CHAPTER II FLANDERS INTERACTION ANALYSIS CATEGORY SYSTEM AND CONCEPTUAL ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY TRAITS The problem of the present research is involving a study of classroom behaviour of teacher-trainees having different personality traits. The twenty two dimensions of teaching behaviour according to Flanders Interaction Category System as dependent variables and the twelve personality factors as independent variables are accepted for the study of teacher-trainees regarding classroom behaviour. This chapter is divided into txiro sections : (a) Flanders (b) Conceptual Aspects of Personality 2.1 (a) Interaction Analysis C at egory System; and Flanders Interaction Analysis Category System (FIACS) This (FIACS) technique was developed by Dr. Ned A. Flander at the university of Minnesota between 1955 and I960. It is an observation technique which records class room interaction in ten categories. This system measures only the verbal behaviour of teachers. This tool which is developed by Dr. Ned A. Flanders related children's attitudes to patterns of teacher influence. Interaction analysis is primarily concerned wi th analyzing the influence patterns of the teacher, and distinguishes those acts of the teacher which increase pupils' freedom of action from those acts 22 that decrease it. The system of categories forms a screen in front of observer's eyes so that those acts which result in compliance are sharply separated from those that invite more creative and voluntary participation while certain aspects of subject matter are ignored. 2.1.1 Description of Categories In the Flanders ten category system all the events that occur in the classroom are classified into three major sections: (1) Teacher-talk, or confusion. (2) Student-talk, (3) Silence These sections are subdivided in order to make the total pattern of teacher pupil interaction more meaningful. Teacher talk is divided into two sub-heads viz., indirect influence and direct influence. Indirect influence consists of four observation categories : (l) accepting feeling; (2) praising or encouraging; (3) accept ing ideas, and asking questions. (k) Direct influence is divided into three categories (5) lecturing (6) giving directions, and (7) criticizing or justifying authority. Student talk consists of only twl categories; (8) responding to teacher, and (a) initiating talk, and last category which is silence or confusion, used to handle anything else that is not teacher or student talk. 23 2.1.2 Indirect Teacher Behaviour Category 1 s Acceptance of Feelings "The teacher accepts feelings when he says : he understands how the children feel, that they have the right to have these feelings, and that he will not punish the children for their feelings. These kind of statements often communicate to children both acceptance and clarification of the feeling. Also included in this category are statements that recall past feeling, refer to enjoyable or uncomfortable feelings that are present, or predict happy or sad events that will occur in the future. Category 2 s Praise or Encouragement Included in this category are jokes that release tension, hit not those that threaten students or are made at the expense of individual students. single word Often praise is a : "good", "fine", or "right11. Sometimes the teacher simply says, "I like what you are doing". Encourage ment is slightly different and includes statements such as "Continue". "Go ahead with what you are saying", "Uh, huh; go on; tell us more about your idea". Category 3 J Accepting Ideas This category is quite similar to category 1; however, it includes only acceptance of student i deas and not acceptance of expressed emotion. When a student makes a 2k suggestion* the teacher may paraphrase the student's statement, restate the idea more simply* or summarize what the student has said. The teacher may also say, "Well, that1s an interesting point of view. I see what you mean." It is rather difficult to understand category 3, but the teacher has to shift the idea of the pupil. Category k : Asking Questions This category includes only questions to which the teacher expects an answer from the pupils. Questions that are meant to be a swered are of several kinds. right or wrong answer of the question. There is a Questions can be very broad and give the student a great deal of freedom in answering, 2.1.3 Direct Teacher Behaviour Category 5 : Lecture Lecture is the form of verbal interaction that is used to give information, facts, opinions, or ideas to children. The presentation of material may be used to introduce, review, or focus the attention of the class on an important topic. Whenever the teacher is explaining, discussing, opining or giving facts or information, category 5 is used. 25 Category 6 s Giving Directions The decision about whether or not to classify the statement as a direction or command must be based on the degree of freedom that the student has in response to teacher “direction. Category 7 : Criticizing or Justifying .Authority A statement of criticise- is one that is designed to change student behaviour from nonacceptable to acceptable. If the teacher is explaining himself or his authority, defending himself against the student or justifying himself, the statement falls in this category. 