Richard D. Cureton English Department University of Michigan Jakobson Revisited: Poetics, Subjectivity, and Temporality 1 Introduction Over the last 25 years, the political fate of stylistics has depended crucially on responses to the work of Roman Jakobson. Because of the scope and quality of his writing across the many disciplines associated with both language and literature, Jakobson has been used as a litmus test for the more general assertion that linguistics and literary study are closely related enterprises--as Jakobson puts it in his landmark essay "Linguistics and Poetics" at the 1958 Indiana Conference on Style--that "a linguist deaf to the poetic function of language and a literary scholar indifferent to linguistic problems and unconversant with linguistic methods are equally flagrant anachronisms" (Jakobson 1987: 94). In particular, from the 60's through the 80's, certain widely read and publicized critiques of Jakobson work (e.g., Riffaterre 1966, Culler 1975, Fish 1980, and Attridge 1987) have been regarded as definitive refutations of stylistics, too. In recent years, some of the weaknesses and misunderstandings in these critiques have been effectively exposed and countered (e.g., Bradford 1994, Aviram 1994, Cureton 1996b, 1997a, 1997b, 1997c, 1997d). However, partially for political reasons, partially because of their own limitations, these defenses of Jakobson's claims have attracted little attention and are only slightly known. Many questions and concerns about Jakobson's work--both the work itself and its relation to stylistics more generally--deserve further consideration. 2 Jakobson's Stylistic Claims: Issues and Clarifications 2.1 Poetry vs. Drama / Prose Fiction / Song The first thing to clarify about Jakobson's stylistic claims is that, by and large, they are claims about poetry, not the other literary genres--drama, prose fiction, and song. Jakobson says many things about literature in general and therefore makes many comments on the other literary genres; but his central 2 concern, both in theory and analysis, is with poetry. This means that Jakobson's stylistic assumptions and methods should not be taken as a general stylistic theory, a general theory of the relation between language and literature. For the most part, there is no such thing as "Jakobsonian stylistics." There is only "Jakobonian poetics," with poetics construed in the narrow sense of "theory of poetry," not in the broad sense of "theory of literature." Since the middle of the twentieth century, the widespread attempt to found a general theory of literature (i.e., poetics in the broad sense) has often misunderstood Jakobson on this point (e.g., Van Rees 1992). Jakobson is not claiming that, to be literary, the language of a text must include certain unusual selections and arrangements of linguistic form. Jakobson only claims that accomplished poetry must texture its language in this way. In his recent defense of Jakobson, Bradford (1994: 35) makes this point clearly and forcefully: Literary linguists have given roughly equal attention to prose fiction and to poetry, but the latter has a prior claim to the methodologies and perspectives offered by modern linguistics because, as Jakobson argues, the structural properties of poetic language are also, to a large extent, its subject. Although all of the literary genres use aspects of the other genres, each of the literary genres uses language distinctly. Therefore, to be useful and valid, stylistic claims and methods must shift with the literary genre being considered. In general, the most important uses of language in drama are sociolinguistic and pragmatic (speech acts, indirect speech acts, conversational routines, register, dialect, idiolect, etc.). The most important uses of language in prose fiction are semantic and rhetorical (tropes, schemes, the functions of syntactic and prosodic form, etc.). And the most important uses of language in song are paralinguistic (rhythmic, physical, gestural, etc.). The aesthetic center of drama is not centrally linguistic but contextual/communicational. The aesthetic center of prose fiction is not centrally linguistic 3 but conceptual/referential. And the aesthetic center of song is not centrally linguistic but paralinguistic/physical. In accomplished poetry, however, something entirely different happens with language--and this is what Jakobson is centrally interested in. In our best poetry, linguistic form itself is thematized and therefore language itself becomes the aesthetic center of the work. Paradigmatic choices (e,g, linguistic categories, slots, relations, functions, meanings, etc.) are selected, arranged, and concentrated into distinctive linguistic textures; and these linguistic textures are the work's central artistic accomplishment. To the extent that a poem's language does not texture itself in this way, Jakobson claims, it loses its "poeticality" and therefore its aesthetic accomplishment. It becomes non-poetic (a "bad" poem). On this point, there is little to suggest that Jakobson is wrong. 2.2 Evaluation vs. Interpretation Second, in making this claim for poetry, Jakobson takes artistic evaluation seriously--judgments of good vs. bad, art vs. non-art, etc. In general, Jakobson is not interested in bad poems, texts that are intended as poems but do not have any significant aesthetic value. As with generic differences, Jakobson makes it clear that all language can be tinged by "poeticality," but that only accomplished poems use this sort of texturing as a functional "dominant." As a result, poems with little formal texturing, such as the "found" poems used by Fish (1981, 322-37) and Culler (1975, 161-188) in their attempts to refute Jakobson's claims, do not qualify as counterexamples. Fish and Culler demonstrate that "found" poems (and the like) can be successfully interpreted, even though they have little formal linguistic patterning; but neither claims that such poems are aesthetically good. Like Fish and Culler, Jakobson is indeed interested in reader response, but only if this response contributes to the artistic value of the poem. He is not interested in reader response more generally, especially as it relates to (normal) poetic interpretation.As Jakobson conceives it, poems do not "say" what normal interpretation usually construes them to be "saying," either. To Jakobson, poetic interpretation 4 involves other concerns (see 2.3 below). This being the case, Attridge's (1987, 25) claim that Jakobson interprets normally and imposes "fixed, timeless, and strictly limited meanings" on what he interprets is a misrepresentation. For Jakobson, poeticality and normal interpretation are not the same thing. Poetically is evaluative; normal interpretation is not. In this matter, too, there is little evidence that Jakobson is wrong. 2.3 Jakobsonian Functionalism vs. Formalism Third, Jakobson is indeed concerned with the aesthetic effects of linguistic form; therefore, his poetics should be distinguished from stylistic theories that are baldly formal, for example, theories that just fingerprint a text by describing its linguistic distinctiveness. Exactly what sort of function Jakobson thinks poetic language achieves is a difficult issue (more on this in a moment), but he emphatically does not claim that poetic language is just a fingerprint. As Bradford (1994, 9-73) outlines clearly, for Jakobson, poetic language tells us about linguistic form itself, what language is rather than what it does; therefore, it can give us a deep encounter with certain "formative elements of existence." Jakobson's argument...is this: our experience of the formative elements of existence--perception, consciousness and communication--is inseparable from our encounters with language. Poetry is unique among the varied and intermarried types of genres of linguistic discourse because it obliges the poet and the reader to confront the necessary but uneasy relationship between what language is (in Jakobson's post-Saussurean terminology, the signans) and what signatum and the referent). Poetry is about language, and as a consequence, the poet, as much as the linguist, the semiologist and the philosopher, is the pathbreaker in the realms of the sign, the system and the existential condition. language does (the 5 Bradford (1994, 2) As Bradford goes on to explain, this function of poetic language is more psychological than social; therefore it is somewhat "bizarre" as communication. Poetic language provides knowledge of the relation between language and life by reversing (for a moment) the relation between form and meaning so that meaning supports form rather than vice versa. As Aviram (1994) felicitously terms this, in the accomplished poem, meaning "tells" its linguistic form, rather than linguistic form, its meaning, as in the other literary genres and non-literary uses of language. The syntagmatic, combinative pole is that which anchors language to the prelinguistic world of events and impressions, while its paradigmatic, selective counterpart is that which effects a more subjective and perhaps bizarre relationship between the mind of the addresser and the code of linguistic signs. Bradford (1994, 13) The prose writer, or to be more accurate the prose consciousness, receives the language-referent relation as a predetermined whole. The poet, however, remains faithful to the concept of the linguistic code as the initial point of contact between the self and whatever lies beyond the self. Bradford (1994, 21) Poetry must be regarded not simply as the marshalling in a particular way of given linguistic resources and conventions, but as an outright subversion, even rejection, of the 'normal' 6 practices of linguistic communication...Poetry is the only linguistic form in which both communicating participants are granted equal access to the complex architectonics, the formal structuration, of the message. Bradford (1994, 31) Poetry is the only kind of linguistic discourse in which the encoder's command of the signans predetermines the relation between the signatum and the perceptual, experiential continuum of the prelinguistic world. Bradford (1994, 35) We may consider reading the ideas and images of a poem as...attempts to make sense out of the physical being of the poem--an aspect of the poem that, itself, ...is not exactly verbal, since it is not a sign at all in the semiotic sense, that is, not a meaningful sign for anything. Aviram (1994, 87) In this matter, too, there is little evidence that Jakobson is wrong. 