Movment Analysis from A to Z 20190104A

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MOVEMENT
ANALYSIS FROM
A TO Z
This document provides the reader with information
on how to do Movement Analysis including the
knowledge needed, the process, the reporting
template, and the causes and effects of skier
movements. This paper is DRAFT and under further
Development.
© 2016-2019 Skibok.org
Movement Analysis from A to Z
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Table of Contents
Revision History ........................................................................................................................................ 1
Knowledge / Information to do MA .......................................................................................................... 2
How to Learn to do Movement Analysis................................................................................................... 4
The Process of Movement Analysis .......................................................................................................... 5
The Evaluation Format .............................................................................................................................. 7
Prescriptions: .......................................................................................................................................... 10
Other Comments: ................................................................................................................................... 10
Causes and Effects: ................................................................................................................................. 10
Appendix ................................................................................................................................................. 14
Cues of Ineffective Skiing: .................................................................................................................. 14
Additional table of Causes and Effects .............................................................................................. 15
Triage .................................................................................................................................................. 16
Sample Skier Videos for MA............................................................................................................... 16
Revision History
Version Date Notes
Version
#
1.0
1.1
2.0
2.1
2.2
3.0
Revision
Date
Dec 2015
Jan 2016
Sept 2016
Oct 2016
Oct
29,2016
Dec
25,2018
Revision
Author
Original Document Developed
Draft watermark added
Added how to learn MA, and tables of Causes and Effects
Minor edits
Causes and Effects reversed, Triage and Video section added
Skibok.org
Skibok.org
Skibok.org
Skibok.org
Skibok.org
Edits and changes
Nancy
COMMENTS: Please send comments and suggestions to [email protected]
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
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According to the PSIA Alpine Technical Manual (2014), Movement Analysis has three phases --observation, evaluation, and prescription.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a suggested way to do movement analysis from A to Z. The
paper contains:
1. The information you will need to understand skiing and provide you with a basis for the making
movement analysis observations.
2. A way to learn to do movement analysis.
3. A process to allow you to perform the movement analysis observation in a structured way.
4. An evaluation template that will provide you with a structure to report your evaluation.
5. Suggestions on how to provide prescriptions (corrective progressions)
6. Probable causes and effects
Knowledge / Information to do MA
One needs to have some knowledge to be able to make movement analysis observations. This
knowledge forms the basis for understanding skiing and being able to make judgments about other’s
skiing. .
1. “The fundamental mechanics of SKIING, outlined below, remain consistent through all
levels of Certification. The performance criteria for these fundamentals will vary based on
the application to common beginner, intermediate, and advanced zone outcomes.
Memorize the following five points: (PSIA Alpine Skiing National Standards.)
Skiing Fundamentals





