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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
RegentsChemistry:Mr.Palermo
PracticePacket
Unit1:TheNatureof
Science
Vocabulary:_______________
Lesson1:__________________
Lesson2:__________________
Lesson3:__________________
Lesson4:__________________
Lesson5:__________________
Lesson6:__________________
Lesson7:__________________
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
VOCABULARY
Foreachword,provideashortbutspecificdefinitionfromYOUROWNBRAIN!Noboringtextbookdefinitions.
Writesomethingtohelpyouremembertheword.Explainthewordasifyouwereexplainingittoan
elementaryschoolstudent.Giveanexampleifyoucan.Don’tusethewordsgiveninyourdefinition!
Argument:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Explanation:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SignificantFigures:__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Density:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
absolutezero:________________________________________________________________________________________________________
accuracy:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Celsius:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
gram:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
kelvin:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
liter:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
mass:__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
matter:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
meniscus:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
meter:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
model:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
percenterror:________________________________________________________________________________________________________
precision:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
scientificnotation:___________________________________________________________________________________________________
volume:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
waterdisplacement:_________________________________________________________________________________________________
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson1:TheNatureofScience
Objective:
• Differentiatebetweenatheoryandalaw
• Differentiatebetweenahypothesisandatheory
• Explainhowmodelsareusedinauthenticscientificinquiry
TheNatureofScienceAssessment
(SelectTrueorFalse)
______
HYPOTHESESBECOMETHEORIESOVERTIMETHATINTURNBECOMELAWS
______
SCIENTIFICLAWSAREABSOLUTE
______
AHYPOTHESISISANEDUCATEDGUESS
______
THESCIENTIFICMETHODISAUNIVERSALSTEPBYSTEPPROCEDURETHATALLSCIENTISTSWHO
CONDUCTRESEARCHFOLLOW
______
CAREFULLYCOLLECTEDEVIDENCEWILLRESULTINSUREKNOWLEDGE
______
SCIENCEANDITSMETHODSPROVIDEABSOLUTE
______
SCIENCEISMOREPROCEDURALTHANCREATIVE
______
SCIENCEANDITSMETHODSCANANSWERALLQUESTIONS
______
SCIENTISTSAREOBJECTIVEINTHEIRWORK
______
EXPERIMENTSARETHEPRINCIPALROUTETOSCIENTIFICKNOWLEDGE
______
SCIENTIFICCONCLUSIONSAREREVIEWEDFORACCURACYBYOTHERSCIENTISTS
______
ACCEPTANCEOFNEWSCIENTIFICKNOWLEDGEISSTRAIGHTFORWARD
______
SCIENTIFICMODELSREPRESENTREALITY
______
SCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYAREIDENTICAL
______
SCIENCEISANINDIVIDUALPURSUIT
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Modeling:Asagroup,writedownalltheobservationsandinferencesthatyoucanabouttheblackbox
demonstration.
Nowdrawamodelbelowthatisconsistentwithyourobservationsandinferences:
Nowletsbuildyourmodeltotestit.Ifyoudonotgetthesameobservationsthengobackandrethinkyou
model.Thenrebuildyournewmodelandtestitagain.Keepgoinguntilyouaresatisfiedthatyourmodel
isagoodrepresentationoftheblackbox.
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson2:ScientificArgumentation
Objective:
Differentiatebetweenaclaim,evidence,andreasoning
Constructascientificargument
ScientificArgumentation:
1. Whydoscientistsmakearguments?
2. Whatarethe3partsofaScientificArgument?
3. Whatisaclaim?
4. Whatisevidence?
5. Whatisreasoning?
6. Reasoninglinksthe_______________________(data)tothe_________________________.
7. IsthedataappropriateandsufficienttosupporttheclaimthatMr.Palermoisagoodbasketballplayer?
Completethechartbelow.
8. Doyouthinkthisissufficientevidencetosupporttheclaim?Explain.
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
ConstructingaScientificArgument
Youperformaninvestigationtodetermineificefloatsinrubbingalcohol.Firstyoumakeaprediction(whatyou
thinkwillhappenbasedonpriorknowledge/experiences).
Ipredictthaticewillsink/floatinalcohol.
Nowdeterminehowyouwillconductyourexperiment.Onceyourgrouphasdecidedhowyouwillproceedyou
canstartyourinvestigationandcollectyourevidence.Recordyourdatabelow.