2.4 Jakobsonian Functionalism vs. Other Functionalisms Fourth, while this psychological significance of linguistic form is an aesthetic effect, it is not semantic, rhetorical, dramatic, or rhythmic. Therefore, it must be distinguished from most of our other functional approaches to poetic language, which normally concentrate on tropes, schemes, ambiguity, grammatical deviance, dialect, idiolect, rhythm, real-time processing, the semantics of syntax, and related 7 issues (e.g., Banfield 1973, Fairley 1975, Brooke-Rose 1958, Levin 1962, Lotman 1977, Hollander 1985, Sinclair 1972, Leech 1969, Hasan 1985, Austin 1984, Dillon 1980, Short 1996, Semino 1997, and my own early work on poetic syntax: Cureton 1980a and its support essays, Cureton 1979, 1980b, 1981a, 1981b, 1985). In his struggle to formulate more precisely what is entailed by this psychological revelation of "what language is," Jakobson blurs this issue by making many comments on other functions of literary language, but for the most part, these other effects are peripheral concerns. Things like rhetoric and rhythm also foreground linguistic form and therefore increase the self-referentiality of a text's language, but they do not involve the psychological value of linguistic form per se. As has been repeatedly pointed out (e.g., Culler 1975, 63-65), these rhetorical and rhythmic effects can be dominant features of both bad poetry and texts the other literary genres--prose, drama, and song. To the extent that accomplished poetry borrows the aesthetic resources the other literary genres, as it certainly does, it draws upon these other effects; but for Jakobson, these other effects are not the essence of accomplished verse. Jakobson is neither a traditional formalist nor a traditional functionalist; he blends the two. Therefore, general discussions of stylistic theory that classify him as a formalist (e.g., Taylor and Toolan 1996) misinterpret his claims. For Jakobson, the function of accomplished poetry is to reveal the psychological organization and therefore human significance of linguistic form, what in contemporary theory we might call the inherent subjectivity of language. Given that the lyric has always been associated with subjectivity (e.g., Lindley 1985), this is a completely reasonable claim. In this as well, there is little evidence that Jakobson is wrong. 2.5 Lyric Geometry and Numerical Symmetry Fifth, Jakobson demonstrates that this linguistic subjectivity is often revealed most noticeably in the formal similarities and contrasts that define the multiple sectioning of the accomplished poem--central parts vs. peripheral parts, odd parts vs. even parts, initial parts vs. final parts, and so forth. In fact, Jakobson shows that, in the best poems, these linguistic similarities and contrasts can even reach a numerical precision--e.g., exactly five linguistic forms of one type will occur in one part of the poem and exactly five 8 in another. He even shows that the same linguistic numerology can pervade the a poem's sectioning--e.g., groups of exactly five similar forms will define both center vs. periphery and odd vs. even; etc. Given Jakobson's rhetorical tasks and the history of comment on lyric poetry, these claims and demonstrations are also unexceptional, if not common. The lyric poem is obviously architectural/divisioned and has been explicitly described as such since at least the Renaissance (e.g., "Of Proportion," the second book of Puttenham's The Arte of Engish Poesie, published in 1589). Therefore, given this critical commonplace and his major rhetorical task (i.e., to demonstrate how formal linguistic textures are constituted and distributed in the lyric poem), it is entirely reasonable that Jakobson chooses to show how these textures further the lyric's pervasive sectioning. That Jakobson discovers various sorts of numerical symmetries in lyric language is also not surprising. Such numerical symmetry occurs throughout the arts. especially in music, the fine art that most closely resembles lyric poetry. Over the years, many of Jakobson's critics have pointed out weaknesses in Jakobson's numerically-based analyses (e.g., Culler 1975)--and with some justification. In order to extend the scope and consistency of his analyses, Jakobson often fudges on his linguistic descriptions (or at least makes as though the language is more numerically ordered than it really is). On the other hand, even his sharpest critics must admit that most of the numerical symmetries that Jakobson observes are unarguable, and that, even when he bends his linguistic descriptions to suit his purposes, his analytical fudging detracts only slightly from his larger claim: The accomplished lyric poem is indeed sectioned in multiple ways by the ordered concentration and distribution of linguistic forms. The most respected student of lyric in our time, Helen Vendler, has spent most of her career amassing evidence for this claim (e.g., Vendler 1969, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1988, 1995a, 1995b, 1997a, 1997b). One of our best linguists, Haj Ross, has spent the last twenty-five years replicating Jakobson's claims and extending his results (e.g., Ross 1981, 1982, 1991, 1992, 1999). In this matter as well, there is little evidence that Jakobson is wrong. 2.6 Subliminal Effects vs. Conscious Effects Jakobson underlines that the central effects of poetic language are subliminal/subconscious, and this has also been considered a weakness in his claims. How can poets write accomplished poetry if they do 9 not know what they are doing, and how can readers discriminate good poetry from bad if they don't know the difference? In prose fiction and drama, we can generally say why a plot is compelling; a character, well-developed; or a scene, effective. Why should the sources of the effects of poetry be less accessible? While it would certainly be more convenient for critics if everything that they were interested in was readily accessible, the claim that some of the central effects of either language or art (much less linguistic art) can be sub-conscious is neither new, unreasonable, or even surprising. The fine art that parallels poetry most closely is music, and no one would dispute the claim that almost all of the effects of music are subliminal/subconscious. Becoming consciously articulate about the structure and effect of music demands a fairly long and technical course of study, one that usually takes several years, even if pursued full time. The structure of language is also notoriously subconscious/inaccessible, especially those aspects that are often most central to poetry (e.g., sound, prosody, and syntax). As with the structure of music, we can learn to be articulate about the structure of language and its effects, but this also demands a fairly long and arduous course of study, one which also takes several years, even if pursued full time. That literary critics often have very little explicit training in language analysis only exacerbates the difficulty. The problem here is clear. Critics with only slight training in language analysis claim that the subconscious effects of poetic language are a problem because they find themselves inarticulate about them, and criticize Jakobson, perhaps the greatest linguist of the twentieth century, because he is not. This situation reminds me of many contemporary students of poetry who claim that Shakespeare is bad poetry because they find the historical dialect and complexity of his language hard to understand. The poetry is not the failure; critics of the lyric need to confront Jakobson's challenge, train themselves in the perception and analysis of language structure, and given the achievements of linguistics in the twentieth century, stop being "flagrant anachronisms." The subliminal effects of poetry are easily demonstrated by the simplest of exercises--the prose paraphrase. It is just a fact: No accomplished poem survives a prose paraphrase, no matter how hidden from consciousness the sources of its artistic accomplishment. Unlike novels or plays, accomplished poems also resist translation into another medium (e.g., film). Seen any movies of Shakespeare's sonnets lately? Keats' 10 odes? Whitman's "Song of Myself"? The aesthetic center of the poem is the psychological effect, the subjectivity, of its language; therefore, translation to another medium deprives the poem of that center. 