Adjusting Stance/ Balance: Control the relationship of the Center of Mass to the base
of support to direct pressure along the length of the skis.
Foot to Foot Pressure: Control pressure from ski to ski and direct pressure toward the
outside ski.
Tipping feet and legs: Control edge angles through a combination of inclination and
angulation.
Turning feet and Legs: Control the skis rotation (turning, pivoting, steering) with leg
rotation, separate from the upper body.
Flexion and Extension: Regulate the magnitude of pressure created through ski/snow
interaction.
(Source: PSIA Alpine Certification Standards 2014 with minor additions.)
2. Be familiar with the following Visual Cues of Effective Skiing.
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------BALANCE AND STANCE
The skier is in balance when he or she can access and affect any of the skills throughout
each turn.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The entire body is involved and participates in balancing.
Flexing activity originates from the ankles and is supported by the knees, hips,
and lower back.
The hips are centered throughout the turn, promoting a movement forward
through the finish and into the new turn.
The inside leg shortens as the outside leg lengthens, setting up alignment and
balance with weight on the outside ski.
The upper body remains more vertical than the lower body throughout the
shaping and finishing phases of the turn, creating body angles which align
balance over the outside ski.
The inside hand, shoulder, and hip lead the turn shaping and finish, resulting in
A countered relationship between upper and lower body (degree of counter is
related to turn size and shape).
The skier's hands are in front of the body to aid balance.
PRESSURE CONTROL MOVEMENTS
Pressure control provides the element of touch that promotes a smooth ride at any level
of skiing.
•
•
•
•
•
•
The skis flow evenly and smoothly over the terrain, aided by the skier's joints
working together to manage ski-snow interaction. This requires effective pressure
management, including both the application and release of pressure (sometimes
resulting in one or both skis being off the snow.
The skis bend progressively throughout the turn, with the entire length engaged.
The amount of flexion and extension of the skier's legs changes in response to
the terrain and pitch of the slope.
Pressure adjustments during the turn will alter the timing, intensity, and amount
of pressure redistribution along the skis and from foot to foot.
The pole touch or pole plant complements the turn.
The skier's upper body remains quiet and disciplined.
ROTARY MOVEMENTS
Rotary movements involve turning some part of the body relative to other parts.
Combined with other skills, rotary movements allow the skier to change direction more
efficiently.
•
•
•
•
•
The skier's legs turn underneath a strong/stable torso to help guide the skis
through the turn.
Both skis and legs turn together throughout a parallel turn, with the femurs
turning in the hip sockets (instead of the entire hip coming around).
The skis are tipped and turned an appropriate amount to create a smooth, Cshaped arc.
Rotary (steering) movements which re-direct the skis at turn initiation are
matched in timing and intensity by tipping the skis to prepare for increased forces
caused by edge engagement.
Rotary movements should be progressive, except for athletic moves needed to
recover balance.
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------EDGING MOVEMENTS
Without appropriate edging skills, the skier is unable to control the radius, shape, or
speed of the turn.
•
•
•
•
The edges are released and re-engaged in one smooth movement.
Both skis tip the same amount early in the turn, with the strongest angles
developing in or near the fall line.
The shins make forward and lateral contact with the boot cuffs as the skier rolls
the skis onto the new edges.
Tension of the inside leg helps maintain alignment. Flexion of the inside ankle
directs movement forward and laterally for edge-angle adjustments.
DIRECTIONAL MOVEMENTS
Directional movements entail moving toward the new turn using gravity and the skis.
•
•
•
•
•
•
The skier extends into the direction of the new turn to change edges.
The skis continue to move forward along their edges throughout the turn.
The skier continues to move forward with the skis throughout the turn.
The ankles, knees, and hips roll forward and laterally to move into the new turn.
The skier keeps his or her vision forward, looking in the intended direction of
travel.
The pole swings smoothly in the direction of travel.
(Source- Visual Cues to Effective Skiing – © (2010) American Snowsports
Education Foundation)
How to Learn to do Movement Analysis
Conducting movement analysis is a process. It can be overwhelming at first if you try to do the whole
process at one time. So, deconstruct – break down – the process, it then becomes easier to learn.
(Read through the next section – The Process of Movement Analysis to understand this section.) A
suggested way to learn to do movement analysis is to go to a blue/ black run and watch the skiers. For
Level 2 candidates, look for skiers who are skiing in level 2-7. Focus on one aspect of the MA process
(see below) until you feel comfortable with it. Then move to the next.



