would then learn the language and military training. -The military and bureaucratic class spoke the language of Osmanli, or a cross between Turkish and Ottoman. These classes were exempt from taxes and depended heavily on the Sultan to survive. There was also a large influx of Jews after they were expelled from Spain in 1492. -The cavalrymen in the Ottoman Empire received land grants for their military service, and they regulated their own rural area, imposing taxes and maintaining order. Islam was the reigning religion in the empire, and the Muslim traditions were prominent in all areas of life for the Ottomans, even in the non-Islam population. C. Crisis of the Military State -The Ottoman Empire had a hard time paying for all of the new military technology that they were using in their army. They also were being forced to pay large sums of money to the Janissaries, who were fully aware of the situation and more that happy to exploit it. Inflation was also a huge problem. A large influx of New World silver suddenly caused a widespread crash, as silver lost its monetary value. Religious laws prevented the leaders from enacting new taxes, although the government was able to create an “emergency tax” which many of the peasants could not pay. Soldiers often came home with little money and no work. Many of the soldiers could no longer report for duty, causing a large weakening of their military strength. D. Economic Change and Growing Weakness -While the Ottoman Empire was struggling with economic and military weakness, the Sultan retreated into the palace and stayed there. The Sultan used to lead their armies and be very knowledgeable in the matters of the state. Now the Sultan was inexperienced and would very rarely be seen outside of the palace. Their families would often be kept in the palace to prevent them from meddling in the political situation or from planning a coup. -The failing state was forced to enact very high taxes and the normal commodities that the people were used to soon disappeared. No longer were the soldiers given land grants for service, which resulted in disrupted rural governments and administrations. The Janissaries also took advantage of the situation gaining increased power and abusing by planning coups and disrupting the state. The disrupted rural government led to a total breakdown in the Ottoman bureaucracy, although the breakdown was not all bad. As a result of the government’s breakdown, small cites began to govern themselves and created their own separate economy through trade. -There was very little military power at this time. The Janissaries were very poorly trained, and they often sent substitutes on their military campaigns. Eventually, the lack of central military power led to a coup, in which the government was over thrown, and no longer considered a threat to the European states. II. The Safavid Empire A. The Rise of the Safavids -The rise of the Safavids began with Timur’s successor, Ismail. He declared himself Shah of Iran, and declared that his kingdom was to practice Shi’ite Islam. It was difficult however because the population of Iran was filled with Sunnis, and Ismail’s own son engaged in ferocious wars with his father. Finally though, after years of open warfare and persecution of Sunnis, Ismail finally made his state mostly Shi’ite. B. Society and Religion -The fact that Ismail converted his state to Shi’ite created a deep groove of frustration between the people of Iran and their neighboring countries, as the neighboring countries were mostly Sunni. -During this time period there was a massive creation of art, literature, theology, and science. New artistic techniques were used in their paintings and art, as well as new colors. There was also a demand for painted mosaics back then. The literature also was also very good back then too. The main language was Arabic, although Turkish was also very common and the two languages were often mixed. Very elegant poetry was created back then too, and other texts were written uniquely. -Religious traditions varied too from place to place, although it was mostly the same within one sect. The architecture style was very similar too. C. Economic and Political Collapse -The Safavids faced the same problems that the Ottomans had to face. Their economy wasn’t particularly strong, as their manufacturing skills were very poor and very few people wanted to be part of the agricultural community. The Safavids also had problems supplying and buying their troops expensive firearms. When their mounted cavalrymen refused to switch from bows to firearms, the Safavids did the same thing that the Ottomans did and hire soldiers, and once again had the issue of having to pay them and buy them firearms. The influx of silver drove up inflation and since the Safavids had never bothered to fund or create a navy, the Portuguese captured key strategic positions right off of the Iranian coastline. III. The Mughal Empire A. Political Foundations -The founder of the Mughal Empire was named Babur, and he was a descendant of Timur. Technically the word Mughal means Mongol, but the population traced its heritage to the Turks. The Mughal enjoyed a fairly stable and safe empire for the first couple of years. The government offered land revenues to those who gave them military services, and it helped them to regulate trade and taxes. Foreign trade thrived during this time too, although the Mughal Empire never knew that the Europeans were cheating them. The Mughals would manufacture cotton and then sell it to the Europeans for silver, but what they didn’t realize is that Europe already had vast sums of silver, making its value go way down. B. Hindus and Muslims -The Hindus had been long repressed by the Muslims in India, where the Muslims would destroy Hindu temples, monuments, and force conversion among the people. However the Hindus had never before been able to organized themselves before and raise up against the Muslims. The Mughals however adopted traditions of both, and used Mongol practices for religions.