Evidence:
Nowthatyouhaveyourevidence,makeaclaimregardingtheinitialquestion“doesicefloatorsinkinrubbing
alcohol?”
Claim:
Lastly,providescientificreasoningastowhytheicefloatsorsinksinthealcohol.JustlikeaDBQinsocialstudies,
thisiswhereyoujustifywhytheclaimissupportedbytheevidenceusingacceptedscientificprinciples.
Reasoning:
LabGradingRubricforCER
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson3:MetricConversions
Objective:
• Definechemistry,matteranddifferentiatehowmattercanbedescribed.
• Convertbetweenunitsofmeasurement
1. Completethefollowingnumberlinebyaddingtheprefixesthatpertaintothemarkedvalues:
2. Ifasubstanceweighs2.00gramsandyouneedthemassinkilograms,willthenumberappeartobecome
smallerorlarger?Explainyouranswer.
3. Ifaliquidhasavolumeof5800mLandyouneedthemassinLiters,willthenumberappeartobecomesmaller
orlarger?Explainyouranswer.
4. Convertthefollowing:Showyourwork!!
900km=
__________m
568mm=
__________m
200kg =
__________g
52mg =
__________g
5.00m =
__________km 0.025J =
__________mJ
7000J =
__________kJ
0.859s=
__________ms
800cm=
__________m
0.0256m=
__________um
20cg=
__________g
0.000589g=__________ng
2.0L=
__________cL
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
5. HowmanyCelsiusdegreesseparatethefreezingandboilingpointsofwater?_______
Whatarethesetwotemperatures?________&_________
6. Whatisthelowestpossibletemperaturein°C?_________
7. HowmanyKelvinseparatethefreezingandboilingpointsofwater?______
Whatarethesetwotemperatures?________&________
8. WhatisthelowestpossibletemperatureinKelvin?__________
9. Convertthefollowingtemperatures:
383K
80°C
323K
10°C
-10°C
243K
10. UsingTableSinyourreferencetablewhattemperaturedoesSulfurmeltat?
11. WhattemperaturedoesSulfurfreezeat?
REGENTSPRACTICE
1. Which quantity of heat is equal to 400. joules?
a. 40.0 kJ
b. 4.00 kJ
c. 0.400 kJ
d. 0.0400 kJ
3. Which Celsius temperature is equivalent to 150K?
a. -123 °C
b. 423 °C
c. -50 °C
d. 50 °C
2. Which Kelvin temperature is equivalent to −24°C?
a. 226 K
b. 249 K
c. 273 K
d. 297 K
4. What volume is equal to 500 mL?
a. 0.500 L
b. 50.0 L
c. 500,000 L
d. 5
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson4:Density
Objective:
•
•
•
Determinethevolumeofasubstance
CalculateDensity/Mass/Volume
Foreachproblembelow,writetheequationandshowyourwork.Alwaysuseunitsandboxinyourfinal
answer.
1. Generally,whatphaseofmatter(solid,liquidorgas)hasthelowestdensity?Highest?
2. 4.Bubblesinsodarisetothesurface.Explainthisintermsofdensity.
3. Thedensityofsilver(Ag)is10.5g/cm3.FindthemassofAgthatoccupies965cm3ofspace.
4. A2.75kgsampleofasubstanceoccupiesavolumeof250.0cm3.Finditsdensitying/cm3.
5. Undercertainconditions,oxygengas(O2)hasadensityof0.00134g/mL.Findthevolumeoccupiedby
250.0gofO2underthesameconditions.
6. Findthevolumethat35.2gofcarbontetrachloride(CCl4)willoccupyifithasadensityof1.60g/mL.
7. Thedensityofethanolis0.789g/mLat20oC.Findthemassofasampleofethanolthathasavolumeof
150.0mLatthistemperature.
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
8. Arectangularblockoflead(Pb)measures20.0mmX30.0mmX45.0mm.IfthedensityofPbis11.34
g/cm3,calculatethemassoftheblock.
9. Anirregularly-shapedsampleofaluminum(Al)isputonabalanceandfoundtohaveamassof43.6g.The
studentdecidestousethewater-displacementmethodtofindthevolume.Theinitialvolumereadingis
25.5mLand,aftertheAlsampleisadded,thewaterlevelhasrisento41.7mL.FindthedensityoftheAl
sampleing/cm3.(Remember:1mL=1cm3.)