2.7 Poetic Description and Interpretation The major weakness with Jakobson's poetics, certainly, is that he resists the "naturalization" (Bradford (1994, 81) of form that is standard practice in literary criticism, in fact, in art criticism more generally--the translation of poetic form back into "the differential sphere of non-poetic discourse that it patently rejects." Jakobson...maintains that while the poetic function can be documented and analysed, it cannot, or rather it should not, be translated, naturalized, returned to the differential sphere of non-poetic discourse that it patently rejects. Such a belief presents literary theorists, of whatever designation, with a variety of problems, Most significantly it places severe limitations on what can legitimately be said about poems; on the one hand we should be aware that poetry draws upon the same raw material as all other kinds of linguistic discourse; on the other it deploys this material in such a way as to render its signifying function just as immune from comprehensive, normative translation as the statue or the picture. In short, we can talk about the structural means by which poems create their effects, but these effects are enclosed within a private, intuitive interaction between text and reader. As a result, Jakobson provides us with strong accounts of both how linguistic forms are distributed in particular poems (i.e., observation) and why good poems are successful (i.e., evaluation), but no account of what motivates the distribution of these forms (i.e., description) or what these forms contextually entail 11 (i.e., interpretation). That is, he says nothing about the structure and significance of the "subjectivity" that poetic language presents. If two of the major purposes of criticism are to describe and interpret, to show how art is constituted and how it relates to the lives we lead, this is indeed a severe shortcoming. What is this subjectivity, exactly? How is it organized--and why? Where does it come from and what does it signify? What is its relation to linguistic meaning and to the major contexts of language use--psychology, society, culture, and history? These questions have a long history and their answers have been a long time coming, but I think they have now arrived with my new temporal poetics (Cureton 1996b, 1997a, 1997b, 1997c, 1997d, forthcoming b, forthcoming c, forthcoming d, forthcoming e ). The answer I have developed is that the grammatical patterning in poetry that Jakobson observes and values gets its significance from our temporal abilities--first, our rhythmic abilities, and then our ability to "tell" the featural "complexions" of these rhythms into other media: language, rhetoric, and cultural context. The interpretive keystones of this theory, what I call the Temporal and Poetic Paradigms, include all of the interpretive principles that Jakobson suggests (iconicity, symmetry, partitioning, geometry, etc.), but in a greatly expanded and integrated array and in a way that incorporates them into a similarly expanded and integrated theoretical context. My claim is this: Jakobson never achieved an adequate theory of poetic rhythm and human temporality; therefore, he never achieved an adequate theory of poetry. Like most things, rhythms can be infinitely mixed and modulated. There are few rhythms that include one rhythmic type and exclude all other other types. Nonetheless, beneath all of the mixing and blurring, there are four general rhythmic forms that provide the basis of our temporal experience. As rhythmic forms, or rhythmic components, let's call these: (1) meter, (2) grouping, (3) prolongation, and (4) theme. As forms of time or temporalities, let's call these: (1) cyclical, (2) centroidal, (3) linear, and (4) relative. Both biologically and culturally, these four rhythmic forms develop in the order listed above, and as they are taken up and shape our experience, they tend to produce levelled structures that recapitulate this development. Therefore, we can refer to the products of these rhythms as numbered "levels." Meter and 12 cyclical time produce level 1; grouping and centroidal time, level 2; prolongation and linear time, level 3; theme and relative time, level 4. RHYTHM TIME Level 4 theme relative Level 3 prolongation linear Level 2 grouping Level 1 meter centroidal cyclical Structurally, these four rhythms reflect the forms of time they create. Meter, which creates cyclical time, is strongly repetitive (although not entirely so, by any means). The basis of meter is beating, a system of bodily pulsations, differentiated by prominence, but otherwise identical. In a beating, whole sections of the rhythmic figuration return again and again, differentiated by only initiating beats, which steadily decline in strength. Grouping, which creates centroidal time, is repeatedly centering. It divides a temporal stream into small groups of events, each of which has one and only prominence, a kind of rhythmic core. These rhythmic cores are then grouped and centered, building up a hierarchy. In the extreme case, an entire universe of events can be centered in this way. Prolongation, which creates linear time, relates present events to distant departures/arrivals, either by anticipating an imagined future or extending an experienced past. Theme, which creates relative time, links varied, usually peripheral, events to some imagined, but usally absent, center, creating a network of loose family resemblances/relations. These four rhythmic forms can be distinguished by many considerations--by their scope and stability, by the type of temporal relations they establish, by the kind of temporal figures they develop, and by the preferred position, orientation, and direction of their events. They can also be distinguished by how they relate perceivers and events perceived. I call these distinguishing considerations the major features of 13 these rhythmic forms. The dialectical relations among the most important of these features can be summarized the following table, what I call the Temporal Paradigm. The Temporal Paradigm Temporal Features cyclical centroidal linear relational event-event relation similarity differencesimilaritydifference in-similarity in-difference temporal figure occurrence repetition succession correspondence transition prominence direction proportion implication subject-subject participation relation subject-event relation semiotic relation cognitive process subjective obligation objective-in subjective icon emblem reaction passive affection reciprocal cooperation connection distinction simultaneity freedom subjective-in objective objective index symbol exploration creation active improvisatory 14 clock time: orientation past present future relational scope proximate local regional event position initial medial final curve of energy/stability fall rise-fall structural volatility fixed constrained relative global peripheral fall-rise rise volatile free While it may be a long time before we know these things for sure, these four rhythms seem to be centrally involved in the structure and evolution of both the major products of human cognition (language, ideology, society, culture, art, history, etc.) and the major products of evolutionary systems more generally (biological and sociobiological taxonomies, stages of human evolution, the stratification of the human brain, etc.). These correlations can also be collected in tabular form, what I call the Poetic Paradigm. 15 THE POETIC PARADIGM Temporality Cyclical Centroidal Linear Relational I. Psychological and Neurological sociobiology colonial invertebrate neurology hind/reptilian brain cortex faculty perception/body memory/thought sense touch vision primal sketch phylogeny australopithicus sapiens ecology mineral ontogeny child psycho-pathology manic-depressive amnesia social insect higher mammal mid/mammalian brain left cortex feeling/emotion human right will/action smell/taste full sketch homo habilis hearing 2 1/2 D homo erectus sight 3-d homo vegetable youth psychosis animal adult neurosis human elder 19th Century 1750-1900 mechanism Modern 1900- II. Historical and Cultural Western culture Ancient -1100 formism philosophy contextualism economy hunting/gathering information religion polytheism social economy tribalism socialism settlement city social status family/kinship writing orality cybernetics logic conduction abduction Medieval/Renaissance 1100-1750 organicism agriculture industry monotheism feudalism naturalism capitalism humanism state estate/peer chirography nation class/citizen typography world comrade deduction induction 16 temporality past/traditional present/apocalyptic relative/pragmatic government monarchy aristocracy democracy spatial art sculpture architecture photography temporal art dance music social ethic communal fate personal duty rights personal ethic 4 wisdom faith creativity 3 justice obedience flexibility 2 temperance charity tolerance 1 courage purity excitement future/utopian republic painting literature film social progress individual intelligence responsibility respect restraint III. Literary and Rhetorical genre epic lyric dramatic work song poem reader position language character creative process dictation revelation creation trope metaphor synecdoche sound scheme alliteration assonance & rhyme pararhyme grouping fall rise-fall meter tetrameter pentameter divisioning stanzaic paragraphed arranged prolongation extensional chiastic fragmentary syntactic scheme anaphora antistrophe symploce discourse paratactic logical dialectical semiotic relation iconic emblematic symbolic structure repetition pattern position initial medial peripheral figuration opposition unity contrast resolution pattern concentric geometrical dimensional process repetitive contoured proleptic climactic climactic contradictory closed fixed shaped narrative prose fiction audience discovery play author metonymy consonance irony fall-rise variable chaptered rise free anticipatory epistrophe temporal indexical process final network uncertainty multeity ambiguity difference asymmetrical multidynamic anticipatory blurred directed static antiopen undirected IV. Prosodic and Syntactic level paralanguage semantics word stress weak primary prosodic foot moraic foot prosodic hierarchy clitic phrase unit prosody tertiary syllabic foot phonological phrase syntax secondary dipodic foot word tone unit utterance 17 syllable onset rhyme nucleus coda intonation fall rise-fall fall-rise rise syntactic level word phrase clause sentence sentence relations complexing rank shift cohesion transformation cohesion repetition substitution pronominalization ellipsis rank shift compounding incorporation subordination parenthesis case subjective genitive objective [oblique] sentence types simple compound complex compoundcomplex sentence