INMATE WAYS OF COPING PYSCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL WELL BEING IN PROVINCIAL JAIL, AGUSAN DEL NORTE ______________________________________ A Thesis Presented to the faculty of the College of Criminal Justice Education Saint Michael College of Caraga Nasipit, Agusan del Norte ______________________________________ In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CRIMINOLOGY ______________________________________ By HAMLET V DANUCO JR BENNY MARK P GABALLO KRISTAN P MALICSE RIELVEN T TELEN October 2019 CHAPTER І INTRODUCTION Background of the Study This study seeks to address an area which has been neglected in corrections research for the past several decades. Specifically, this study aims to determine how inmates coping psychological and physical well-being in jail, what activities they engage in, and what motivates their involvement. Broadly, Researcher want to understand whether inmates serve their time by passing through it or by using it. In addition, this study explores how inmate time utilization is associated with psychological well-being (anxiety and depression). For instance, do inmates engage in certain activities in order to cope with the stress of incarceration, and how successful are they in their coping efforts? (Vuk, 2017) The researchers who examined the aspects of formal time utilization—activities scheduled by prison administration—focused on availability of programs and on inmate participation in work, educational, vocational, and treatment programs. It is important to investigate these effects because despite of the “tough-on-crime” movement that led to a reduction in many recreational opportunities, the majority of the public supports allowing inmates to access many amenities and resources for spending their time constructively (Applegate, 2001; Johnson, Bennet, & Flangan, 1997; Wozniak, 2016). Therefore, exploring how engagement in these informal pursuits is associated with inmates’ emotional well-being is crucial. Even though criminologists recognize the importance of investigating conditions of confinement and their effects on well-being and recidivism (see Andrews & Bonta, 2010b; Cullen & Gendreau, 2001). This study uses the stress-coping framework developed by Lazarus to explain the inmate psychological well-being (Lazarus, 1966; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The stress-coping framework posits that negative emotional and behavioral outcomes are responses to stressors in the environment, and individuals cope with these stressors by utilizing various coping methods (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). In this study, Researcher examine two domains of time utilization: inmates’ evaluation of using time productively and their objective assessment of time spent in different activities. The first domain includes the examination of inmates’ experience of idleness, future orientation, and preparation for release. All of these dimensions indicate inmates’ subjective awareness of time and perception of constructive time use. I also examine how these elements relate to inmate well-being. The second domain includes objective measures of time utilization and motivation for engagement in activities, serving as coping mechanisms in dealing with perceived stress. This study adds to the extant body of literature by placing time utilization into the context of modern corrections. Second, by treating engagement in different activities as coping methods, this study examines what meaning male inmates attribute to various activities and how this function of coping relates to well-being. The researcher thorough to conduct Inmate Ways of Coping Psychological and Physical Well-Being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte. Significance of the Study The conduct of the study is beneficial to the following: To the inmate, to provide them the better improvement to recover their frustration, anxiety and sadness inside provincial jail. And they may develop positive thoughts instead of giving up. To the family of the inmates, to ensure that their family members are well protected by the government and assurance that in a good condition to perform series of activities inside jail. To the future researchers, that they may give more knowledge about coping strategies of inmate inside provincial jail and used as reference in conducting new research. Theoretical Framework Rehabilitation Theory has long been a contentious topic in the fields of both criminology and penology. The term “rehabilitation” itself simply means the process of helping a person to readapt to society or to restore someone to a former position or rank. However, this concept has taken on many different meanings over the years and waxed and waned in popularity as a principle of sentencing or justification for punishment. The means used to achieve reform in prisons have also varied over time, beginning with silence, isolation, labor, and punishment, then moving onto medically based interventions including drugs and psychosurgery. More recently, educational, vocational, and psychologically based programs, as well as specialized services for specific problems, have typically been put forward as means to reform prisoners during their sentence. In the latter part of the 19th century, the penitentiary gave way to the reformatory, which attempted to rehabilitate offenders through educational and vocational training, in conjunction with quasi-military regimes. Reformatories introduced a system of classification of prisoners that allowed for their individualized treatment. Prisoners progressed through graded stages contingent on their conduct and performance in programs. They could even work toward early release. Reformatories, although developed around the concept of rehabilitation, continued to advocate physical punishment for nonconformity and later regressed