# unit 1 practice packet new

```PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
RegentsChemistry:Mr.Palermo
PracticePacket
Unit1:TheNatureof
Science
Vocabulary:_______________
Lesson1:__________________
Lesson2:__________________
Lesson3:__________________
Lesson4:__________________
Lesson5:__________________
Lesson6:__________________
Lesson7:__________________
www.mrpalermo.com
1
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
VOCABULARY
Foreachword,provideashortbutspecificdefinitionfromYOUROWNBRAIN!Noboringtextbookdefinitions.
Writesomethingtohelpyouremembertheword.Explainthewordasifyouwereexplainingittoan
elementaryschoolstudent.Giveanexampleifyoucan.Don’tusethewordsgiveninyourdefinition!
Argument:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Explanation:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SignificantFigures:__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Density:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
absolutezero:________________________________________________________________________________________________________
accuracy:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Celsius:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
gram:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
kelvin:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
liter:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
mass:__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
matter:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
meniscus:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
meter:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
model:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
percenterror:________________________________________________________________________________________________________
precision:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
scientificnotation:___________________________________________________________________________________________________
volume:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
waterdisplacement:_________________________________________________________________________________________________
www.mrpalermo.com
2
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson1:TheNatureofScience
Objective:
• Differentiatebetweenatheoryandalaw
• Differentiatebetweenahypothesisandatheory
• Explainhowmodelsareusedinauthenticscientificinquiry
TheNatureofScienceAssessment
(SelectTrueorFalse)
______
HYPOTHESESBECOMETHEORIESOVERTIMETHATINTURNBECOMELAWS
______
SCIENTIFICLAWSAREABSOLUTE
______
AHYPOTHESISISANEDUCATEDGUESS
______
THESCIENTIFICMETHODISAUNIVERSALSTEPBYSTEPPROCEDURETHATALLSCIENTISTSWHO
CONDUCTRESEARCHFOLLOW
______
CAREFULLYCOLLECTEDEVIDENCEWILLRESULTINSUREKNOWLEDGE
______
SCIENCEANDITSMETHODSPROVIDEABSOLUTE
______
SCIENCEISMOREPROCEDURALTHANCREATIVE
______
______
SCIENTISTSAREOBJECTIVEINTHEIRWORK
______
EXPERIMENTSARETHEPRINCIPALROUTETOSCIENTIFICKNOWLEDGE
______
SCIENTIFICCONCLUSIONSAREREVIEWEDFORACCURACYBYOTHERSCIENTISTS
______
ACCEPTANCEOFNEWSCIENTIFICKNOWLEDGEISSTRAIGHTFORWARD
______
SCIENTIFICMODELSREPRESENTREALITY
______
SCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYAREIDENTICAL
______
SCIENCEISANINDIVIDUALPURSUIT
www.mrpalermo.com
3
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
demonstration.
Nowdrawamodelbelowthatisconsistentwithyourobservationsandinferences:
Nowletsbuildyourmodeltotestit.Ifyoudonotgetthesameobservationsthengobackandrethinkyou
model.Thenrebuildyournewmodelandtestitagain.Keepgoinguntilyouaresatisfiedthatyourmodel
isagoodrepresentationoftheblackbox.
www.mrpalermo.com
4
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson2:ScientificArgumentation
Objective:
Differentiatebetweenaclaim,evidence,andreasoning
Constructascientificargument
ScientificArgumentation:
1. Whydoscientistsmakearguments?
2. Whatarethe3partsofaScientificArgument?
3. Whatisaclaim?
4. Whatisevidence?
5. Whatisreasoning?
Completethechartbelow.
8. Doyouthinkthisissufficientevidencetosupporttheclaim?Explain.
www.mrpalermo.com
5
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
ConstructingaScientificArgument
Youperformaninvestigationtodetermineificefloatsinrubbingalcohol.Firstyoumakeaprediction(whatyou
thinkwillhappenbasedonpriorknowledge/experiences).
Ipredictthaticewillsink/floatinalcohol.
Nowdeterminehowyouwillconductyourexperiment.Onceyourgrouphasdecidedhowyouwillproceedyou
canstartyourinvestigationandcollectyourevidence.Recordyourdatabelow.
Evidence:
Nowthatyouhaveyourevidence,makeaclaimregardingtheinitialquestion“doesicefloatorsinkinrubbing
alcohol?”
