A Thesis Presented to the faculty of
the College of Criminal Justice Education
Saint Michael College of Caraga
Nasipit, Agusan del Norte
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
October 2019
Background of the Study
This study seeks to address an area which has been neglected in corrections
research for the past several decades. Specifically, this study aims to determine how
inmates coping psychological and physical well-being in jail, what activities they engage in,
and what motivates their involvement. Broadly, Researcher want to understand whether
inmates serve their time by passing through it or by using it. In addition, this study explores
how inmate time utilization is associated with psychological well-being (anxiety and
depression). For instance, do inmates engage in certain activities in order to cope with the
stress of incarceration, and how successful are they in their coping efforts? (Vuk, 2017)
The researchers who examined the aspects of formal time utilization—activities
scheduled by prison administration—focused on availability of programs and on inmate
participation in work, educational, vocational, and treatment programs. It is important to
investigate these effects because despite of the “tough-on-crime” movement that led to a
reduction in many recreational opportunities, the majority of the public supports allowing
inmates to access many amenities and resources for spending their time constructively
(Applegate, 2001; Johnson, Bennet, & Flangan, 1997; Wozniak, 2016).
Therefore, exploring how engagement in these informal pursuits is associated
with inmates’ emotional well-being is crucial. Even though criminologists recognize the
importance of investigating conditions of confinement and their effects on well-being and
recidivism (see Andrews & Bonta, 2010b; Cullen & Gendreau, 2001).
This study uses the stress-coping framework developed by Lazarus to explain the
inmate psychological well-being (Lazarus, 1966; Lazarus &
Folkman, 1984). The stress-coping framework posits that negative emotional and
behavioral outcomes are responses to stressors in the environment, and individuals cope
with these stressors by utilizing various coping methods (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).
In this study, Researcher examine two domains of time utilization: inmates’
evaluation of using time productively and their objective assessment of time spent in
different activities. The first domain includes the examination of inmates’ experience of
idleness, future orientation, and preparation for release. All of these dimensions indicate
inmates’ subjective awareness of time and perception of constructive time use. I also
examine how these elements relate to inmate well-being. The second domain includes
objective measures of time utilization and motivation for engagement in activities, serving
as coping mechanisms in dealing with perceived stress.
This study adds to the extant body of literature by placing time utilization into the
context of modern corrections. Second, by treating engagement in different activities as
coping methods, this study examines what meaning male inmates attribute to various
activities and how this function of coping relates to well-being.
The researcher thorough to conduct Inmate Ways of Coping Psychological and
Physical Well-Being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte.
Significance of the Study
The conduct of the study is beneficial to the following:
To the inmate, to provide them the better improvement to recover their
frustration, anxiety and sadness inside provincial jail. And they may develop positive
thoughts instead of giving up. To the family of the inmates, to ensure that their family
members are well protected by the government and assurance that in a good condition to
perform series of activities inside jail. To the future researchers, that they may give more
knowledge about coping strategies of inmate inside provincial jail and used as reference in
conducting new research.
Theoretical Framework
Rehabilitation Theory has long been a contentious topic in the fields of both
criminology and penology. The term “rehabilitation” itself simply means the process of
helping a person to readapt to society or to restore someone to a former position or rank.
However, this concept has taken on many different meanings over the years and waxed
and waned in popularity as a principle of sentencing or justification for punishment. The
means used to achieve reform in prisons have also varied over time, beginning with
silence, isolation, labor, and punishment, then moving onto medically based interventions
including drugs and psychosurgery. More recently, educational, vocational, and
psychologically based programs, as well as specialized services for specific problems, have
typically been put forward as means to reform prisoners during their sentence.
In the latter part of the 19th century, the penitentiary gave way to the
reformatory, which attempted to rehabilitate offenders through educational and
vocational training, in conjunction with quasi-military regimes. Reformatories introduced
a system of classification of prisoners that allowed for their individualized treatment.
Prisoners progressed through graded stages contingent on their conduct and performance
in programs. They could even work toward early release. Reformatories, although
developed around the concept of rehabilitation, continued to advocate physical
punishment for nonconformity and later regressed to more punitive regimens consistent
with the reemergence of retribution at that time.
