Ch 4 The Constitution cheat sheet

The Constitution: A cheat sheet
Preamble: The Broad purposes of the Constitution are spelled out.
Article I: Legislative Branch/Organization, Powers, Restraints
Article II: Executive Branch/Powers, Restraints, Duties, and Election of the President
Article III: Judicial Branch/Powers, Restraints, Definition of Treason
Article IV: Relation of states to each other and to the federal government. Guarantees to states.
Government of Territories
Article V: Method of amending the Constitution. Guarantees of equal representation of states
in the US Senate
Article VI: Provision for national debts. Supremacy of the United States Constitution, federal
laws, and treaties. Pledge of national and state officials to uphold Constitution. No
religious test required as qualification to public office.
Article VII: Method for ratification of the Constitution
The Bill of Rights (1971): The First Ten Amendments
1 – Freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, assembly
2 – The right to keep and bear arms
3 – Limitation on the housing of soldiers in private homes
4 – Limitation on searches and seizures
5 – Criminal proceedings, due process, eminent domain, no double jeopardy (can’t be charged
for the same crime twice)
6 – The right to a speedy, public, and fair trial
7 – Right to trial by jury in civil cases
8 – Excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment is prohibited
9 – People possess other rights besides those enumerated (listed/spelled out)
10 – Undelegated powers belong to the states or to the people
Other “Founding” Amendments
11 – Exemption of states from suit by citizens of other states (1795)
12 – Changes in Electoral College procedure (1804)
Civil War Amendments
13 – Slavery is prohibited (1865)
14 – Definition of citizenship. Guarantees of due process of law and equal protection of the
laws against infringement by the states. Constitutional adjustments to post-Civil War
conditions. (1868)
15 – Right of adult male citizens to vote. (1870)
Progressive Era Amendments
16 – Congress empowered to impose an income tax (1913)
17 – Popular election of US Senators (1913)
18 – Prohibition of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes (1919)
19 – Right of women to vote (1920)
Modern Amendments (Amendments since 1920)
20 – Change in Congressional and Presidential terms. Abolition of the “lame duck” session of
Congress. (1933)
21 – Repeal of the 18th Amendment (1933)
22 – Limitation of the President’s terms of office (1951)
23 – Presidential vote for the District of Columbia (1961)
24 – Prohibition of tax payment as qualification to vote in federal elections (1964)
25 – Procedures for determining Presidential disability, presidential succession, and for filling a
Vice-Presidential vacancy (1967)
26 – Sets the minimum age for voting in all elections at 18 (1971)
*27 – Mid-term pay raises are prohibited (1992)
*Amendment 27 is very unique. It was proposed by James Madison in 1789, and no ratification
deadline was placed on it. In 1992 two states voted to ratify it, making it official
Important Reference Points in the Constitution
Welfare Clause: Article I, Section 8, Clause 1
Elastic Clause (Necessary and Proper Clause): Article I, Section 8, Clause 18
Supremacy Clause: Article VI, Section 2
The 3 types of Powers in the Constitition
Expressed Powers: Powers delegated to the National Government
Implied Powers: Powers not expressly stated, but reasonably intended
Inherent Powers: Powers not expressly stated, but expected because of the responsibilities of a
National government in a sovereign nation
Reserved Powers: Powers not given to the national government, and not denied to the states
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