2.1.4 Student Behaviour Category 8 t Student Talk ; Response This category is used when the teacher has initiated the contact or has solicited student-statements, when the student answers a question asked by the teacher, or when he responds verbally to a direction the teacher has given. Category 9 : Student Talk t Initiation In general, if the student raises his hand to make a statement or to ask a question when he has not been prompted to do so by the teacher, the appropriate category is 9. 26 2.1*5 Other Behaviour Category 10 i Silence or Confusion This category includes anything else not included in the other categories. Periods of confusion in communication when it is difficult to determine who is talking, are classi fied in this category. 2.2 1 Procedure for Categorizing Teacher -Pupi 1 Interaction The Flanders system of interaction analysis was originally used as a research tool and continues to serve this function. To record classroom behaviour, the observer sits comfortatoly at a vantage point in the classroom from where he can see conveniently and hear the students and the teacher. He listens to the communication, decides category that best represents the particular communication event and writes down the relevant category number simutaneously assessing the continuing communications. Every three seconds the observer writes down the category number of the interaction he has just observed. It is important to keep the tempo as steady as possible, but it is even more crucial to be accurate. He may use a tape recording for his observations. 1. Edmond, J. Amidon and John, B. Hough: (Eds.) Interaction Analysis : Theory, Research and Applica tion. Addison Wesley Publishing Company, London: 1967. pp. 121 to 124. 27 A The observ^stops classifying whenever the classroom activity is changed so that observing is inappropriate as for instance, when there are various groups urorking around the classroom, or xtfhen children are working on work books or doing silent reading. He will usually draw a line under the recorded numbers, make a note of the new activity, and resume categorizing when the total class discussion continues. At all times the observer notes the kind of class activity he is observing. 2.3 Recording Data in a Matrix Frequency of occurrence of different categories can be obtained by mere tallying. But more information can be obtained from a 10 x 10 matrix. The preparation of the matrix according to Flanders follows the folloxidng steps: Step 1 : Add 10 in the beginning and in the end of the series of observations, if not there. Step XX : The observations are paired. In forming pairs of observations, each number is used twice, excepting the first and the last observations. The second number of the first pair forms the first number of the second pair, the second number of the second pair forms the first number of third pair, and so on. The pairs will look like : __ l_i 10 4___ 8 2 3 8_ __ 5__ 2 *T” 5 __ 7__ 5 5“ 5 % 5“" 9 11 ~8 3 10 5___ 5 12 13 9___ 10 nr 28 There are l4 failles. The fourteen tallies form fourteen pairs of observations. Step TXT : Tabulating Interaction Analysis Matrix The tabulation of the matrix follows a convention, & whereby the first number of any pair designates the r^Lw and the second number designates the column. This way, all the 100 cells in 10 x 10 matrix have their respective addresses. Table 2*1 &ives addresses of each of the cells. “Once observations have been grouped into pairs, the pairs can be transferred to the matrix according to their respective cell addresses as shown in the following Table 2.1. It is better, if more space is provided to the categories 3»^ »^58^'and 9 in rows as well as columns, as these categories usually carry higher frequencies than others and consequently form more pairs. The pairs formed in this section can be transferred to the eells in Table". 2 M.B, Bich (Ed.): Studies in Teaching and Teacher Behaviour, CASE, Baroda.University, Baroda, 1975. pp. 12 i-’ l6. 2 29 Table 2,1 Cell Address in a 10x10 Matrix C at e-■ l gory i-i 1 4 3 2 6 5 8 7 10 9 Total Rox« 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-f 1-8. 1-9 1-10 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 3393 3394 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 1-2 2 2-1 2-2 3 3-1 3-2 4 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 5 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8. 