types declarative exclamative imperative interrogative transformation preposing postposing discontinuity fragmentation speech acts statement exclamation command question complexing apposition conjunction correlation comment clause constituency subjectivization predication transitivity qualification clause constituents subject predicator complement adverbial clause pattern intransitive copular transitive adverbial transitivity monotransitive complex-transitive ditransitive adverbial mood indicative subjunctive imperative infinitive adverbial adjunct subjunct conjunct disjunct phrase structure head modifier complement specifier word class noun adjective verb adverbial phrase type noun adjective verb adverb/prep verbal functions voice aspect modality tense voice passive middle active causative aspect perfective imperfective progressive perfect tense past present future relative modality necessity obligation probability possibility word formation compounding derivation inflection conversion function words conjunction interjection pronoun specifier conjunction coordinating subordinating correlative comparative reference generic specific definite proper person 3rd 1st 2nd generic number generic singular plural mass V. Semantic and Thematic archetypal earth sun stars moon 18 themes/images winter spring summer autumn earth morning child spring water noon youth brook/stream air/wind evening adult river fire night elder heaven white Eden green/yellow purgatory red/brown hell mineral east sunrise gut/stomach seed/bud dew asexual vegetable south daylight heart flower rain homosexual animal west sunset hand/foot/arm fruit clouds heterosexual human north dark head leaf snow one quantity two quality three relation four feeling/soul action/will ocean/lake black/blue bisexual manner body memory/thought touch with taste/smell from hearing into gold silver bronze awaken daydream doze mother son father sight against iron/lead sleep/dream daughter gluttony sloth foundation lust greed roof/walls arithmetic geometry pride/anger/greed/sloth envy anger pride door window/chimney calculus fractals kitchen dining room living room pig/bear dog/lion horse bedroom bird/cat squre God circle Christ/Son spiral Holy Ghost maze Anti- Christ/Satan King/President church legislature courts general priest legislator/lawyer artist/scholar worker/farmer teacher businessman administrator beginnings middles ends wall cell steeple tissue room organ stone wood steel mountain valley grass flower peripheries tower system plastic plain/moor forest/woods bush/hedge tree 19 Biologically and psychologically, these temporalities correlate with our four major brains and their associated senses, psychological faculties, and stages in the life cycle. Cyclical time correlates with the hind brain, touch, perception, and the child; centroidal time, with the mid-brain, smell/taste, emotion, and the youth; linear time with the left cortex, sound, volition, and the adult; and relative time with the right brain, vision, memory, and the elder. Socioculturally, these temporalities correlate closely with the major historical periods in the history of the West (ancient, medieval, modern, and postmodern) and their associated social practices, cultural products, and ideologies--their philosophies, religions, economies, ethics, and so forth. For instance, centroidal time, which builds up hierarchies by synecdochic, emblematic processes correlates closely with the local, proportional, reciprocal, and hierarchical organization of the Medieval and Renaissance period--feudalism, monotheism and the Great Chain of Being, aristocracy, organicism, deductive logic, geometry, architecture, music, agriculture, and the Christian virtues of faith, love, etc.. These rhythmic correspondences can also be extended robustly to literature, rhetoric, and archetypal meaning, the basis of literary symbolism. As critics such as Northrop Frye have explicitly argued (1957, 1981, 1990), the four major literary genres (song/epos, lyric, narrative, and drama) are best motivated in rhythmic terms; and as Hayden White has argued (1973, 1978, 1987), these four genres can be put in parallel to both the four "master" tropes (metaphor, synecdoche, metonymy, and irony) and the four major modes of "emplotment" (romance, comedy, tragedy, and satire). For instance, with its subjectivity, physicality, and communal performance, song is temporally cyclical, as is metaphor and romance, while with its tight proportioning, part-whole divisioning, and hierarchical structuring, lyric is temporally centroidal, as is synecdoche and comedy. Because of the inherent rhythmicity of nature, this four-part organization is also the common basis for our experience of the world and therefore of archetypal symbolism: the elements (earth, water, air, and fire), the seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter), the solar cycle (morning, noon, evening, night), the major celestial bodies (earth, sun, stars, moon), the points of the compass (east, south, west, north), the cycle of hydration (spring, brook, river, ocean), and so forth. The poetic paradigm also extends to language. Much of linguistic form has exactly this quadratic organization. For instance, there are really four major levels of linguistic form--paralanguage, prosody, 20 syntax, and semantics; and in their basic textures, these four levels closely follow the featural contrasts in the temporal paradigm. With its basis in the body, binary contrasts, and iconicity, paralanguage is temporally cyclical. With its basis in prominence, partitioning, and emotional expression, prosody is temporally centroidal. With its more volatile structure and implicational dependencies, syntax is temporal linear. And with its multidimensional connectivity and therefore non-linearity, semantics is temporally relative. This temporal motivation for linguistic form is especially useful when applied to syntax. Our standard syntactic descriptions suggest many quadratic articulations: noun, adjective, verb, adverb; word, phrase, clause, sentence; declarative, exclamative, imperative, interrogative; number, gender, case, person; and so forth. But because of their quantity and diversity, these four-part organizations in syntactic form are seldom interrelated or motivated. They are just accepted as formal primitives and described independently. But consider the relation between the Temporal Paradigm and words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. Being relatively fixed and unitary, words are temporally cyclical. With their centered heads and structural slots, phrases are temporally centroidal. With their volatility and robust complementation, clauses are temporally linear. And with their scope, complexity, and structural freedoms, sentences are temporally relative. Or consider the relation between the Temporal Paradigm and the four sorts of content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs). Nouns are typically concrete and stative; therefore, they are temporally cyclical. Adjectives are typically qualities and have graded intensities; therefore, they are temporally centroidal. Verbs are typically directed and complemented. Therefore they are temporally linear. And adverbs are typically diverse, free, peripheral, and oppositional; therefore, they are temporally relative. The temporal values of other syntactic categories can be motivated in similar ways. Aspect and gender both sub-classify; therefore they are temporally centroidal. Apposition promotes similarity of both form and reference; therefore, it is temporally cyclical. Modality deals with probability and social relations, therefore it is temporally linear. Exclamatives are intonationally rise-fall and emotional; therefore, they are temporally centroidal. The past tense looks backward to origins; therefore it is temporally cyclical. 21 Interrogatives are intonationally rising and confrontational; therefore, they are temporally relative. And so forth. The Poetic Paradigm is particularly powerful for stylistic analysis because it can unite formal patterns both across levels of linguistic structure and from linguistic structure to things like rhythm and rhetoric. For instance, on the basis of a preference for initial position, the Poetic Paradigm links the beginnings of archetypal cycles (spring, morning, the child, etc.) in semantics; to (among other things) subjects, topicalization, and anaphora (in syntax); syllabic onsets and alliteration (in sound); falling intonation and stress contours (in prosody), and meter (in rhythm). In all poems, all four of the temporal textures are present, albeit in different ways and with different intensities. Given the complementary relations among the four temporalities, this situation is necessarily committed, conflicted, and unique. At any given historical moment, for any given poet, and for any given poem, this temporal mix will necessarily be skewed toward one temporality rather than another, or some combination of temporalities rather than others. Given the complexity and delicacy of these temporal embodiments, this subjective texturing will also shift dynamically as we proceed through the poem. When contextualized with other structures in the poem and the full range of forms and contextual significances in the Poetic Paradigm, this temporal mixing and skewing defines an articulate problematics for a hermeneutics of poetic reading. For instance, a syntactic texture that foregrounds the cyclical and relative and backgrounds the centroidal and linear, foregrounds conflicts between the body and the imagination, perception and memory, the communal and the individual, touch and sight, fixity and freedom, etc., while backgrounding emotion and volition, the religious and the social, smell and hearing, obligation and responsibility, etc. In this theory of poetry, the goal of poetic criticism is to explore these psychological commitments and conflicts, as they occur in the overall texturing in the poem, as they develop from from moment to moment in the act of reading, as they relate to the historical and literary context, and as they bear upon the poem's referential concern or subject matter, what Helen Vendler (1997, 1-24) likes to call the poem's "occasion"--its outer scene, story, argument, idea, or whatever. 