REGENTSPRACTICE
1. Acubeofgold(Au)hasasidelengthof1.55cm.Ifthesampleisfoundtohaveamassof71.9g,findthedensity
ofAu.
2.Themassofasolidis3.60gramsanditsvolumeis1.8cubiccentimeters.Whatisthedensityofthesolid,
expressedtothecorrectnumberofsignificantfigures?
a. 5g/cm3
b. 2.0g/cm3
c. 0.5g/cm3
d. 0.05g/cm3
3.Inthesolidphase,arsenicoccursintwoforms.Oneform,yellowarsenic,hasadensityof1.97g/cm3atSTP.The
otherform,grayarsenic,hasadensityof5.78g/cm3atSTP.Inthe2boxesbelow,modelwhateachwouldlooklike
onthemolecularlevel.Besuretolabelwhichboxrepresentswhichformofarsenic.
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson5:Precision(SignificantFiguresinMeasurement)
Objective:
•
•
•
•
Determinetheaccuracyofameasurement
Identifytheprecisionofameasuringdevice.
Identifytheamountofsignificantfiguresinanumber
1. Thefollowingpicturesrepresentdartboards.Labeleachasaccurate,precise,both,orneither.
2. Workinginthelaboratory,astudentfindsthedensityofapieceofpurealuminumtobe2.85g/cm3.Theaccepted
valueforthedensityofaluminumis2.699g/cm3.Determinethepercenterror.
3. Determinethemeasurementandtheprecisionforeachexample.
Example
Measurement
Precision(whatplacevaluedid
youestimateto?)
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Determinethenumberofsigfigs:
4. 1.0cm
__________
5. 3.05mm __________
6. 0.505pm __________
7. 500mL __________
8. 4.050g
__________
9. 2.500kg __________
10. 0.0008µg __________
11. 0.12g
__________
12. 0.000084g
__________
13. 9.9g
__________
Roundeachnumberto3sigfigs
23. 98.473L __________
24. 0.00076321g
__________
25. 57.048m __________
26. 12.17C
__________
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
1000mL 4,100,000mm
3.020g
6.02x1023m
0.0000098kg
23.5C
9,001,000µm
12.560g 0.02300kJ REGENTSPRACTICE
1.Whichmassmeasurementcontainsfour
significantfigures?
a.
b.
c.
d.
0.086g
0.431g
1003g
3870g
a.
b.
c.
d.
0.08cm
0.080cm
800cm
8.08cm
3.Whichmeasurementhasthegreatestnumberof
significantfigures?
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.Whichmeasurementcontainsthreesignificant
figures?
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
6.060mg
60.6mg
606mg
60600mg
4. Whichmeasurementcontainstheleastnumberof
significantfigures?
a. 0.4500
b. 45.00
c. 4500
d. 4.500
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson6:RoundingwithSigFigs
Objective:
• Roundanswerstopropersigfigsincalculations
Ifapieceofglasswareisverypreciseitmayhavealotofsigfigs,asmanyas4.Alessaccuratepieceofglassware
suchasabeakerwillonlyhave1sigfig.Ifbothpiecesofglasswareareusedtomeasurequantitiesinalabwehave
toroundourresultstotheleastprecisemeasurement.Whenworkingwithmeasurementsthequantitywiththe
leastdecimalplacesistheleastprecise.Forexample,ifthebeakermeasures10mLandacylindermeasures
10.1mLthecylinderismoreprecise.Ifthetwoquantitiesareaddedtogetherthenewvolumeis20mL.Thedecimal
mustberoundedtomakeouranswertoonesigfig.Thereforetheruleis:
Addition/SubtractionRule:
• Whenaddingorsubtractingmeasurements,roundyouranswertothelowestnumberofdecimal
placesgiven.
Completethefollowingoperationsandreporttothecorrectnumberofsignificantfigures.
1.
10.2+21
________
5.0.023-0.0004
_______
2.
31.3+54.45 ________
6.5.068-0.1 _______
3.
22.59+21
________
7.45.6-22.12+11 _______
4.