Social control theory proposes that people's relationships, commitments, values,
norms, and beliefs encourage them not to break the law. Thus, if moral codes are
internalized and individuals are tied into and have a stake in their wider community, they
will voluntarily limit their propensity to commit deviant acts. The theory seeks to
understand the ways in which it is possible to reduce the likelihood of criminality
developing in individuals (Amante et, al).
It does not consider motivational issues, simply stating that human beings may
choose to engage in a wide range of activities, unless the range is limited by the processes
of socialization and social learning. The theory derives from a Hobbesian view of human
nature as represented in Leviathan, i.e. that all choices are constrained by implicit social
contracts, agreements and arrangements among people. Thus, morality is created in the
construction of social order, assigning costs and consequences to certain choices and
defining some as evil, immoral and/or illegal (Amante et, al).
Therefore the researcher look forward, whether the two theories can be applied
during the conduct of research in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte.
Schematic Diagram
Motivational Factors
Watching TV
Individual Counseling
Group Counseling
Group Activities
Group Sports
Figure 1. The schematic diagram shows the interplay between independent and
dependent variables of the study.
Statement of the Problem
This Study aims to know the Inmate Ways of Coping Psychological and Physical
Well-Being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte. Specifically, it sought to answer the
following queries: ?
1) What is the Respondents Experience in terms of:
2) Is these factors affects the Inmate Ways of Coping Psychological and Physical
Well-being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte Regarding:
Motivational Factors
3) Is there a significant difference on the factors that affects the Inmate Ways of
Coping Psychological and Physical Well-being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte
Motivational Factors
There is no significant difference on the factors that affects Inmate Ways of
Coping Psychological and Physical Well-being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study focused only in Provincial Jail, Agsuan del Norte. And the
Respondents are the inmate in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte. This study focused on
what inmate ways of coping psychological and physical well being inside Provincial Jail,
Agusan del Norte.
This study is limited only in knowing the strategies of the inmate on how they
cope up their time to spent different activities inside Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte.
The honesty of the respondents in answering the questionnaire is beyond the jurisdiction
of the researcher, hence, it serves us as one of the limitation of the study.
Definition of Terms
Agusan del Norte – refers to the region where the provincial jail belong.
Anxiety – refers to something with an uncertain outcome.
Community – refers to the area where the study will be conducted.
Depression – it is the negative emotional feelings of a persons.
Frustration – it refers to the distress or inability to achieve something.
Group Activities – it composed of two or more person combined each other to perform
actions within single team.
Motivational Factors – it refers to the series of encouragement program that requires
certain action of a persons.
Physical well-being – it is the body of a person that function regularly.
Provincial jail – it is the area where the respondents are convicted.
Psychological – refers to the emotional and mental state of a person.
Rehabilitation – it refers to the restoring a person through imprisonment and series of
therapy inside prison or jail.
Review of Related Literature
According to Harreveld, der Pligt, & Van Dijk, (2007), The study investigated the relation
between coping strategies of inmates and their psychological and physical well-being.
General affective states such as optimism were related to both psychological and physical
well-being. Moreover, inmates who experienced specific negative emotions such as regret,
anxiety, and sadness reported more psychological and physical complaints. The way in
which inmates coped with these negative emotions was also important. Inmates who used
an active emotion-focused coping strategy were in better health than inmates inclined to
keep their negative feelings to themselves. Emotion-focused coping by sharing negative
emotions with people in one's social network can help to increase both psychological and
physical well-being. Engaging in emotion management in a more cognitive way, by
emphasizing positive aspects of the situation, can help to reduce the intensity of negative
emotions. Possible research and policy implications of these results are discussed.
According to Wooldrege, J. D. (1999). This study examined how inmate psychological
well-being is influenced by participation in institutional programs, frequency of visitation
with outsiders, and experiences with victimization during incarceration. Participants were
581 adult inmates from three Ohio correctional facilities. Support was found for the
hypotheses that healthier attitudes correspond with greater program participation, more
frequent visitation, and no experience with victimization. The policy implications of these
findings are presented.