22 3 Jakobson and Rudy Revisited: Yeats' "Sorrow of Love" In order to underline this point, it might be useful to apply the theory of poetic temporality that I am advocating to one of the texts that Jakobson uses in his poetic analyses. The most intense and successful of Jakobson's analyses, the one I have always most admired, is his analysis of Yeats' "The Sorrow of Love" (Jakobson 1987, 216-249). In this analysis, Jakobson and Stephen Rudy examine the grammatical differences between the first book version of "The Sorrow of Love" (published in 1892) and its drastically revised final form (published in 1925). The comparative basis of this analysis gives it special force and clarity. Because the analysis focusses on forms that occur in the final version but are lacking (or differently realized) in the original, the reader can isolate and weigh the poetic effect of each of the grammatical patterns that Jakobson observes. The two versions of the poem are as follows: The Sorrow of Love (final version, 1925) The The And Had brawling of the sparrow in the eaves, brilliant moon and all the milky sky, all that famous harmony of leaves, blotted out man's image and his cry. A girl arose that had red, mournful lips, And seemed the greatness of the world in tears, Doomed like Odysseus and the labouring ships, And proud as Priam murdered with his peers; Arose, and on the instant clamorous leaves, A climbing moon upon an empty sky, And all that lamentation of the leaves, Could but compose man's image and his cry. --W.B. Yeats 23 The Sorrow of Love (first book version, 1892) The The And Had quarrel of the sparrows in the eaves, full round moon and the star-laden sky, the loud song of the ever-singing leaves hid away earth's old and weary cry. And And And And then you came with those red mournful lips, with you came the whole of the world's tears, all the sorrows of her labouring ships all the burden of her myriad years. And The And Are now the sparrows warring in the eaves, crumbling moon, the white stars in the sky, the loud chaunting of the unquiet leaves, shaken by earth's old and weary cry. In this exercise, I will first present Jakobson and Rudy's claims and demonstrations. Then I will apply the temporal and poetic paradigms to his results (and to other observations that his analysis passes over without comment). 3.1 Jakobson and Rudy: Claims and Demonstrations Jakobson and Rudy (JR) recognize that both versions of the poem formally differentiate (1) the first three lines of each of the outer quatrains from the other six and (2) the inner stanza from the other two on the textual periphery. JR relate this shared partitioning in these poems to their common theme. The division of the poem into the six lines in the outer quatrains (lines 1-3 and 9-11) as opposed to the other six (lines 4-8 and 12), they claim, represents two different metaphysical realms: the upper/"overground" and the lower/"terrestrial," respectively. The middle stanza is completely devoted to the lower/"terrestrial" realm; the outer stanzas bring the two realms into conflict, but with a different outcome. In the first stanza, the upper/"overground" level defeats the lower/"terrestrial" level. In the third stanza, the lower/"terrestrial" level defeats the upper/"overground" level. In both poems, the "overground" 24 level is articulated with alternating visual and auditory images (e.g., in the 1925 version: brawling, brilliant, harmon[ious]; clamorous, climbing, lament[ing]). The three stanzas, they claim, represent three of the 28 phases of the moon in Yeats' lunar mythology, phases 14-16. Yeats called these phrases "the world" and associates them with "sorrow" (249)-thus the original title of poem: "The Sorrow of the World." The 14th and 16th stages, articulated by the peripheral stanzas, represent states in which "the greatest human beauty becomes possible" (246). Leading into the 15th stage, the 14th stage is a "frenzy" of "physical illusion," which Yeats associates with Helen of Troy and her counterparts; leading away from the 15th stage, the 16th stage is the antithetical state of "selfknowledge and self-mastery" that uses the physical illusions of phase 14 creatively in order to "compose man's image and his cry" (246). In between, the 15th stage is a state of unattainable beauty, a hiatus between frenzied desire and creative reflection. Both poems associate this phase with "burden," "doom," "murder," "mourn[ing," "sorrow," "labouring," and their result: "the world in tears." In this 15th phase, contemplation and desire, united into one, inhabit a world where, in Yeats' words, 'every beloved image has bodily form, and every bodily form is loved', where 'all desire has ceased', and 'all thought has become image' (247). The repeated verb that flanks the central stanza, arose, puns on "a rose" and links "The Sorrow of Love" to adjacent poems in The Rose ("The Rose of the World," "The Rose of Peace," "The Rose of Battle," etc.), especially "When You are Old," which is addressed to Maude Gonne and repeats love and its derivatives six times, five times in its central stanza and once in its final stanza. The last instance of love is personified and mythologized, parallel to the mythological figures in the central stanza of "The Sorrow of Love." When You Are Old When you are old and grey and full of sleep, And nodding by the fire, take down this book, And slowly read, and dream of the soft look Your eyes had once, and of their shadows deep; How And But And many loved your moments of glad grace, loved your beauty with love false or true, one man loved the pilgrim soul in you, loved the sorrows of your changing face; 25 And bending down beside the flowing bars, Murmur, a little sadly, how Love fled And paced upon the mountains overhead And hid his face amid a crowd of stars. The differing poetic achievements of the two poems, JR claim, result from the differing grammatical means that they use to partition and articulate the poem. The 1892 version relates the outer stanza against the inner "either by the presence of certain grammatical categories in the inner quatrain, coupled with their absence in I and III, or by an equal distribution of certain categories in the two outer quatrains as opposed to their lower frequency in the inner," with the number 7 "serv[ing as the operative principle" (240). The inner quatrain has all of the pronouns (i.e., 7); it has a lower number of both prenominal attributes and definite articles (i.e., 4 as opposed to 7 in each outer quatrain); it presents its two distichs with a linking anaphora ("And you came," "And...you came"; "And all the...of her," "And all the...of her"); and it articulates the syntax of its first distich in complete, chiastically figured subjectpredicate structures, first subject-predicate, then predicate-subject: And then you came with those red mournful lips, And with you came the whole of the world's tears. On the other hand, the 1925 version exhibits an "overwhelming preference...for symmetries of equivalence" rather than difference, with the number 3 serving as the operative principle; and the patterning achieved is both more intensive and more extensive. These patterns are the following, 3.1.1 Patterns of similarity based on 3 (1) There are three -ing forms, one in each of the three stanzas (brawling, labouring, and climbing). (2) There are 27 nouns, 9 in each quatrain. (sparrow, eaves, moon, sky, harmony, leaves, man's image, cry; girl, lips, greatness, world, tears, Odysseus, ships, Priam, peers; instant, eaves, moon, sky, lamentation, leaves, man's image, cry). 26 (3) There are three abstract nouns (harmony, greatness, lamentation), one in each of the three stanzas; and each of these is followed by of. (4) There are three prenominal attributes per stanza (brilliant, milky, famous; red, mournful, labouring; clamorous, climbing, empty). Among lines, these are arranged by progression and mirrorsymmetry: 0-2-1-0, 2-0-1-0; 1-2-0-0. Each stanza contains two lines with and two lines without prenominal attributes; the last line of a stanza never has any; the third line never contains two; the line with two is always adjacent to a line with none; and the line without attributes advances through the quatrain as the poem progresses (1st, 2nd, 3rd). (5) There are three pronouns (his, that, and all). Each is repeated three times. His is the penultimate word in all three stanzas. (6) There are nine occurrences of the. In each stanza two lines have the and two do not. Among the six distichs, these definite articles are distributed 222111, thus differentiating the first half of the poem from the second. (7) Each stanza has an indefinite article. (8) There are nine occurrences of and, three in each stanza. (9) There are nine occurrences of prepositions (of, in, of, of, in, with, on, upon, of), three in each quatrain. (10) Within distichs, the prepositions and the occurrences of and are ordered chiastically: 1-2 (and), 2-1 (prepositions). (11) There are six finite verbs, three in the outer stanzas and three in the inner. Among lines, finite verbs pattern as follows: three lines without, then three lines with (had blotted out, arose/had, seemed), then two sets of three in which only the last line in the triplet has a finite (arose, could..compose). (12) There are three types of verbs: verbs of state (had, seemed), process (arose, arose), and action (had blotted out, could...compose). In the flow of the poem, these types of verbs form a chiasmus flanked by the verbs of action and centering the verbs of state, with the verbs of process in between. Verb phrases with action verbs have four syllables (had blotted out, could but compose); verb phrases with process verbs have two syllables (arose, arose); and verb phrases with verbs of state have one syllable (had, seemed). 