English stress development by Khayrullina Gouliya, gr. 10.1-608A Tell how and why it changed from the Old English Times up to modern days; Give examples; I`m going to: Focus your attention on the accentual patterns of OE, ME, NE words; Share with materials which I used. English is known as a stressed language. Stressed languages are languages spoken with differing degrees of emphasis on the words and syllables in the sentences. Introduction There are words with: one stressed syllable (e.g. ˈmind), one stressed syllable and one or more weak syllables (e.g. reˈmind, reˈminder, reˈminding), primary and secondary stresses (ˈmindˌblowing, ˈhiveˌmind). The stress system in GLs The English language belongs to the Germanic subdivision (West Gemanic) of the Indo-European family of languages. How it all began One of the most important common features of all Germanic languages is its strong dynamic stress falling on the first root syllable and sometimes the prefix. The fixed stress is the source of the latest changes of English grammatical system: PG fiskaz-Gt fisks-O Icel fiskr, OE fisc Fixed position now. Examples: German: `Liebe, `lieben, `liebte, ge`liebt, `lieberhaft English: be`come, be`coming, over`come The history of the English language begins in the fifth century AD, when the ruthless Germanic tribes started their invasion of the British Isles. The word stress in OE was dynamic or force. In disyllabic and polysyllabic words stress fell on the root morpheme or on the first syllable: a`ჳane (gone); ჳe`hendan (catch); `laჳu (law), `loppestre (lobster). The stress system in OE Fixed stress: Nom. `hlaford, `cyninჳ, Dat. `hlaforde, `cyninჳe. Most preﬁxes are unstressed: ჳe`wrıten (written), wiþ`sacan (contend), but `wıðer`saca (enemy); Compound words had two stresses, and the main stress fell on the first syllable: `Norð`monna, `mann-`hata (man-hater). Verbal and nominal stress: Verbs: a`risan, mis`faran (go astray), but `ჳaderian (gather); Adjectives: `toweard, `oreald (very old); Nouns: `misdæd, `uðჳenჳ (escape). The stress system in OE WS helped to distinguish the noun from the verb: `andswaru N – and`swarian V Word stress had a major impact on the development of the vowel system. Given that the unstressed vowels were weaker, they changed differently from the stressed vowels. Middle English, c.1150–1450 Starting in the eleventh century, increasing numbers of Romance and Graeco-Latin loanwords began to enter English. The stress system in ME. Loan-words. the old Germanic pattern: (L can`dela > OE `candel); the Romance type: li`cour, cha`pel; but en`gendred, `Zephirus, `pardoner (examples from the General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales). The stress system in ME. Native words Stress on the first syllable from the beginning (unless they carried a stressless prefix): `bretherhed, `neighebor, bi`gynne, `prıketh Doublets: `controversy or con`troversy BrE ro`tate vs AmE `rotate, etc The stress system in ME But the seeds of 2-stress system were already present in Middle English: Chaucer: In `dıvers arts and in di`verse ﬁgures. …and appeared later: Shakespeare: The `Reuennew whereof shall furnish vs My manors, Rents, Re`uenues, I forgoe Two stress systems coexist, one old and one new. Early Modern c.1450–1800 and Modern English English still, as in ME times, has two competing stress systems. The stress system in Early NE In native words the stress is fixed and falls on the first root syllable. Native English words are short that is why it is a rhythmic tendency of the language to have one stressed and one unstressed syllables: `swimmers, `whence Some borrowed words were not fully assimilated phonetically, that is why the stress falls on another syllable: The stress system in Early NE (1570): pa`rent, pre`cept, (1687): col`league, adver`tıse, (1784): ex`pert, recog`nıse those fully assimilated have the stress on the first root syllable, like in native words: (1570): `delectable, (1687): ´academy, ´accessory, (1746): ´acceptable, ´accessory, (1784): `phlegmatic, `vıbrate ModE stress looks ‘free’: the ﬁrst syllable (`kettle, `character), the second (be`lıeve, di`vıde), the third (vio`lın, anthro`pology). The stress system in Late NE Some sufﬁxes do not affect word stress, while others attract it (be`lıeve/be`lıev-er vs `photograph/ pho`tograph-y/photo`graph-ic). Sometimes the stress is used to differentiate the words formed from the same root by the process called conversion (to pro'duce— 'produce). Conclusion Word stress is a singling out of one or more syllables in a word, which is accompanied by the change of the force of utterance, pitch of the voice, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the sound which is usually a vowel. Literature Literature История английского языка. Староанглийский период. The History of the English Language. Old English period [Электронный ресурс]: учеб. пособие / сост. канд. филол. наук, доц. Е.В. Краснова ; науч. ред. канд. филол. наук, доц. В.В. Панкова. - 2-е изд., стер. - М. : ФЛИНТА, 2017. - 88 с. - ISBN 978-5-9765-2851-2. Расторгуева ТА. История английского языка: Учебник A History of the English Language edited by RICHARD HOGG AND DAVID DENISON The History of the English Language from OE to ME edited by Varlamova E.V Thanks for your attention!