First, watch skiers and determine the turn type, turn shape, and turn size. Work on this until you
feel you can comfortably determine this for any skier in any conditions.
Next, look at the pole usage, - timing in relation to starting the turn, then the placement of the
arms holding the poles, athletic stance, arms out in front, watch the arms through the turn, does
one drop?
Next, take each skill knowledge – listed above – and watch the individual skiers for ONE skill at a
time until you feel competent to be able to see the effective and ineffective performance of that
skill for the skiers that you watch. .
o For each skill, try to identify any negative effects, and then recite the cause.
o For each skill, watch the skier during the whole turn, initiation, shaping, and finish
phases. Look for timing and sequence of movements during the turn.
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
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
By learning each skill separately, you will be more comfortable putting them together when you
do a total movement analysis process for all the skills.
Once you have mastered each of the items above, put them together and practice doing a
movement analysis from beginning to end – see the suggested process below. – Turn type, pole
usage, each skill. The age, gender, and confidence of the skier are the last things you should
observe.
Again, by deconstructing the process and learning each individual part of the process, you will be able to
perform good movement analysis when you combine the parts.
The Process of Movement Analysis
Now that you have the knowledge and can see the specific differences by skill, here is a process to use to
do movement analysis. This model / process of doing a complete movement analysis was developed by
Ted Pitchard.
To do an MA, you will have approximately 30-45 seconds while the subject skier comes down the hill
toward you and passed you. (You may be allowed to follow him/her.) This model provides you with a
systematic way of gathering the information you will need to then report your information as part of the
MA evaluation phase.
Key: Always focus on the four skills, and the five principles.
Fundamental
Label
Adjusting Stance/
Balance
Fundamental Statement
Foot to Foot
Pressure
Control pressure from ski to ski and direct pressure toward the
outside ski.
Tipping feet and
legs (edging)
Rotation
Control edge angles through a combination of inclination and
angulation.
Control the skis rotation (turning, pivoting, steering) with leg
rotation, separate from the upper body.
Flexion and
Extension
Regulate the magnitude of pressure created through ski/snow
interaction.
Control the relationship of the Center of Mass (COM) to the base
of support (BOS) to direct pressure along the length of the skis.
Skill
Relationship
Pressure
Control
Movements
(PCM)
Pressure
Control
Movements
(PCM)
Edging
Rotation
Pressure
Control
Movements
(PCM)
Two other suggestions:
1. Visualize and practice this technique several times and you will gain an ability to perform high
quality movement analysis.
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. Hold your comments until after the skier passes. Talking to the clinician during the MA ski by
can be distracting--- you will be allowed in most cases to delay your comments until the end.
The Process to observe the skier as they come down the hill toward you…….
following--- ask yourself the questions.
1.
Look at the
Turn type, wedge, parallel, carved
2. Turn Size, medium, large, small
3. Turn shape: (C, Z, S), skidded, carved, incomplete, complete
4. Pole usage – effective – ineffective (not used, timing off)
5. Arms placement to hold the poles – forward/back, one arm drops
6. Rotary - (ideal – just the legs turn under a stable upper body, counter
created by legs)
a. Are shoulders moving with the turn
b. Are the arms/hands providing any rotary motion
c. Is the whole body moving for the turn
d. Are the legs providing rotary
e. Is there any counter
f. Where is the skier facing
g. Is there consistency of rotary movement
7. Edging ( ideal - skis tip at the same time and degree,)
a. Is there any angulation, or inclination
b. Are the skis tipping at the same time and rate
c. Is the hill providing the edge angle
8. Pressure Control Movements (- ideal – flexion and extension during the
turn )
a. Summarize the Pressure control movements by
a. Vertical movements – is there any flexion/ extension
movement – is it forward, forward angled, or vertical
b. Fore/aft movements c. Side to side movements – where is the weight going, Is
there any one side to other side – stiff leg – shift of weight
b. Timing with pole plant
9. Balance
a. As the skier passes by you, check
i. Ankle – open or closed
ii. Where is the butt – over the mid boot
iii. Is the nose over the toes of the boots?
iv. Is one leg stiff
v. Where are the hands
Some Clinicians will ask questions on the material below….. Think logically…….
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. If you have time, look for the following --- in time as you get better at quick
observation, you may have time to look for these things:
Directional Movements:








Inside half of body leads outside half through turn.
Inside half of body is raised and ahead of the outside half.
Ankles, knees and hips and COM move forward and laterally in
direction of new turn. (crossover)
Upper and Lower body create stacked alignment to allow for
maximum strength of outside leg.
Movements are complemented by pole swing.
Directional movements facilitate edge release and turn transition.
If directional movement lacking-, turn initiation is difficult &
inefficient – compensatory movements occur.
Body must keep moving with skis.
The Evaluation Format
Below is the evaluation format using the St. BERPE structure. This is how you would report your
observations back to the clinician -- Follow this format. It is easy and simple.
 S= Skier – Student
 T= Turn type, size, shape
 B=Balance
 E= Edging
 R=Rotary
 P= Pressure Control Movements
 E= Equipment
You will want to focus on the four basic skills (Balance, and identify specific problems that you observed.
Here is the Evaluation template. Memorize and use this template to report to your clinician.
Student:
Gender
Approximate Age
Comfort on Terrain
Athletic/Non-Athletic
Turns:Type – Wedge – parallel
Size: - long, medium, short
Shape: - Z, S, skidded, carved, incomplete, symmetrical, asymmetrical
Poles:
Position: - proper stance – hands in peripheral vision, out from body
Movement Patterns: - - effective, ineffective, timing, touch, blocking.
Equipment type:
Rental/owned – Boots fit, ski length, pole length, shaped or straight skis.
Skill Assessment: - Describe the cause-effect [c->e] relationship between the body
movements and the ski performance
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Balance/Stance -Ideal: - Feet, hip distance apart; ankles flexing, ; knees over fore foot, hips over mid
foot, lower back slightly rounded, nose over toes.
Body Parts: Flex in ankle, knee, hips, joints, hands – Bend at waist, Angle of upper
body, Hands-poles
Movement Patterns: - Stance – appropriate, narrow, fore/aft, lateral, centered
Open/closed ankle, balance throughout turn.
Rotary – What body movements or combo of movement’s skier makes to turn?
Ideal: Originate from the feet/legs/femurs. Both legs and skis turn at same time,
upper body remains quiet, counter created by using legs.
Body Parts: Legs, (legs & feet), upper body rotation (hips, shoulders)
Movement Patterns: - Whole body rotation, counter rotation, anticipation, leg
rotation (Femur)
Edging: Movements by skier to create the ski/snow angles. (Controls turn radius, shape
and speed)
Ideal: - Skis are tipped at the same time and should create equal edge angles in the
snow. Release and re-engage should be smooth. Use design of ski effectively
Body Parts: Ankle, Knee, hip, whole body
Movement Patterns: - - Angulation, Inclination, Banking
Pressure Control Movements: How is pressure being managed throughout the turn?
Ideal: - Skis should move smoothly over changes in the terrain. Flexion/Extension.
Flexing should originate in the ankles, complemented by the knees, hips and lower back.
Skis bend progressively throughout turn. Maintain strength in length of outside ski.
Body Parts: - Ankles, knees, hips,
Movement Patterns: - Flexion, Extension, - static, stepping, stemming, lateral
movements
Timing of PCMs - early, late, effective
3 Ways – up/down, side to side, fore- aft
Directional Movements:


Inside half of body leads outside half through turn.
Inside half of body is raised and ahead of the outside half.
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
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




Ankles, knees and hips and COM move forward and laterally in direction of new turn.
(crossover)
Upper and Lower body create stacked alignment to allow for maximum strength of
outside leg.
Movements are complemented by pole swing.
Directional movements facilitate edge release and turn transition.
If directional movement lacking-, turn initiation is difficult & inefficient – compensatory
movements occur.
Body must keep moving with skis.
Ski Performance and Phases of Turn
Use the skill assessment to describe briefly what is happening in turn phases I, S, F. Initiation, shaping, finish.
(Source: PSIA Level II Certification Study Guide (2013-2014) Modified.
If you can, use the following Common Language wording when reporting your findings:
Body Performance










Athletic stance, similar flex at ankle/knee/hip
Balanced over base of support
Legs twist at same rate/time
Turn legs under stable upper body and pelvis
Align center of mass to outside ski and manage pressure foot to foot
Angulation / inclination manages edge angle
Flexion / extension movements are present and observable throughout the entire turn radius
Legs turn at the same rate/ time
Manage pressure applied to skis/snow
Pole use enhances turn
Ski Performance






Skis tip/turn at constant rate/time
Skis tip at same time/rate
Tails follow tips
Center of mass moves to direction of travel
Skis maintain parallel relation
Speed control is managed through rounded turn shape
(Source: Given out by Heavenly Valley Training Material, April 2015.)
Some Don’ts ----

Do Not go back to one of the skills and try to make additional comments about it after you have
covered it.
Do Not change your mind about your skill evaluation while you are giving it
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
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Do Not give the clinician TOO much information - The less the better. If he wants more he will
ask you questions.
Prescriptions:
Setting Goals:






What is the primary focus – Triage which skill is the most important?
What is the secondary focus – or secondary skill
Provide a progression – 4-6 steps (static, simple, simple, complex, whole)
o SKILL,DRILL, HILL
o Examples: - static, traverse, fans/garlands, full turns, linked turns, go ski and practice
Be prepared with alternative tasks/drills
Adapt for children vs. Adults
Adapt progression for different learning styles
Other Comments:
Here are some ways to practice doing movement analysis. Remember the Level 2 teach exam is up to
and including Level 6 skiers. Ignore the very high end skiers.
1. On the chair lift. - You will be moving up to the person and in some cases will not be able to see
the person when they pass you – i.e., to see their ankle. – This is a good way to practice looking
for one problem and then reciting how you might fix it with a simple 3-5 step progression (static,
simple and complex steps.)
2. Looking at videos of skiers - this gives you the opportunity to do a complete movement analysis
– process and then report…. And then a progression(s) – to fix the problem(s). It provides a way
to view a particular problem over and over again.
3. Actual watching people on the slope- again, this gives you the opportunity to do a complete
movement analysis – process and then report…. And then a progression – to fix the problem.
Have a partner who can help you – ensure you cover all the points, and also check for
correctness.
The more practice you have, the better you will get at movement analysis. This will help you in your
classes also.
Causes and Effects:
In the movement analysis requirements there is mention of reporting causes and effects. Below is a list
of some of the causes and effects. It is a work in progress and not complete yet. See the additional
causes and effects in the Appendix.
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#
1
Effect
No Matching
Cause
Drills/Exercises
Thumper turns
Notes
Drills with
flattening/edging/flattening/edging of
the outside ski – ski in a smaller
wedge, - increase speed
2
Small step entrySequential Initiation
Sequential Edge
Release
Not Crossing over –
No Commit
Back seat
S- Rolling leg –
Reduce terrain – shallow
turn, not complete
Balance – stance
Traverse with hops holding
tail of ski on snow
Shuffle turnsStep Turn to parallel initiation
/step out – push of outside ski into turn
- Same without stepping out
Patience turns – any parallel initiation
drill that includes crossover
3
Pressure – Balance Aft
Balance Aft
Hips back
Knees bent – hips
back
Rotation of upper body
with weight back and
inside.
Stance
Rotation drills, control
balance thru drill
Shuffle turns- Ski with boots loose –
ski with varying aft and fore stances
Ski where you feel the tongue of your
boot
Show the relationship of snow to skier
(2 poles) - show how the relationship
changes as the pitch of the slope
increases
4
Z-Turn Shape
Rotation of upper body
PSY factors – FLF
Vertical extension
Tactics – no
knowledge of S
shaped turn
Weight back, -> upper
body rotation
Draw C explain turn –
BME
Use DIRTD to explain
Patience Turns
Follow instructor tracks
Patience turns
Follow instructor tracks
Draw a turn in the snow and show
various phases
Patience turns
5
Work on Turn Initiation
Patience turns, skating initiation
Snow basketball,
Poles around hips, push hips forward
with poles into turns
Use poling cross over drills: pole
punch, pole with strap to hip, push and
drawer with hip, aim for the bull’s eye.
Propel body against tree, 2 people tug
of war
6
Edging from pushing
skis out at Finish
No rotation, no cross over initiation
Teach parallel initiation with crossover
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Effect
Cause
Drills/Exercises
Notes
See Z-shape turns
7
Edging from Tipping
See too much lateral pressure –
tipping
8
Rotation starts at the
Hip
Pressure aft, too much inside foot lead
Medium turns with pole drag
throughout the turns
Explain how slow upper body rotation
is and how it leads to over rotation ,
difficulty to initiate next turn and how it
puts you off balance, how it leads to
too much weight on the inside ski
9
Rotation starts at the
Shoulders (no flexion
extension, no leg
rotation)
Rotary Drills – hockey stops
Any drill that promotes flexion /
extension / edge release / rotary
10
Rotation starts at legs
but continues up the
body (whole body
rotation)
Series of turns focusing on a target
down the hill
Make an arrow with you poles and
keep the arrow on target down the hill
Poles around the hip, hands on pole,
keep hips aligned with knees, do not
let hips face the sides of the run
Explain that if body rotates
excessively, it is much more difficult
and slow to initiative the next turn.
Explain that the stable body will help
anchor the leg rotation around it.
11
Over Rotation (see
previous or pole plant
is too lengthy)
Pole – punch down a series of turns
Ski behind somebody and you have a
camera on your chest and you are
filming skier below
Poles around hip, hands on poles
Explain that if you over rotate, your
upper body will face uphill, more upper
body rotation is needed to correct this
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
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Effect
Cause
Drills/Exercises
12
Lack of Angulation (too
stiff, no movement of
ankles and knees)
Side slips, hockey stops
Side slipping exercises with eyes
closed, feel big toes, little toes
pressure
Balancing poles on forearms
Garlands with putting pressure on
edge and off edge
13
Too much lateral
pressure – tipping
(upper body rotation,
pressure aft)
Drag both poles down the hill before
the turn, no pole plant
Hockey stops,
Balancing poles on forearms
Explain how tipping does not allow
enough weight on the downhill ski,
hence cannot pressure downhill ski
enough
14
Lack of Flexion/
Extension
(Boots may be too stiff,
skier initiates turn from
upper body rotation,
skier initiates turn from
pushing tails out)
15
Flexion Extension is
vertical instead of
down the fall line (No
crossover)
Drill where you pole in front with
vertical extension, and for the turn,
pole to the side with extension
following pole.
Any drill for parallel initiation with cross
over.
16
A-Framing Inside leg
(check alignment of
boots, legs, Possibly
excessive foot
pronation. Unable to
edge insides ski to
outside edge, not
enough inside ski
rotation)
Rail road tacks
Ski with elastic between knees
Ski with only uphill ski – need to use
outside edge)
Ski with one ski
Visualize putting pressure on little toe
of inside leg
Visualize pushing you knees apart
from one another
Static with rotating leg around a pole
In the traverse part of the turn,
alternate between flat and edged
inside ski
Focus on rotating leg around; first in
air, then make it light on the snow
Stork Turns, 1000 step turns
(
Notes
position. Not a strong position to help
turn the legs
Series of turns hopping before and
around the turn
Pivot slip drill
Explain that extension flattens the ski
and makes them easy to turn
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Some other notes: When you have a problem, focus on the type of learner and use that to communicate a solution to the
student…. Amplifier to communication.
Get involvement – use games, or challenges – depending on age.
Source: MJ material – Source unknown
Appendix
Cues of Ineffective Skiing:
These are the Visual Cues of INEFFECTIVE skiing. These contrast the Effective Cues. These are the
effects…….
BALANCE AND STANCE
Lack of proper balance and stance makes it difficult to access other skills and learn new movements.