27 3.1.2 Patterns of difference not based on 3 (1) Only nouns are rhymed (eaves, sky, leaves, cry, lips, tears, ships, peers, eaves, sky, leaves, cry) and all plural nouns in the text are rhymes (eaves, leaves, lips, tears, ships, peers, eaves). All of rhymes in the middle stanza (lips, tears, ships, peers) are plural. Rhymes in the outer stanzas alternate singular with plural (eaves, sky, leaves, cry; eaves, sky, leaves, cry). Rhymes in the first stanza are repeated in the third (eaves, sky, leaves cry). Rhymes in the second stanza are different (lips, tears, ships, peers). (2) Of the six personal nouns in the text, two occur in the outer stanzas and are identical (man's) and four occur in the inner stanza and are different (girl, Odysseus, Priam, peers). (3) Only the inner stanza has a noun of feminine gender (girl). (4) Postpositive attributes (doomed, murdered, proud) occur only in the middle stanza. (5) The only relative pronoun (that) occurs in the inner quatrain. (6) All appears only in the outer quatrains, twice in the first stanza and once in the third. (7) Verbs of state (had, seemed) only occur in the inner quatrain. (8) The outer quatrains are primarily coordinating; the inner quatrain is primarily subordinating. (9) The outer quatrains are syntactically periodic/anticipatory; the inner quatrain is syntactically loose/extensional. In the outer quatrains, different subjects refer to the same predicate. In the inner quatrains, different predicates refer to the same subject. (10) Equational conjunctions (like, as) occur only in the middle stanza. (11) Sound linkages connect thematically related concepts in the outer stanzas (e.g., [m.n]: moonharmony-man's; moon-lamentation-man's). (12) A high concentration of [m] connects the outer stanzas (moon, milky, famous, harmony, man's image, clamorous, climbing, moon, empty, lamentation, compose, man's, image). (13) [r] is predominantly pre-vocalic in the outer quatrains (braw.ling, spa.rrow, brill.iant, cry, a.rose, cla.mo.rous, cry) but post-vocalic in the inner quatrain (girl, mournful, world, tears, la.bour.ing, mur.dered, peers). 28 (14) The inner quatrain is unified by dense consonance and alliteration: had red mournfulmurdered [dr.dm.r-m.rd.rd], proud-Priam-peers [p.r], (15) In the outer quatrains, the odd downbeats carry the greater percentage in primary stresses. In the inner quatrain, the even downbeats are more frequently stressed. 4 Linguistic Temporality/Subjectivity: A Reanalysis Many aspects of JR's claims are simply factual and must be accounted for by any account of the poetic motivations for the Yeats' revisions. For example, the linguistic triplets that JR observe in the 1925 version of the poem are so extensive that they cannot be dismissed by the standard critique of Jakobson's analyses (e.g., Culler 1975, 55-74) that these grammatical patterns are merely an arbitrary product of his critical attentions. Few of the grammatical categories that JR invoke to establish their linguistic claims are marginal and therefore disputed. As far as such things are possible, these grammatical patterns stand as "objective," intersubjectively verifiable aspects of the text. A critical reading need not attend to these patterns as JR do, but these patterns are there for all to observe. If it is our collective judgment that the 1925 version of the poem is a better poem in some way, the existence and particular configuration of these patterns might indeed be involved. In fact, given their extensiveness, it is highly likely that they are. In this case, the critical onus is not on those who agree with Jakobson's claims but on those who don't. Any critical reanalysis of JR's claims that disregards these patterns, that dismisses them as superfluous and fortuitous, must explain why in some detail. Many of JR's other, (non-numerical) observations are of a similar critical status: the relation between nouns within lines and nouns in line peripheries; the patterning of plural vs. singular nouns; the distribution of verbs of state, process, and action; and the many non-numerical grammatical patterns that articulate the text into center vs. periphery: periodic vs. loose syntax, rhythmic patterning, sonic patterning, the distribution of pronouns and gender, the distribution of post-positive attributes, the distribution of equative conjunctions, etc. The major facts that JR fail to motivate are the co-occurrent qualities of the linguistic forms that Yeats uses to articulate "The Sorrow of Love" into its triplet of parts and the relation of these qualities to 29 human sensibility, both its potentialities and its historically specific realizations. JR claim that the numerical and positional distribution of these forms are poetically significant, but not their quality. The implication is that the co-occurrence of these forms is accidental and could have been otherwise. The major claim of my new temporal poetics is that this is not so. The central difference in the temporal theory of poetry that I am advocating and Jakobson's poetics revolves around these contrasting claims. JR observe that, qualitatively, the linguistic textures of the center and periphery of "Sorrow of Love" contrast in the following ways: (1) Syntactic Direction (2) Verbal meaning (3) Person (4) Gender (5) Number (rhymes) (6) Voice (7) Elaboration (8) Pronouns (9) Modification (10) Trope (11) Subordination Periphery Center anticipatory dynamic generic impersonal mixed active coordinating indefinite moderate metonymic absent extensional stative 3rd person personal plural passive subordinating relative rich metaphoric present To these observations we could add the following. (12) Modality present possibility/ability absent The outer quatrains (the third quatrain) contains the only modal in the text (could), and this is a modal of possibility/ability. Why JR fail to observe this is hard to say. This modal is unique; therefore it neither links the first stanza to the third nor is realized in a triplet of forms. This might explain its omission. (13) Aspect perfect simple The outer quatrains (the first quatrain) contain the only instance of the perfect aspect (had blotted out). Why JR omit this observation is also puzzling. (14) Morphology conversion derivation The outer quatrains have the only instance of a morphological conversion (cry). There are many derivational and inflectional forms in the text. JR also fail to motivate why the compound adjectives (star- 30 laden and ever-singing) in the 1892 version are omitted in the final and replaced with other forms (e.g., milky, a morphological derivative). (15) Adverbs present absent The outer quatrains have the only adverb in the text. JR notice that the two adverbs (then and now) in the 1892 version do not appear in the final version, but they fail to notice that another adverb does (but in Could but compose). Again, this omission might result from the fact that this form is unique. It neither establishes a parallel nor produces a triple. JR also use this but to argue for the prosodic parallelism of the verb phrases (had blotted out vs. could but compose), a questionable claim. Adverbs such as but are clausal constituents not parts of verb phrases. (16) Basic clause pattern transitive non-transitive The contrast in verbs between outer and inner is not just a contrast in dynamic vs. stative. In fact, since arose, which can be dynamic, appears in the inner quatrain, this contrast between stative and dynamic is blurred. The sharper contrast is between transitive vs. intransitive/copular. The outer quatrains have the only transitive verbs (had blotted out, could...compose). (17) Multi-Word Verbs present absent The outer quatrains contain the only phrasal verb: had blotted out. In these constructions, the adverbial particle (out) complements the main verb. When the phrasal verb is transitive, the result is close to a complex-transitive construction (I blotted it out vs. I made it disappear). (18) Color absent present The inner quatrain has the only adjective of color: red. This is also a change from the 1892 version, where white occur in the final quatrain. (19) Modification. non-restrictive restrictive While these judgments are more subjective, the prenominal modifiers in the peripheral stanzas feel non-restrictive; those in the inner stanza, restrictive. The sky, the moon, and the natural harmony that Yeats 31 refers to in the peripheral stanzas are unique entities, not sets of entities whose members need to be modified in order to be referenced. These modifiers can be omitted without producing nonsense or a failure of reference. The brawling of a sparrow in the eaves, The moon and the sky. And that harmony of leaves, ... In my judgment, the modifiers in the central stanza cannot be omitted in this way. A girl arose that had lips Doomed like Odysseus and the ships 4.1 Rhythm JR notice the contrasting distribution of stress within the metrical lines of the textual periphery vs. the textual center, but much more could be said about this rhythmic opposition. Following the theoretical tradition in rhythmic analysis, JR's mode of scansion is not a full rhythmic scansion and therefore is limited in what it can reveal (Cureton 1992, 1993a, 1993b, 1994a, 1994b, 1996a, forthcoming a). When translated into a full rhythmic scansion of meter and grouping, the "regressive undulatory curve" that JR find in the distribution of stresses within the outer quatrains (i.e., the stressing of odd icti/tactical beats) amounts to a blurring of the binary structure of the phrased measure. Where stresses appear in the center and periphery of lines (syllables 2, 6, and 10), points of expected cadential action and metrical projection are avoided. Phrasal peaks often fall together with metrical projections, temporarily (1) resolving the binary action in the phrased measure and (2) depriving the measure that follows of a full projection. Many of these lines also encourage a unitary intonational performance, which heightens this effect. For instance, I give lines 1, 4, and 12 one intonational unit with three phonological phrases, a structure that leaves the mid-line cadence without a primary stress and the mid-line projection with the peak of a phonological phrase. The result is continuous (and therefore prosaic) rather than binary (i.e., prominently phrased and metered). 