Land Biomes or Earth's Ecosystems

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Chapter 4- EARTH’S ECOSYSTEMS
Section #1- Land Biomes
Abiotic factors: non-living
factors that influence the
types of plants & animals
that live in an area.
Example: hot & dry for desert
Rainfall & Temperature are
abiotic factors for all
biomes.
FORESTS- the type of forest
that develops depends on
temperature & rainfall.
Temperate Deciduous Forest:
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different species of trees
Different mammals, birds, & reptiles
These animals eat leaves, seeds, nuts, and insects.
Trees conserve water in winter by losing their
leaves.
Coniferous Forests
• Don’t change much from summer to winter
• Mainly have evergreen trees.
• Most of the trees are conifers, meaning they
produce seeds in cones.
• Needles of conifers have a thick, waxy
coating so they won’t dry out and get
damaged during the winter.
• Moose, deer, porcupines, chipmunks, foxes
live here. Many of these animals hibernate
or migrate during the winters.
Tropical Rain Forests
• The most diverse biome on the planet.
• Contains more species than any other
biome. (Plants & Animals)
• Some animals live on the ground. Most
live in the canopy (treetops).
• Soil is very thin and poor in nutrients.
• Most nutrients here come from the
vegetation.
• The rainiest biome.
grasslands
Temperate grasslandsCold winters, warm summers, exist on every
continent. Found between forests & deserts.
Vegetation are grasses mixed with flowering plants,
with few trees.
Fire prevents growth of slow-growing plants.
Small, seed-eating animals like prairie dogs, mice &
large herbivores like bison.
Prairies, plains, steppes, and pampas are regions
where grasses are the main plants.
Savanna
A Tropical Grassland
• Tropical grassland with clumps of trees.
• Dry season- grasses die back, but the deep
roots survive through months of drought.
• Wet season- can receive up to 59 inches of rain.
• Savannas in Africa have abundant and diverse
groups of large herbivores like elephants,
giraffes, zebras, gazelles, & wildebeests.
• These animals are eaten by lions & leopards or
the “clean-up” crew of hyenas & vultures.
DESERTS
• Hot, dry regions
• Most of the water that falls to the ground
evaporates.
• Organisms have special ways to survive extreme
temps. with very little water.
PLANT & ANIMAL ADAPTATIONS for survival
• Plants grow far apart, to reduce competition for
water. Other plants have deep root systems to
reach ground water.
• Jack rabbits’ huge ears help get rid of body heat.
• Most animals are active at night, when it’s
cooler.
Tundras
• Far north, at the tops of mountains.
• It is so cold, no trees can grow.
• Major feature is permafrost- this
prevents rain from draining through
the soil, so the ground stays wet &
soggy.
• Grasses, woody shrubs, sedges,
rushes, mosses & lichens
• Caribou, musk oxen, wolves, hares,
lemmings, & migratory birds in the
summer.
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