1.023+20.1 ________
8.0.0123+5.689–0.014
_______
Whenperformingcalculationswithourdatasometimeswehavetomultiplyanddivideourdata.Inthiscase,the
mostpreciseansweristheonewiththemostsigfigs.Sinceweneedtoroundtoourleastprecisemeasurement,we
shouldroundtotheleastnumberofsigfigsgiven.Forexample,ifthemassofasubstanceis10.0grams(3sigfigs)
andthevolumeis2mL(1sigfig)thedensityis5g/mLalso(1sigfig).Theruleis:
Multiplication/DivisionRule:
• Roundyouranswertotheleastnumberofsignificantfiguresgiven
Completethefollowingoperationsandreporttothecorrectnumberofsignificantfigures.
9.
5.87*2.1
________
13.589/12 _______
10.
4*78 ________
14.78.632/52.3
_______
11.
0.0235*9
________
12.
0.014*0.01 ________
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
REGENTSPRACTICE
1.Analuminumsamplehasamassof80.01gandadensityof2.70g/cm3.Accordingtothedata,towhatnumber
ofsignificantfiguresshouldthecalculatedvolumeofthealuminumsamplebeexpressed?
a.
b.
c.
d.
1
2
3
4
2.Asampleofanelementhasamassof34.261gramsandavolumeof3.8cubiccentimeters.Towhichnumberof
significantfiguresshouldthecalculateddensityofthesamplebeexpressed?
a.
b.
c.
d.
5
2
3
4
3.Astudentcalculatesthedensityofanunknownsolid.Themassis10.04grams,andthevolumeis8.21cubic
centimeters.Howmanysignificantfiguresshouldappearinthefinalanswer?
a.
b.
c.
d.
1
2
3
4
4.Expressedtothecorrectnumberofsignificantfigures,thesumoftwomassesis445.2grams.Whichtwo
massesproducethisanswer?
a.
b.
c.
d.
210.10g+235.100g
210.100g+235.10g
210.1g+235.1g
210.10g+235.10g
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Lesson7:ScientificNotation
Objective:
•
•
Convertnumbersintoscientificnotationandstandardnotation
Calculatemathematicaloperationsusingscientificnotation
Converteachofthefollowingtoscientificnotation
Number
ScientificNotation
1.)
200
2.)
250.
3.)
1000
4.)
200, 000
5.)
2100.
Converteachofthefollowingtostandardnotation
6.)
ScientificNotation
3
3.56 X10 7.)
7.982 X10
8.)
8.3400 X10
9.)
7.02 X10
10.)
6.6 X10
11
-4
34
15
StandardNotation
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
Calculation
11.)
12.)
13.)
14.)
15.)
16.)
Answerinstandardnotation
Answerinscientificnotation
(4.215x10-2)+(3.2x10-4)= (3.4x106)(4.2x103)=
(8.97x104)–(2.62x103)=
(6.73x10-5)(2.91x102)=
(6.4x106)/(8.9x102)=
(3.2x103)/(5.7x10-2)=
REGENTSPRACTICE
1.Whichquantityisequivalentto50kiloJoules?
a.
b.
c.
d.
5000J
0.05J
5×103J
5×104J
2.Whatisthevolumeoftheoftherectanglebelowifthelengthis2.54x10-3mthewidthis2.23x10-4mandthe
heightis1.35x10-3m?
ASSESSYOURSELFONTHISLESSON:
Ifyoumissedanyregentspracticequestionsyoushouldseemeforextrahelpand/orre-watchthe
lessonvideoassignment
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
BabyDiesInHospital,AndParentsPlantoSue
ByBRUCELAMBERTPublished:February09,2002
Hewastheirfirstchild,andAnaandGiovanniVargasfearedtheymightlosehimevenbeforebirth.Doctors
discoveredaheartvalvedefectandcalledthepregnancyhigh-risk.ButlittleGianniwasbornfull-termby
CaesareansectiononJan.30,weighingalmost8pounds.
ThenhisparentsworriedaboutwhetherhewouldsurvivedelicatecorrectiveheartsurgerylastSaturday.They
werethrilledwhentheoperationwasdeclaredasuccessanddoctorssaidhewouldgohomeinaweekorso.