5-9 5-10 6 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-9 6-10 7 77-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 v 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 8 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 8-9 8-10 9 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-5 9-6 9-7 9-8 9-9 9-10 10 10-1 1-2 Total Column 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 Total Matrix X0 C st 0“ 1 2 Table 2.2 Tabulation of the l4 pai r s 4 8 3 7 5 b 9 10 Total gory 1 2 - a - - 1 - - - - - 1 - 4 - - - - - - 5 - - a 1 Ill - a a 3 - ■ - 1 - - 1 - 11 - 2 - - 1 5 - 6 7 Bi 9 10 Total a 1 MB - a 1 a 1 1 1 ■- 2 5 a - a - 1 a a 3 a 1 a a a a 3 1 l The fourteen pairs entered into this matrix are given on page-iy * 1 1 14 30 2.4 Computation of Classroom Interaction Variables^ The meaning and the significance of the interaction variables be taken up in the section on "Int erection Pattsrna in Indian Classrooms". has been given* Here only computational procedure The interaction patterns given below are computed from the 10x10 interaction matrix. (1) PIT Percent Teacher Talk (Categories 1+2+3+4+5+6+7) x 100 Total of all categories (2) Percent Pupil Talk PPf (Categories 8+9) x 100 Total of all categories (3) Teacher Response Ratio ..... 1 (4) TRR (Categories 1*2+3) x 100 , (Categories 1r2+ 3+ 6+7) Instantaneous Teacher Response Ratio TRRjjQ ■wav™.* C A C D H * o + + (5) po (Cells(8.-1)+(8-2)+(8.3)+(9-1)+(9-2)+(9-3) xl00 *7)+ (9-1) + Teacher Question Ratio ..... -6) + ( 9-7) TOR (Category 4) x 100 (Category-*5+5") (6) Instantaneous Teacher Question Ratio TQRgg (Cells (8-4)+(<?-4) x 100 (Cells jg-4)+(6-5)+(9-4)+(9-5) 3* M.g, Buch (Rd.) s Studies in Teaching and Teacher Behaviour, CASE, Barodas 1975, pp. 13-14. 31 (7) Pupil Initiation Ratio ... PIR (Category 9ft x 100 (Category 9+8^ (8) Pupil Steady State Ratio .... FSSR (Cells (8-8)+ ( 9-9 ) x.100 Total of categories 8 and 9 (9) Steady State Ratio ... SSR (Total 10 diagonal cells) x 100 Total of all categories (10) Content Cross Ratio .... CCR (Categories 4+5)xl00 Total of categories (11) Indirect/lJirect Ratio X/d (Categories l+2+3+^) Cat egori es l+6+ 7 ) (12) Revised Xndir ect Ratio ... Uirect i /d (Categories l+2+3) Categories 6+7) 2.5 Significance of TRR , T®R, PIE, TRRg^ S5R , PSSR , PTT ,~TpTT~i7TTand~i /d 4 Teacher Response Ratio (TRR) TQRgcj, CCR, ’ : Teacher Response Ratio indicates the teacher*s tendency to react to the ideas and feelings of the students. The ratio provides an index of the emotional climate in the 4. Ned A. Flanders^ Analyzing Teaching Behaviour, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 197 0. PP. 87 -Tv 123. 32 classroom. The corresponding value of TSR norm given by Flanders is 42. The responsiveness of the Indian Teacher is higher than the American Teacher. Teacher Question Ratio (TQR) This ratio, as the nomenclature indicates, points to the tendency of the teacher, to ask questions during the more content oriented part of the class discussion. TQR is 26 for an American Teacher according to Flanders. Pupil Initiation Ratio (PIR) Pupil Initiation Ratio indicates the proportion of pupil talk, "judged to be an act of initiation". PIR has a norm of 34 according to Flanders. Instantaneous Teacher Response Ratio (TRRgg) Instantaneous Teacher Response Ratio is "the tendency of the teacher to praise or integrate pupil ideas and feelings into the class discussion, at the moment stop talking". (Flanders, 19?0s 104). TRRgg rooms under study was found to be 74.97® normative expectation of about 60. ' the pupils in Indian Class It is above the 33 Instantaneous Teacher Question Ratio (TQRg^) Instantaneous Teacher Question Ratio indicates the tendency of the teacher to respond to student talk with questions based on his own ideas instead of lecture. In Indian classrooms, the ratio worked out to be 50*27. The corresponding American normative value of TQRg^ is about Content Cross Ratio (QOS) Content? Cross Ratio indicates the emphasis given to the content coverage during classroom transactions. The CCjR in Indian Classrooms worked out to be 59 which is close to the American normative expectation of 55. Steady State Ratio (SSR) The Steady State Ratio reflects the tendency of teacher and, pupil talk to remain in the same category for periods longer than 3 seconds. The average of SSR is around 50. Pupil Steady State Ratio (PSSR) Pupil Steady State Ratio indicates the index for tea cher behafiour and student behaviour respectively. The 3h higher the SSR, or PSSR , the less rapid will be the transi tion in classroom behaviour of teachers and students. The PSSR is averaged around 35 to 40* Percent Teacher Talk (PTT) In consists the verbal interaction which is used by / the teacher in the classroom, that is, from the category 