ASSLAM--O-ALIKUM ASSLAM GOOD MORNING Q:-- Ethnicity & Language In Pakistan Q: Ethnicity Ethnicity is defined as a group of people who identify with each other based on Common ancestral, social, cultural, or national experiences. Common Ethnicity Jutt Rajput Sheikh Mughal Introduction of language Language is extremly important in the development of any state or national culture. The acceptance of one single language as the national language helps bring about uniformly and a culture identity by binding a people together. A common language increase understanding and helps build a shared understanding of what a nation believers in . Types of language In pakistan many language are spoken. But the national language is urdu. It is relatively new language and over time muslims in the subcontinent have spoken a wide variety of languages. The languages are Balochi Sindhi Punjabi Phashto Language factor 1) Language is the first and formost symbol of group identity. Language is an important marker of identity . 3) Sense of identity is created by an interaction between individuals or social groups . 4) In pakistan, there are more than one dozen language spoken . Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto, Baluchi, and urdu are the most common. 5) some of the other languages spoken such as Kashmiri, Brauhvi, Hindko, Shina, Dardik, Saraiki, Pothohari, and are identifiable variants. 6) Urdu and its persian script symbolized the shared identity of Muslims in South Asia. 7) Urdu was promoted as the national language for developing identity. 8) The promotion of urdu in East pakistan could not be popularized. 9) Bengali spoken east pakistanis identified themselves with Bengali language and literature. 10) language thus is used not only as a symbol of identity but also as weapon by political leaders of an ethnic community by converting it into a pressure group to seek power. 2) Racial factor Ethnicity is equally racial. 2) For instance, in panjb, Jats and Rajputs are the two major clans or the oldest collectivities having strong ethnic bonds. Besides, other kinship structures, also called Biradries (Brotherhood) such as Shaikh, Syed, Arain, Butt_khawajas maintain their identityies and at times. 3) Identity labels of Muslims conquerors such as Lodhis, Durranis, Ghauris, Suris and Mughals were prestigious. Many locals may have adopted any one of these identies to become noble or important. 1) The national language When the sate of pakistan was set up. It’s consititution stated that urdu was the national language. It was to symbol of unity between the different region of the new country. Urdu language developed a rich litererary background which helped to promote its use. Poetry has been signifcant prevalent in urdu for centuries. Famous poets of this period are Allama Iqbal , Ghalib. English language 1) A language is tool by using that a person can be able to communicate his feelings to another person. So for the purpose of communication a common language of the world is necessary and that is english. 2) English is a west Germanic language that was first spoken in Anglosaxon England in the early ages. 3) There are about 1.121 Billion speakers in the world that’s why it is ist rank in the world. Importance of English in Pakistan In the pakistan the English has key importance in pakistan. Pakistan is the developing country has the import the technology from the other western countries and to operate these technologies English is the necessary language. All the computer language are uses as its base language. The pakistani students go abroad like USA, Canada, UK, and many other Europeans countries for the study and the scholarships. In the abroad they have to face the many challenges, and they can handle easily if they have the access on the English language. Punjabi language Punjabi is the language spoken in the most populous of pakistan provinces the punjab, through it is also spoken in other areas. Such as azad khasmir and khyber paktunkhwa. It is an easily understood language which has been given various different name throughout history. For example it has been refered to as Masoodi, Al_Hindhi and Hindko . It is through in 1080. Hafiz Barkhurdar was the first to have used the term punjabi to decide the language. Punjabi has a long history. Orignaly it was written in Gurmukhi script. But during the year latter of mughals. Bangali language Bangali is an eastern indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern south Asia known as bangal, which comprises present day Bangladesh. It is written using the bengali script. With about 193 million native and about 230 million total speakers, bengali is one of the most spoken language Sindhi language Before the arival of the muslim. Sindhi was written in the ‘Marwari’. When the arabs set tied in sindh their culture and literature had a major impact on sindhi. Many arabs words were absorbed in to the language and the language was written in the Arabic script. Sindhi is spoken as a first language by 15.5% of pakistanis. Mostly in sindh, part of balochistan, southern punjab. It has rich literature and is taught in school. It is an indo-Aryan language. Balochi language Balochi is spoken as a first language by about 4% of pakistan, mostly in Balochistan province . It is belived the language was brought to its present location in a series of migrations from the kurdistan region of northeastern iraq and northwestern iran. Phusto language Pushto is the language of the pushtons, It is an Eastern Iranian language belonging to the IndoEuropean family. Pushto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, And it is second largest language regional language of pakistan. In pakistan it is the majority language of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. concluion Over all we are pakistani and belong to a muslim country. Which seprate from hindustan on base of islam .