to more punitive regimens consistent with the reemergence of retribution at that time. Social control theory proposes that people's relationships, commitments, values, norms, and beliefs encourage them not to break the law. Thus, if moral codes are internalized and individuals are tied into and have a stake in their wider community, they will voluntarily limit their propensity to commit deviant acts. The theory seeks to understand the ways in which it is possible to reduce the likelihood of criminality developing in individuals (Amante et, al). It does not consider motivational issues, simply stating that human beings may choose to engage in a wide range of activities, unless the range is limited by the processes of socialization and social learning. The theory derives from a Hobbesian view of human nature as represented in Leviathan, i.e. that all choices are constrained by implicit social contracts, agreements and arrangements among people. Thus, morality is created in the construction of social order, assigning costs and consequences to certain choices and defining some as evil, immoral and/or illegal (Amante et, al). Therefore the researcher look forward, whether the two theories can be applied during the conduct of research in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte. Schematic Diagram Independent Variables Dependent Variables INMATE WAYS OF COPING PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL WELL BEING RESPONDENT’S EXPERIENCE Motivational Factors Watching TV Depression Work Anxiety School Frustration Individual Counseling Group Counseling Group Activities Group Sports Reading Exercise Figure 1. The schematic diagram shows the interplay between independent and dependent variables of the study. Statement of the Problem This Study aims to know the Inmate Ways of Coping Psychological and Physical Well-Being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte. Specifically, it sought to answer the following queries: ? 1) What is the Respondents Experience in terms of: 1.1 Depression 1.2 Anxiety 1.3 Frustration 2) Is these factors affects the Inmate Ways of Coping Psychological and Physical Well-being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte Regarding: 2.1 Motivational Factors 3) Is there a significant difference on the factors that affects the Inmate Ways of Coping Psychological and Physical Well-being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte regarding: 3.1 Motivational Factors Hypothesis Ho1 There is no significant difference on the factors that affects Inmate Ways of Coping Psychological and Physical Well-being in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte. Scope and Limitations of the Study This study focused only in Provincial Jail, Agsuan del Norte. And the Respondents are the inmate in Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte. This study focused on what inmate ways of coping psychological and physical well being inside Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte. This study is limited only in knowing the strategies of the inmate on how they cope up their time to spent different activities inside Provincial Jail, Agusan del Norte. The honesty of the respondents in answering the questionnaire is beyond the jurisdiction of the researcher, hence, it serves us as one of the limitation of the study. Definition of Terms Agusan del Norte – refers to the region where the provincial jail belong. Anxiety – refers to something with an uncertain outcome. Community – refers to the area where the study will be conducted. Depression – it is the negative emotional feelings of a persons. Frustration – it refers to the distress or inability to achieve something. Group Activities – it composed of two or more person combined each other to perform actions within single team. Motivational Factors – it refers to the series of encouragement program that requires certain action of a persons. Physical well-being – it is the body of a person that function regularly. Provincial jail – it is the area where the respondents are convicted. Psychological – refers to the emotional and mental state of a person. Rehabilitation – it refers to the restoring a person through imprisonment and series of therapy inside prison or jail. CHAPTER ІІ Review of Related Literature According to Harreveld, der Pligt, & Van Dijk, (2007), The study investigated the relation between coping strategies of inmates and their psychological and physical well-being. General affective states such as optimism were related to both psychological and physical well-being. Moreover, inmates who experienced specific negative emotions such as regret, anxiety, and sadness reported more psychological and physical complaints. The way in which inmates coped with these negative emotions was also important. Inmates who used an active emotion-focused coping strategy were in better health than inmates inclined to keep their negative feelings to themselves. Emotion-focused coping by sharing negative emotions with people in one's social network can help to increase both psychological and physical well-being. Engaging in emotion management in a more cognitive way, by emphasizing positive aspects of the situation, can help to reduce the intensity of negative emotions. Possible research and policy implications of these results are discussed. According to Wooldrege, J. D. (1999). This study examined how inmate psychological well-being is influenced by participation in institutional programs, frequency of visitation with outsiders, and experiences with victimization during incarceration. Participants were 581 adult inmates from three Ohio correctional facilities. Support was found for the hypotheses that healthier attitudes correspond with greater program participation, more frequent visitation, and no experience with victimization. The policy implications of these findings are presented.