1 to 7 are the useful interaction. In Indian Classrooms and American norms are the same : 68. Percent Pupil Talk (PPT) It consists the category 8 and 9. It is a verbal interaction towards the teacher's question attitude. There is norm of American 20 but in Indian Classroom i k* was found 19. Indirec t /pi rect Ratio and Revised i/d Ratio The teachers are very much direct in their talk it is called i/d ratio. freedom more. Indirect influence gives the pupils If the teacher speaks less and let the pupils speak more in the response of. the teacher's work the i/d ratio will give more response to the students. A Revised i/d Ratio is employed in order to find out the kind of emphasis given and motivation and control in a particular classroom. This ratio eleminates the effects of categories 4 & 6, asking questions and lecturing, and gives evidence / 35 about whether the teacher is direct or indirect in his approach to motivation and control. Table 2.3 below summarises the various ratios discuss ed above along with the corresponding American norms given biy Flanders (1970). Table 2.3 Interaction Ratios in Indian and American Classrooms.5 5. M»B. Wo. Interaction Variables Indian Classrooms 1 PTT 68 68 2 PPT 19 20 3 Silence/ Confusion 13 11 or 12 4 TER 55.42 42 5 THR89 74.97 60 6 TQR 16.32 2b 7 tQR89 50.27 44 8 PIR 11 34 9 PSSR 47 35-40 10 SSR 63 50 11 CCR 59 55 American Norms (Approximate) Bich. Op. cifc., p, 22. i| O 36 2.6 (b) Conceptual Aspects of Personality Personality, of course, is not a veneer that can be applied to a person by himself or by any one else, nor some thing he can turn on or off like on electric:current. Persona lity has its roots in physical health, emotions, intelligence knowledge, and ideals. It is the sum of a person's total capacities and developed should be healthy, intelligent and very diligent. He should have knowledge and ideals also. So it is required for the society that there should he welladjusted teachers. Poorly adjusted teachers cannot be useful to the society. So it is necessary to inquiry about the concept of personality. 2.6.1 The Meaning of Personality The word personality probably had its origin in the Latin verb PERSONARE which means to SOUND THROUGH. This term was used to describe the voice of an actor speaking through a mask. At first the term PEESONA referred directly to the mask worn by actors. Later it came to be applied to the actors themselves. During earlj' Roman times, then, personality was regarded as constituting what a person seemed to be. 2.6.2 Various Definitions of Personality The term personality has no standard meaning. There are so many definitions for it. Some of the better known attempts defining personality are presented below : 37 "Personality is that which makes one effective, or gives one influence over others. In the language of psy chology it is one's social stimulus value".^ "A ma ris personality is the total picture of his organised behaviour, especially as it can be characterised by his fell ow men in a consistent way*1,'7 According to Allport, "Personality is the dynamic organisation within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determines his unique adjustment to his environ ment".8 Cat tell said, "Personality is that whi ch permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation. The goal of psychological research in personality is thus to establish laws about what different peopld will do in all kinds of social and general environmental situation... Per sonality. 6. H.A. May : The Foundations of Personality; Whittlesey House, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1932, p. 82. 7. J*f• dashiel: Fundamentals of General Psychology, Houghton Mifflin Company, Bostans 1937. P> 579* 8. &•W. Allport| Personality. A Psychological Interpreation, London: Constable and Company Ltd. 1937» Reprinted 1956, p. 48. \ 38 2.6*3 Empirical Studies of Traits Woodworth said, "A trait can be thought of as a behaviour tendency sociability is a tendency to behave sociably, to seek company and to participate eagerly in group activities. Assendance is a tendency to be masterful in any situation, whether involving people or not".9 Psychologists usually define a trait as a mode of behaviour. Allport believes that traits are "dynamic and flexible dispositions, resulting, at least in part, from the integration of specific habits expressing characteristics models of adaptation to one's surroundings. In short, a trait of perso nality means such a distinc tive character of a person's thoughts, feelings and actions / as marks him off from other persons. According to Ross Stagner, "... certain traits are readily observables they appear in interpersonal contacts, in one's xvay of doing a job, in responses to questionnaires. These may be represented as being close to the surface of the personality. They are likely to be readilj' modifiable under environmental pressure. Jt seems appropriate to follow CATTELb (1945) in designating them as surface traits. 