ButthenaseeminglytinymistakeoccurredwhileGianniwasrecuperatingintheneonatalintensivecareunitof
StonyBrookUniversityHospitalinStonyBrook,N.Y.Amissingdecimalpointinaprescriptionresultedinatenfold
overdoseofintravenouspotassiumchloride,theVargasessaidtheyweretoldbyhospitalofficials,andGiannidied
earlyTuesday.
OnlyafterGianni'sdeathdidhismotherandfatherholdhimintheirarmsforthefirsttime.''IamangrybecauseI
wassoclosetobringinghimhome,''Mr.Vargassaidyesterdayatanewsconference.Hiswife,anativeofthe
DominicanRepublicwhospokethroughaninterpreter,saidshecouldnotexplainhowshefelt.
Thecouple,wholiveinBrentwood,appearedintheLakeGroveofficeoftheirlawyer,DavidRaimondo,and
announcedthattheywerefilinganoticeofclaimasapreludetoamalpracticelawsuitforwrongfuldeath.
Thehospitalacknowledgedtheinfant'sdeath,whichNewsdayreportedyesterday,andorderedanimmediate
internalinvestigation.Asrequired,italsonotifiedtheStateHealthDepartment,whichstarteditsowninquiry.
''Wearesincerelysorryandextendtothegrievingfamilyourheartfeltcondolences,''saidthehospital'sdirector,
BruceSchroffel.''Weareconductingathoroughinvestigationofthisbaby'sdeathtodeterminewhatstepsare
necessarytoensurethatthiswillneverhappenagain.''
Expertssaythatpoorlywrittenorcarelesslyreadprescriptionsareacommonsourceofmedicalmistakesthat
harmpatients.Andamongwronglyadministeredmedications,potassiumchlorideisoneoffivemostfrequently
involved,theysay.
Gianni'sprescriptionwassupposedtobefor3.5unitsofpotassiumchloridebutinsteadwaswrittenas35,the
Vargasessaidtheyweretold.Theysaidtheydidnotknowwhowrotetheprescription.
Recommendedpreventivemeasuresincludethepreparationofpotassiumchloridebyhospitalpharmacistsinstead
ofbynurses,andtheuseofcomputerizedsystemsthatautomaticallychallengeprescriptionsthatappeartobe
inappropriate.
StonyBrookhospitaldeclinedtocommentonwhetheritusespharmaciststopreparepotassiumchlorideandifit
hasacomputerizedprescriptionsystem.Itdidsaythatitsprocedureshadcalledforcheckingmedicationsatthree
differentsteps,andthatintheaftermathofthefatality,hospitaladministratorsdoubledthenumberofstaff
membersinvolved.Thehospitalwouldnotsayhowmanypeoplethatis.
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PRACTICEPACKET:UNIT1THENATUREOFSCIENCE
''Medicationerrorsarefixable,andthereisnoexcuseforthemoccurringattheratetheyare,''saidArthurA.Levin,
whowasonthecommitteethatwrote''ToErrIsHuman,''a1999reportonmedicalmistakeswrittenforthe
InstituteofMedicineattheNationalAcademyofSciences..
Thenationalgroupthatreviewshospitals,theJointCommissiononAccreditationofHealthcareOrganizations,
namedpotassiumchlorideasaproblem-pronemedicationin1999.Inanotherreportlastyearonprescriptions,
thegroupstressedthecriticalimportanceofthedecimalpoint,especiallyinhandwrittendocuments.
''Misinterpretationofsuchorderscouldleadtoatenfolddosingerror,''thereportsaid.
Mr.VargasmarriedAnaaftermeetingherattheirchurch.Hesaidheisaconstructionunionmemberandworked
atgroundzerofromSept.15untilhewaslaidoffonDec.17.
HeandhiswifechoseStonyBrookbecauseofitsreputationforquality,hesaid.Manyrelativeshavebeentreated
there,includinghissister,whogavebirthafewweeksago.ButMr.Vargassaidthatheandhiswifedonotintendto
return.
1. Whatisbelievedtobetheunderlyingcauseofadministeringthewrongdosage?
2. Doyouthinkleavingtheunitsofftheprescriptioncouldresultinasimilartragedy?
3. Canyouthinkofanover-the-countermedicationthatyoutakethatcouldresultinmajormedicalproblems
orevendeathbymistakenlydoublingortriplingthedosage?Giveanexample.
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