32 Line 1 ________________________________________ / \ intonational unit w w s __________ ______________ ____________ / \/ \/ \ phonological phrase __________ ______________ ____________ / \/ \/ \ clitic phrase w s w w w s w w w s v / v \ v / v \ v / syllable The brawling of the sparrow in the eaves, . section . stanza . part . line . . lobe . . . . . tactus . . . . . . . . . . pulse Line 4 _______________________________________ / \ s w w _____________ __________ ____________ / \/ \/ \ w s w s _________ __ ____ ____ ____________ / \/ \/ \/ \/ \ w s w s w w w s \ / v / / / v \ \ / Had blotted out man's image and his cry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intonational unit phonological phrase clitic phrase syllable line lobe tactus pulse Line 12 ________________________________________ / \ s w w ________________ _________ ____________ / \/ \/ \ w s w s ________ ______ ___ ____ ____________ / \/ \/ \/ \/ \ w s w s s w w w s \ / v / / / v \ \ / Could but compose man's image and his cry. . . . intonational unit phonological phrase clitic phrase syllables line lobe 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tactus pulse I give lines 3 and 11 two phonological phrases, but with the first phrases extended so that their peaks smother their mid-line metrical projections. Line 3 _____________________________________ / \ w s _________________________ __________ / \/ \ w w w s ______ ___ _____ ______ _________ / \/ \/ \/ \/ \ w s s w s w w w s \ / / / v / v v \ / And all that famous harmony of leaves, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intonational unit phonological phrase clitic phrase syllable part line lobe tactus pulse Line 11 _____________________________________ / w ______________________ / \ s _____________ \/ \ w w s ______ ___ _________ _____________ / \/ \/ \/ \ w s w w s w w w s \ / / \ v / v \ v / And all that lamentation of the leaves, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intonational unit phonological phrase clitic phrase syllables part line lobe tactus pulse And I give line 9 three intonational units, a structure that produces a fully blocked cadence at the lineal projection (albeit a more firmly articulated cadence and projection at mid-line). Line 9 ____ __________________ _______________ \/ \/ \ ____ __________________ _______________ / \/ \/ \ w s ____ __________________ ________ _____ / \/ \/ \/ \ w s w w w s w s w w v / \ \ v / v / v v / Arose, and on the instant clamorous leaves, / intonational unit phonological phrase clitic phrase syllables 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stanza part line lobe tactus pulse On the other hand, all of the the lines in the middle stanza are not just stressed on the even icti/tactical beats, as JR notice, they are intonationally duple as well, providing both intonational cadences and stressed projections at mid-line. Line 5 __________ __________________________ / \/ \ s w w s ___ _____ ________ ________________ / \/ \/ \/ \ w s w ____ _____ ________ __ _______ ___ / \/ \/ \/ \/ \/ \ w s w s w s s w v / v / \ / / / v / A girl arose that had red, mournful lips, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intonational unit phonological phrase clitic phrase syllable stanza part line lobe tactus pulse line 6 ______________________ _____________________ / \/ \ w s w s _________ ___________ ___________ ________ / \/ \/ \/ \ _________ ___________ ___________ ________ / \/ \/ \/ \ w s w s w w w s w s \ / v / v \ v / \ / And seemed the greatness of the world in tears, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . intonational unit phonological phrase clitic phrase syllables line lobe tactus pulse Line 7 ___________________ / w _____ s ____________ ______________________ \/ \ ______________________ intonational unit 35 / \/ \/ \ w s _____ ____________ ________________ ____ / \/ \/ \/ \ w w s ww w w s w w / \ \ / vv \ v / v v / Doomed like Odysseus and the labouring ships, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phonological phrase clitic phrase syllables part line lobe tactus pulse Line 8 __________________ _____________________ \/ \ w s w s ________ ________ ______ _____________ / \/ \/ \/ \ ________ ________ ______ _____________ / \/ \/ \/ \ w s w sw s w w w s \ / \ /v / v \ \ / And proud as Priam murdered with his peers; . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . / intonational unit phonological phrase clitic phrase syllables line lobe tactus pulse This contrast in the organization of the phrased measure between the textual periphery and the textual center also appears in the interaction of higher level phrasing and the metrical structure of the quatrains as a whole. Unlike the pentameter, quatrains are mandatorily duple in their meter. But with its triplet of lineal subjects preceding its one-line predicate, the higher level phrasing of the first quatrain is asymmetrical: the first three lines form a phrasal group that runs over the distich break, finding its peak in the second stanzaic part. \ The brawling of the sparrow in the eaves, \ |w | / | \ | The brilliant moon and all the milky sky, |w |w / | \ | And all that famous harmony of leaves, |s | / / \ \ Had blotted out man's image and his cry, | |s / / 5 6 36 The phrasing of the third quatrain includes this asymmetry but complicates it further. The introductory recapitulation (Arose) and adverbial (and on the instant) break off from the major articulation of the stanza (which recapitulates the phrasing of the first stanza), producing a structure that is both asymmetrically top-heavy (at one level) and asymmetrically end-weighted (at the other). Arose, and on the instant clamorous leaves, A climbing moon upon a empty sky, And all that lamentation of the leaves, Could but compose man's image and his cry. / 5 \ |s / \ |w / \ |w / \ |w / \ |s / \ | / 6 \ \ | | | | | |w | | / / \ \ | | | | | | |w | | | | |s | | / | \ | |s | / 7 On the other hand, the central stanza is binary at levels (including within level 5, which combines intonational units into syntactic phrases). At higher levels, this binary phrasing is also regularly falling, another unique gesture within the poem. A girl arose that had red, mournful lips, And seemed the greatness of the world in tears, Doomed like Odysseus and the labouring ships, And proud as Priam \ |w / \ |s / \ |w / \ |s / \ |w / \ |s / \ |w / \ \ \ | | | |s | | | | | | | | / | s | \ | | | | | | | | |w | | | | | / / | \ \ | | | | |s | | | | | | | | / | | \ |w | | | | |w | | \ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 37 murdered with his peers; 4 \ | |s | / / 5 6 | | | | | | / / / 7 8 On the basis of these more detailed scansions, several rhythmic contrasts can be added to the list of features that distinguish the peripheral stanzas from the central stanza. Periphery Center (20a) Phrasal span varied duple (20b) Phrasal direction rising falling (20c) Phrased measure abnormal normal 4.2 Sound JR's observations about sound in the text are also partial and again miss the crucial distinctions that articulate the textual periphery and textual center. The intense consonantal and alliterative patterning that JR observe does not pervade the text indiscriminately, establishing semantic connections (although it does establish these connections as well). And other sound patterns need to be noticed and integrated into any full assessment of the sonic texture of the poem. Alliteration and consonance does pervade the text, but in the peripheral stanzas, these combine to form pararhyme, often in multiple linkages. sor.row-spar.row brawl.ing-brill.iant love-leaves man's-har.mon.y-moon-la.man.tation climb.ing-com.pose-clam.or.ous The central stanza has only one instance of pararhyme, and this is only partial and single. mourn.ful-mur-dered 38 All other sonic schemes (alliteration, consonance, assonance, and rhyme) pervade the text. In the center of the text, alliteration becomes especially strong, however. Every word in the central stanza is linked to some other word by full (or partial) alliteration, often in close proximity. Doomed-O.dy.sse.us-tears proud-Priam-peers girl-great.ness like-lips-la.bour.ing a.rose-red world-with seemed-ships had-his that-the-this A-And-of-in-and-And-as In the peripheral stanzas, the repetition of initial consonants is just as dense, but some of these repetitions become pararhyme. As JR notice, the central stanza has a strong consonantal pattern in [r], but this pattern is not matched and combined with a strong alliterative pattern in [r]. We might also note that the central stanza has some especially prominent assonantal patterns. Vowels on stressed tactical beats within lines often echo vowels in the rhymes at line end. seemed-tears O.dy.sse.us-ships Pri.am-peers This only happens once in the outer stanzas: climb.ing-sky Vowels in function words in the inner stanza also echo vowels in the stanzaic rhymes: in-with-his ships-lips This never occurs in the outer stanzas. In the central stanza, assonance also links two of the most prominent grammatical triplets in the poem: the abstract noun and the ing-form. great.ness-la.bou.ring This also never happens in the outer stanzas. 