Claim:
thisiswhereyoujustifywhytheclaimissupportedbytheevidenceusingacceptedscientificprinciples.
Reasoning:
www.mrpalermo.com
6
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson3:MetricConversions
Objective:
• Definechemistry,matteranddifferentiatehowmattercanbedescribed.
• Convertbetweenunitsofmeasurement
2. Ifasubstanceweighs2.00gramsandyouneedthemassinkilograms,willthenumberappeartobecome
3. Ifaliquidhasavolumeof5800mLandyouneedthemassinLiters,willthenumberappeartobecomesmaller
4. Convertthefollowing:Showyourwork!!
900km=
__________m
568mm=
__________m
200kg =
__________g
52mg =
__________g
5.00m =
__________km 0.025J =
__________mJ
7000J =
__________kJ
0.859s=
__________ms
800cm=
__________m
0.0256m=
__________um
20cg=
__________g
0.000589g=__________ng
2.0L=
__________cL
www.mrpalermo.com
7
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
5. HowmanyCelsiusdegreesseparatethefreezingandboilingpointsofwater?_______
Whatarethesetwotemperatures?________&_________
6. Whatisthelowestpossibletemperaturein°C?_________
7. HowmanyKelvinseparatethefreezingandboilingpointsofwater?______
Whatarethesetwotemperatures?________&________
8. WhatisthelowestpossibletemperatureinKelvin?__________
9. Convertthefollowingtemperatures:
383K
80°C
323K
10°C
-10°C
243K
10. UsingTableSinyourreferencetablewhattemperaturedoesSulfurmeltat?
11. WhattemperaturedoesSulfurfreezeat?
REGENTSPRACTICE
1. Which quantity of heat is equal to 400. joules?
a. 40.0 kJ
b. 4.00 kJ
c. 0.400 kJ
d. 0.0400 kJ
3. Which Celsius temperature is equivalent to 150K?
a. -123 °C
b. 423 °C
c. -50 °C
d. 50 °C
2. Which Kelvin temperature is equivalent to −24°C?
a. 226 K
b. 249 K
c. 273 K
d. 297 K
4. What volume is equal to 500 mL?
a. 0.500 L
b. 50.0 L
c. 500,000 L
d. 5
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
www.mrpalermo.com
8
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson4:Density
Objective:
•
•
•
Determinethevolumeofasubstance
CalculateDensity/Mass/Volume
Foreachproblembelow,writetheequationandshowyourwork.Alwaysuseunitsandboxinyourfinal
1. Generally,whatphaseofmatter(solid,liquidorgas)hasthelowestdensity?Highest?
2. 4.Bubblesinsodarisetothesurface.Explainthisintermsofdensity.
3. Thedensityofsilver(Ag)is10.5g/cm3.FindthemassofAgthatoccupies965cm3ofspace.
4. A2.75kgsampleofasubstanceoccupiesavolumeof250.0cm3.Finditsdensitying/cm3.
250.0gofO2underthesameconditions.
7. Thedensityofethanolis0.789g/mLat20oC.Findthemassofasampleofethanolthathasavolumeof
150.0mLatthistemperature.
www.mrpalermo.com
9
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
g/cm3,calculatethemassoftheblock.
9. Anirregularly-shapedsampleofaluminum(Al)isputonabalanceandfoundtohaveamassof43.6g.The
sampleing/cm3.(Remember:1mL=1cm3.)
REGENTSPRACTICE
1. Acubeofgold(Au)hasasidelengthof1.55cm.Ifthesampleisfoundtohaveamassof71.9g,findthedensity
ofAu.
2.Themassofasolidis3.60gramsanditsvolumeis1.8cubiccentimeters.Whatisthedensityofthesolid,
expressedtothecorrectnumberofsignificantfigures?
a. 5g/cm3
b. 2.0g/cm3
c. 0.5g/cm3
d. 0.05g/cm3
onthemolecularlevel.Besuretolabelwhichboxrepresentswhichformofarsenic.
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
www.mrpalermo.com
10
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson5:Precision(SignificantFiguresinMeasurement)
Objective:
•
•
•
•
Determinetheaccuracyofameasurement
Identifytheprecisionofameasuringdevice.
