Biology Notes Cytology and Lab Techniques Chapter 7 Prokaryotes: Bacteria. Lack membrane-bound organelles (no nucleus, no mitochondria, etc) Eukaryotes: Animals, plants, fungi, protists. Lysosomes: Digest foreign invaders and organelles and cells that have outlived their usefulness. Diffusion: High to low concentration Osmosis: Water flows from low to high concentration Active transport: When a material goes from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. (Opposite of diffusion). Homeostasis: Equilibrium Assessment All cells have DNA and a cell membrane. All single-celled organisms reproduce Phospholipid bilayer: Makes up the membrane of cells. Chapter 8 ATP (adenosine triphosphate): The main source of energy, which is held in phosphate bonds. Photosynthesis: Sunlight converted by plants into energy stored in sugars. Chlorophyll: The pigment molecule that captures sunlight in chloroplasts in plants. Electron carriers: Transfers high-energy electrons (from photosynthesis or cellular respiration) from one molecule to another. Examples: NADH, NADPH, FADH2 Light-dependent reactions: Make energy (ATP). Use energy from the sun to produce oxygen, ATP, and NADPH Light-independent reactions (Calvin Cycle): Make sugar. The products of the light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) are used to produce sugars. Assessment Mushrooms are not plants. They’re fungi, meaning they get their energy from other living things. A single molecule of glucose stores more than 90 times the energy stored by ATP. Chlorophyll reflects green light (back to your eyes) which is why you see plants as green. NADPH is a source of energy for the Calvin Cycle (also known as the light-independent reactions) ATP Synthase: Creates ATP when H+ ions pass through it (from high concentration to low concentration). CAM plants survive in hot, dry conditions. Chapter 9 Glycolysis: Breakdown of glucose to create energy (ATP) and two molecules of pyruvic acid. Krebs Cycle: Pyruvic acid from glycolysis gets broken down to release CO2. Some ATP is generated and many electron carriers are “reloaded” in preparation for the electron transport chain. Cellular Respiration Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain. Net gain: 36 ATP (for every one glucose you put in) Cellular respiration: uses glucose from food and oxygen to generate ATP. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain take place in the mitochondria. Alcoholic Fermentation: A metabolic process in plants to create energy in the absence of oxygen. Produces alcohol. Lactic Acid Fermentation: A metabolic process in animals to create energy in the absence of oxygen. Cells use the energy available in food to make ATP. Each gram of glucose contains approximately how much energy? 4 Calories The electron transport chain uses the high energy electrons from the Krebs Cycle to move H+ ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Overview: You get glucose from eating food, then the glucose enters the cell and is broken down by glycolysis. The products (pyruvic acids) enter into the Krebs Cycle, which regenerates electron carriers like NADH and FADH2. These electron carriers move on to the electron transport chain where they give up their H+ so that they can form an area of high H+ concentration. These H+ then fall down their concentration gradient by passive transport through the ATP synthase which creates ATP in the process. Anaerobic: Minus oxygen. Oxygen debt: This is the amount of oxygen needed to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water. Chapter 10 Large cells are less efficient when it comes to moving materials across the membrane. DNA exists in the form of chromatin (like a mass of stringy spaghetti) most of the time, and only condenses into X-shaped chromosomes for cellular division. (makes even division of genetic material possible). Mitosis: Prophase: Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Metaphase: Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell. Anaphase: The chromosomes separate (think ANA = AWAY) Telophase: The chromosomes decondense back into chromatin. Cytokinesis: The cell pinches off and forms two new cells. The last part of the process. Mitosis (below): Produces identical daughter cells. Cytokinesis (below) Centromere: The middle of the X in a chromosome, where the spindle fibers attach The rate at which materials enter and leave the cell depends on the cell’s surface area. Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle Which statement does NOT describe external regulatory proteins? A. They respond to events occurring inside a cell. Bone marrow cells that produce blood cells are best categorized as __________. B. Adult stem cells. Which type of cell has the potential to develop into any type of cell? A. Totipotent. MORE NOTES ON NEXT PAGE Worksheet: The Plasma Membrane: Structure and Functions Contractile vacuoles have to work harder for a cell in distilled water (than contractile vacuoles in pond water) because the concentrations are very different, so water will rush into the cell more rapidly when it’s in distilled water. Phage: Eat Pino: Drink Phagocytosis: Cells eating things. Pinocytosis: Cell drinks some kind of liquid. Cytoskeleton: Made up of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments Peroxisomes and lysosomes break down toxic materials with acids and peroxides.