Chapter Molecules Important to Life What is an organic compound? • Any compound that contains the element C – Except CO2 • Usually bonded to H, O, N, P and S • These compounds make up life! • CHNOPS What are the four main organic compounds? What are the four main organic compounds? • • • • Carbohydrate: bread, rice, sugar Protein: meat, cheese, nuts Lipid: fats, cholesterol and oils Nucleic Acid: DNA and RNA What is a Carbohydrate? What is a Carbohydrate? • Sugar or saccharide • Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, or Polysaccharides • C:H:O are usually in a 1:2:1 ratio – H:O always a 2 to 1 ratio • Quick energy stored/released from the chemical bonds • Ex: C6H12O6 - glucose What is a monosaccharide? • Single (one) sugar • Glucose sugar • Fructose in fruits • Galactose in milk products How are disaccharides different than monosaccharides? • 2 monosaccharides (single sugars) combined • Sucrose - table sugar = glucose + fructose • Lactose - milk sugar • Maltose – malt sugar What about polysaccharides? • many sugars combined (3 or more) • Glycogen – 100’s of glucose molecules combined – animal cell storage • Starch – plants storage form of excess sugars • Cellulose – strength/rigidity of plant cells What is a protein? • Consist of C, H, O, and N • Composed of Amino Acids – 20 different amino acids that can bond together in a variety of ways • Peptide = amino acids • Dipeptide = 2 amino acids bonded + a water molecule • Polypeptide = very long chain of amino acids – Ex: Enzyme → we’ll discuss in DETAIL next week ☺ What is a protein? What is a protein? • • • • Primary Structure Secondary Structure Tertiary Structure Quaternary Structure How do I recognize a lipid? How do I recognize a lipid? • Fats – Glycerol & Fatty Acids • Contain C H and O like Carbohydrates • H to O ratio is greater than 2:1 • Large, nonpolar molecules that don’t dissolve in H2O • Store large amounts of energy Nucleotide • The building block of a nucleic acid! – Sugar – Phosphate – Base Combine together to make DNA, a double helix!!! What are the 2 types of Nucleic Acids?