39 Given these supplemental observations about sound, the following can be added to the grammatical patterning that distinguishes the textual center from the textual periphery. periphery (21) sound pararhyme center alliteration & assonance 4.3 Summary If we add all of these additional observations to JR's original collection, we get the following: Periphery (1) Syntactic Direction (2) Verbal meaning (3) Person (4) Gender (5) Number (rhymes) (6) Voice (7) Elaboration (8) Pronouns (9) Modification I (10) Trope (11) Subordination (12) Modality (13) Aspect (14) Morphology (15) Adverbs (16) Basic Clause Pattern (17) Multi-Word Verbs (18) Color (19) Modification II (20a) Phrasal span (20b) Phrasal direction (20c) Phrased measure (21) Sound Center anticipatory extensional dynamic stative generic 3rd person impersonal personal mixed plural active passive coordinating subordinating indefinite relative moderate rich metonymic metaphoric absent present possibility/ability absent perfective absent conversion derivation present absent transitive non-transitive present absent absent present non-restrictive restrictive varied duple rising falling abnormal normal pararhyme alliteration & assonance 4.4 Reanalysis In the light of the theory of poetic temporality I am suggesting, the particular qualities of the poetic features that distinguish center from periphery in "The Sorrow of Love" are immediately recognizable. The features that occur in the center of the text "tell" a centroidal and cyclical temporality; the features in the periphery, a linear and relative one. This observation, together with others of a 40 comparable sort, reveal the limitations of Jakobson's theory of poetry as "grammatical geometry," and in doing so, provide a more principled alternative. 4.4.1 Historical Positioning With its discontinuous, polarized middle and static, paradoxical periphery, "The Sorrow of Love" announces its dominant modernity, while its coherent syntactic and narrative undertone and rhymed and metered background display its continuing, but less dominant, relations with both Romanticism and the Renaissance lyric. The major effect of the Yeats' revisions is to clarify this historical positioning by converting the ternary organization of the text from a loose grouping of differentiated, and therefore lyric parallels into a tight organization of static alternatives. The principle that determines the isolated, largescale divisioning of the original text is spread out into the poetic texture as a whole, foregrounding the memorial/relative at the expense of the linear, centroidal, and cyclical. As a result of its formal triplets, each of the stanzas is felt as a precise thematic variant of the others, dampening the impression of forward motion, emotive synthesis, and perceptual return. Impressions of similarity (which characterize the cyclical), similarity-in-difference (which characterize the linear) and difference-in-similarity (which characterize the centroidal) are reduced to impressions of pure difference, paradoxically and discontinuously juxtaposed. The omission of the temporal adverbials (then and now) from the original and their conversion to a recapitulation (arose), a qualification (but), and an invocation of the immediate present (on the instant) also dampens the text's linearity while foregrounding its simultaneity/spatiality. Jakobson's ahistorical claim that the final text's numerology heightens its poeticality is valid, then, but limited. The pervasively static paralleling that Yeats achieves in the final version of the poem would be inappropriate in texts with a more dominantly linear, centroidal, or cyclical temporality. Tightly parallel but precisely varied, the three parts of the final text do not proceed. essentialize, or repeat; they juxtapose/differentiate. Shards of consciousness are arranged in a contradictory, static network. 4.4.2 Poeticality 41 Above and beyond this more precise historical positioning, Yeats' revisions also heighten the text's general poeticality, but in ways that are also inaccessible to Jakobson's theory of "structural geometry." As JR observe, both texts oppose a more concrete, personal, gendered, metaphorical, and non-teleological center to a more abstract, impersonal, generic, metonymic, and teleological periphery--and Yeats' nonnumerical revisions greatly clarify this thematic opposition. The exact nature of these non-numerical revisions, however, can only be motivated in temporal terms. As the catalogue of formal features that we assembled above articulate, the primary thematic opposition that distinguishes center from periphery in the text is between active memory and the loved physical beauty, the temporally linear and relative vs. the temporally cyclical and centroidal, with a further polarization between the relative and the cyclical. In the outer quatrains, the linear is present but is subordinated in both quality and quantity to the relative. In the inner quatrain, the centroidal is present but is subordinated in both quality and quantity to the cyclical. The creative memory articulated in the outer quatrains is statically contradictory/ironic (it both creates/"composes" and destroys"'blots out"). The loved body articulated in the inner quatrain is mythically fated (it is "Doomed like Odysseus," "proud as Priam murdered"). The love that is creatively remembered is necessarily lost. The creativity that articulates this lost love is impotently static. The maximal polarization in sensibility that everywhere characterizes the modern is present here in sharp detail. Yeats' revisions clarify this thematic opposition by enriching and purifying the relevant temporal "tellings" in their respective textual positionings. In the textual center, these revisions intensify and purify the centroidal and cyclical, especially the cyclical. The phrasal binarism and falling motion foregrounds meter and invokes the cyclical concern for symmetry and maximal contrast. The dense alliteration heightens syllabic onsets and foregrounds prosodic decline. The passive participles invoke cyclical reaction. The more pervasively right-branching syntax intensifies syntactic decline. The omission of the all's eliminates totalizing qualification. The mythical references foreground bodily imagery. The omission of compounds and color terms from the textual periphery limits morphological blending and physical reference to the textual center. The elimination of the adverbial then dampens narrativity and speaker comment. And the equative subordination (like, as) invokes the cyclical concern for similarity. On the other hand, the increased subordination invokes the centroidal concern for dependency. The thinning out of 42 modification in the textual periphery heightens the influence of this clausal dependency by reducing the presence of phrasal dependency in the text as a whole. The prominent assonance (greatness-labouring) promotes phonetic "centering." The added linking verbs (had, seemed) intensify attribution. And the substitution of a girl for you invokes gender contrast and indefiniteness and eliminates second person reference (which is more often associated with the linear). In the textual periphery, Yeats' revisions intensify and purify the relative and linear, especially the relative. With respect to the linear, the substitution of the modal and transitive could...compose for the nonmodal and passive are shaken heightens the presence of the active and contingent. The dissolving of the phrased measure makes the rhythmic motion more continuous and unpredictable. And the roughing up of the syntactic parallelism between the first stanza and the third (with the addition of Arose, and on the instant) promotes asymmetry. With respect to the relative, the added all's enhance totalizing generalization and the added but adverbial qualification. The substitution of man's for earth's invokes generic person. The pervasive pararhyme hollows out syllabic centers and promotes prosodic peripheries. And the addition of the perfect aspect (had blotted out vs. was shaken)) invokes memory. 4.4.3 Subsidiary Divisioning Compared to this rich and consistent support for a divisioning between center and periphery in the poem, support for the other formal divisionings that JR suggest (i.e., between anterior and posterior and between line 1-3/9-11 and 4-8/12) is slight. In fact, it is best dismissed as spurious. From a temporal perspective, the formal textures of lines 4 and 12 are densely continuous with the formal textures of lines 13 and 9-11, not lines 5-8. These lines are rhythmically continuous and asymmetrical and grammatically modal, adverbial, perfective, transitive, and generic. They also participate prominently in the general asymmetry, continuity, and periodicity of the stanzas in which they appear. 4.4.4 Conclusion Both intuition and analysis support JR's claim that the final version of "The Sorrow of Love" is a "better" poem than the 1892 version. Yeats' massive revisions of the poem consistently clarify and intensify 43 the earlier text's implicit, but less fully realized, intention. Close analysis also supports JR's claim that many of Yeats' revisions tighten parallels and sharpen textual divisionings--even more extensively than JR observe. But the superior "poeticality" of the final text--its heightened "monumentality" and therefore aesthetic intensity and memorability--does not result exclusively (or even primarily) from this sharpened parallel divisioning, much less from the superficial numerical symmetry that this divisioning entails. Rather, as with all poems, the final text derives it poetic value from the increased clarity and intensity with which it articulates, and therefore makes available to artistic experience, the composition, complexity, and historical significance of our human temporalities, as these temporalities can be "told" in and through a skillfully crafted language. 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