Molecules of Life Notes

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Chapter Molecules Important to Life
What is an organic compound?
• Any compound that
contains the element C
– Except CO2
• Usually bonded to H,
O, N, P and S
• These compounds
make up life!
• CHNOPS
What are the four main organic
compounds?
What are the four main organic
compounds?
•
•
•
•
Carbohydrate: bread, rice, sugar
Protein: meat, cheese, nuts
Lipid: fats, cholesterol and oils
Nucleic Acid: DNA and RNA
What is a Carbohydrate?
What is a Carbohydrate?
• Sugar or saccharide
• Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, or
Polysaccharides
• C:H:O are usually in a 1:2:1 ratio
– H:O always a 2 to 1 ratio
• Quick energy stored/released from the
chemical bonds
• Ex: C6H12O6 - glucose
What is a monosaccharide?
• Single (one) sugar
• Glucose sugar
• Fructose in fruits
• Galactose in milk products
How are disaccharides different than
monosaccharides?
• 2 monosaccharides (single sugars)
combined
• Sucrose - table sugar = glucose +
fructose
• Lactose - milk sugar
• Maltose – malt sugar
What about polysaccharides?
• many sugars combined (3 or
more)
• Glycogen – 100’s of glucose
molecules combined – animal
cell storage
• Starch – plants storage form
of excess sugars
• Cellulose – strength/rigidity
of plant cells
What is a protein?
• Consist of C, H, O, and N
• Composed of Amino Acids
– 20 different amino acids that can bond
together in a variety of ways
• Peptide = amino acids
• Dipeptide = 2 amino acids bonded
+ a water molecule
• Polypeptide = very long chain of
amino acids
– Ex: Enzyme → we’ll discuss in DETAIL
next week ☺
What is a protein?
What is a protein?
•
•
•
•
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure
How do I recognize a lipid?
How do I recognize a lipid?
• Fats
– Glycerol & Fatty Acids
• Contain C H and O like
Carbohydrates
• H to O ratio is greater
than 2:1
• Large, nonpolar
molecules that don’t
dissolve in H2O
• Store large amounts of
energy
Nucleotide
• The building block of a
nucleic acid!
– Sugar
– Phosphate
– Base
Combine together
to make DNA, a
double helix!!!
What are the 2 types of
Nucleic Acids?
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