Identifytheamountofsignificantfiguresinanumber
1. Thefollowingpicturesrepresentdartboards.Labeleachasaccurate,precise,both,orneither.
2. Workinginthelaboratory,astudentfindsthedensityofapieceofpurealuminumtobe2.85g/cm3.Theaccepted
valueforthedensityofaluminumis2.699g/cm3.Determinethepercenterror.
3. Determinethemeasurementandtheprecisionforeachexample.
Example
Measurement
Precision(whatplacevaluedid
youestimateto?)
www.mrpalermo.com
11
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Determinethenumberofsigfigs:
4. 1.0cm
__________
5. 3.05mm __________
6. 0.505pm __________
7. 500mL __________
8. 4.050g
__________
9. 2.500kg __________
10. 0.0008µg __________
11. 0.12g
__________
12. 0.000084g
__________
13. 9.9g
__________
Roundeachnumberto3sigfigs
23. 98.473L __________
24. 0.00076321g
__________
25. 57.048m __________
26. 12.17C
__________
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
1000mL 4,100,000mm
3.020g
6.02x1023m
0.0000098kg
23.5C
9,001,000µm
12.560g 0.02300kJ REGENTSPRACTICE
1.Whichmassmeasurementcontainsfour
significantfigures?
a.
b.
c.
d.
0.086g
0.431g
1003g
3870g
a.
b.
c.
d.
0.08cm
0.080cm
800cm
8.08cm
3.Whichmeasurementhasthegreatestnumberof
significantfigures?
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.Whichmeasurementcontainsthreesignificant
figures?
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
6.060mg
60.6mg
606mg
60600mg
4. Whichmeasurementcontainstheleastnumberof
significantfigures?
a. 0.4500
b. 45.00
c. 4500
d. 4.500
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
www.mrpalermo.com
12
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson6:RoundingwithSigFigs
Objective:
Ifapieceofglasswareisverypreciseitmayhavealotofsigfigs,asmanyas4.Alessaccuratepieceofglassware
suchasabeakerwillonlyhave1sigfig.Ifbothpiecesofglasswareareusedtomeasurequantitiesinalabwehave
toroundourresultstotheleastprecisemeasurement.Whenworkingwithmeasurementsthequantitywiththe
leastdecimalplacesistheleastprecise.Forexample,ifthebeakermeasures10mLandacylindermeasures
placesgiven.
Completethefollowingoperationsandreporttothecorrectnumberofsignificantfigures.
1.
10.2+21
________
5.0.023-0.0004
_______
2.
31.3+54.45 ________
6.5.068-0.1 _______
3.
22.59+21
________
7.45.6-22.12+11 _______
4.
1.023+20.1 ________
8.0.0123+5.689–0.014
_______
Whenperformingcalculationswithourdatasometimeswehavetomultiplyanddivideourdata.Inthiscase,the
shouldroundtotheleastnumberofsigfigsgiven.Forexample,ifthemassofasubstanceis10.0grams(3sigfigs)
andthevolumeis2mL(1sigfig)thedensityis5g/mLalso(1sigfig).Theruleis:
Multiplication/DivisionRule:
Completethefollowingoperationsandreporttothecorrectnumberofsignificantfigures.
9.
5.87*2.1
________
13.589/12 _______
10.
4*78 ________
14.78.632/52.3
_______
11.
0.0235*9
________
12.
0.014*0.01 ________
www.mrpalermo.com
13
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
REGENTSPRACTICE
ofsignificantfiguresshouldthecalculatedvolumeofthealuminumsamplebeexpressed?
a.
b.
c.
d.
1
2
3
4
2.Asampleofanelementhasamassof34.261gramsandavolumeof3.8cubiccentimeters.Towhichnumberof
significantfiguresshouldthecalculateddensityofthesamplebeexpressed?
a.
b.
c.
d.
5
2
3
4
3.Astudentcalculatesthedensityofanunknownsolid.Themassis10.04grams,andthevolumeis8.21cubic
a.
b.
c.
d.
1
2
3
4
4.Expressedtothecorrectnumberofsignificantfigures,thesumoftwomassesis445.2grams.Whichtwo
a.
b.
c.
d.
210.10g+235.100g
210.100g+235.10g
210.1g+235.1g
210.10g+235.10g
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
www.mrpalermo.com
14
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson7:ScientificNotation
Objective:
•
•
Convertnumbersintoscientificnotationandstandardnotation
Calculatemathematicaloperationsusingscientificnotation
Converteachofthefollowingtoscientificnotation
Number
ScientificNotation
1.)