9. Robert S. Woodworths Psychology., Methuen & Go. Ltd. London: 194-5, p. 159. 10. G-. W. Allport, Op. ci t. , p, 49. 39 Cheerfulness, liveliness* and quarrelsomeness would be apt. If example", Difference between the Surface Traits and Source traits of Personality by &.B« Cattell.^ Source traits may be thought of as understanding structures, expressed not directly but the medium of the surface traits. For example, we might think of a general reactivity to social stimuli, lending unity to the apparent inconsistency of a man who is above average on both friendly and quarrelsome behaviour. This might also explain the observation by Murphy (1937) that the children in her group who were most often sympathetic were likewi se most often agreesive in their relations to playmates. Source traits, of course may be either common or unique, as may surface traits. How many surface traits there are, and how many source traits, cannot be definitely stated, Allport add Odbert counted 17, 953 trait names in English, but many of these were synonymus and others represented temperory/ rather than permanent trends. H ,B. Cafctell (19^5), making an 11. Hess Stagner : Psychology of Personality 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill Book Company , Inc., New York: 1961, pp. 163 165, 12. Tbid 40 exhaustive study of ratings, found, a total of 131 "phenomental clusters", or common traits. These grouped themselves readily into 50 "nuclear clusters" of related traits, which itt turn could be arranged in 20 "sectors of the personality sphere". Catfcell believes that he has effectively covered the personality sphere with these 20 sectors : i.e. he believes that any surface traits will be found to fit snugly into one or another sector. A source trait however, might underline several sectors. Among the major source traits reported by Cat tell (1957) are cyclothymid versus schizothymia, ego strength versus proneness to neurolicism, excitability, insecurity, dominance verses submissive, surgency (cheerful, energetic, sociable) versus desurgency, superego strength, and several others less clearly defined. The schizothyme factor is characterized by such surface traits as obstructive, contankerous, rigid, secretive, suspicious, cautious; on the other end, of course, bty easy going, warm hearted, frank, trustful, impulsive. It seems plausibte that there is some common thread running through each group of surface traits, whi ch is precisely what Cattell is arguing. He is not: sure 4i what this common thread is, but suggests that it may have an innate basis, may involve frustration tolerance (the cyclothymes having more tolerance), and may also relate to ability to abandon habits which are not successful, We can also suggest particularly in the and phase of development on this dimension, 2,6.^ What a Good Personality is To understand this, the interpretation of the words good, desirable, and well -ad justed needs consideration. Goodness may seem to have an ethical or moral significance that would remove it from the vocabulary of the psychologist interested primarily in attempting to explain human behaviour rather than to pass judgement upon it. The term desirable and well-adjusted have a social connection, depending upon the standard set by society concerning what may be consi dered desirable or when a person is well adjusted. Second, if personality is regarded not as an isolated entity but an integration of traits or qualities, it cannot be evaluated except in so far as observed behaviour may seem to give evidence of the consistency of this or that trait, R,B. Cattell collected from 2Q8 directors, inspectors, head and assistant teachers and others tests of traits which they regarded as important in a TEACHER and boiled them down 42 into 22 major categories given here in order of frequency of mention: 1. Confidence, leadership 2. intelligence 3. id ealism 4. general culture 5. kindness, friendliness 6. enthusiasm 7. knowledge of psychology and padogogy 8. classroom technique 9. persuance 10. self control (stability marals) li. enterprise, courage, adventure 12. sympathy and fact 13. openmindedness, fairness l4. sense,of humour and cheerfulness 15. orderliness 16. knowledge of subjects 17. outside interest 18. physical health 19. presence (appearance and voice) 20. alert mind, inquiring, critical 21. social fitness, manners, and 22. conservation, respect for tradition. 43 Looking to the above major categories the investigator decided to use the l6 P».F« Scale by Cat tell and the extrovert and introvert measuring inventory by Dr. A.S. Patel to measure personality traits possessed by the teachers to be included in the sample.