200
2.)
250.
3.)
1000
4.)
200, 000
5.)
2100.
Converteachofthefollowingtostandardnotation
6.)
ScientificNotation
3
3.56 X10 7.)
7.982 X10
8.)
8.3400 X10
9.)
7.02 X10
10.)
6.6 X10
11
-4
34
15
StandardNotation
www.mrpalermo.com
15
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Calculation
11.)
12.)
13.)
14.)
15.)
16.)
(4.215x10-2)+(3.2x10-4)= (3.4x106)(4.2x103)=
(8.97x104)–(2.62x103)=
(6.73x10-5)(2.91x102)=
(6.4x106)/(8.9x102)=
(3.2x103)/(5.7x10-2)=
REGENTSPRACTICE
1.Whichquantityisequivalentto50kiloJoules?
a.
b.
c.
d.
5000J
0.05J
5×103J
5×104J
2.Whatisthevolumeoftheoftherectanglebelowifthelengthis2.54x10-3mthewidthis2.23x10-4mandthe
heightis1.35x10-3m?
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
www.mrpalermo.com
16
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
BabyDiesInHospital,AndParentsPlantoSue
ByBRUCELAMBERTPublished:February09,2002
Hewastheirfirstchild,andAnaandGiovanniVargasfearedtheymightlosehimevenbeforebirth.Doctors
discoveredaheartvalvedefectandcalledthepregnancyhigh-risk.ButlittleGianniwasbornfull-termby
CaesareansectiononJan.30,weighingalmost8pounds.
ButthenaseeminglytinymistakeoccurredwhileGianniwasrecuperatingintheneonatalintensivecareunitof
StonyBrookUniversityHospitalinStonyBrook,N.Y.Amissingdecimalpointinaprescriptionresultedinatenfold
overdoseofintravenouspotassiumchloride,theVargasessaidtheyweretoldbyhospitalofficials,andGiannidied
earlyTuesday.
OnlyafterGianni'sdeathdidhismotherandfatherholdhimintheirarmsforthefirsttime.''IamangrybecauseI
wassoclosetobringinghimhome,''Mr.Vargassaidyesterdayatanewsconference.Hiswife,anativeofthe
DominicanRepublicwhospokethroughaninterpreter,saidshecouldnotexplainhowshefelt.
Thecouple,wholiveinBrentwood,appearedintheLakeGroveofficeoftheirlawyer,DavidRaimondo,and
announcedthattheywerefilinganoticeofclaimasapreludetoamalpracticelawsuitforwrongfuldeath.
Thehospitalacknowledgedtheinfant'sdeath,whichNewsdayreportedyesterday,andorderedanimmediate
internalinvestigation.Asrequired,italsonotifiedtheStateHealthDepartment,whichstarteditsowninquiry.
''Wearesincerelysorryandextendtothegrievingfamilyourheartfeltcondolences,''saidthehospital'sdirector,
BruceSchroffel.''Weareconductingathoroughinvestigationofthisbaby'sdeathtodeterminewhatstepsare
necessarytoensurethatthiswillneverhappenagain.''
involved,theysay.
Vargasessaidtheyweretold.Theysaidtheydidnotknowwhowrotetheprescription.
ofbynurses,andtheuseofcomputerizedsystemsthatautomaticallychallengeprescriptionsthatappeartobe
inappropriate.
StonyBrookhospitaldeclinedtocommentonwhetheritusespharmaciststopreparepotassiumchlorideandifit
membersinvolved.Thehospitalwouldnotsayhowmanypeoplethatis.
www.mrpalermo.com
17
PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
''Medicationerrorsarefixable,andthereisnoexcuseforthemoccurringattheratetheyare,''saidArthurA.Levin,
whowasonthecommitteethatwrote''ToErrIsHuman,''a1999reportonmedicalmistakeswrittenforthe
Thenationalgroupthatreviewshospitals,theJointCommissiononAccreditationofHealthcareOrganizations,
namedpotassiumchlorideasaproblem-pronemedicationin1999.Inanotherreportlastyearonprescriptions,
thegroupstressedthecriticalimportanceofthedecimalpoint,especiallyinhandwrittendocuments.