Some of the skier's joints flex too much, and others not enough. For example, too little ankle flex
causes the hips to stay behind the knees (weight too far back), while too much ankle flex causes
the skier to be too far forward.

The upper body is tipped to the inside throughout the turn.

The inside ski bends more than the outside ski.

The skier is stiff or static and gets bounced around by the terrain.

The skier's hands and hips are behind the feet.
EDGING MOVEMENTS
Without appropriate edging skills, the skier is unable to control the radius, shape, or speed of the turn.

The skis tip onto an edge late in the turn (in or after the fall line), creating a fast and heavy edge set
at the end of the turn.

The skier stands straight up before moving into the turn or moves up and back instead of in a
diagonal direction toward the new turn.

The skier uses extra movements, such as lifting the inside ski or stemming to change edges.

The skier may over-flex the hips or knees to tip the skis onto an edge.

The skier's movement into the turn is inaccurate, causing loss of alignment and balance.
ROTARY MOVEMENTS
Without proper rotary movements, control deteriorates in difficult terrain because the skier cannot use the
legs properly.

The shoulders and/or torso initiate the turning of the skis.

One ski stems or steps to begin the turn.

The skis pivot or skid throughout the turn, creating a Z-shaped turn.

The skis turn too quickly, causing overturning, or do not turn fast enough, causing under turning.
PRESSURE CONTROL MOVEMENTS
When pressure control is lacking, the skier looks as if she or he is fighting the terrain rather than working
with it.

The skis and the skier get bounced around by the terrain.

The skier is mostly on the back or front of the skis throughout the turn rather than balanced in the
middle of the skis.

The legs do not exhibit flexion and extension in response to changes in terrain.

The legs do not exhibit flexion and extension in response to forces in the turn.

The pole plant is erratic in timing and direction.
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
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The upper body is flailing and undisciplined.
DIRECTIONAL MOVEMENTS
The skier who fails to use directional movements is moving against gravity or away from the turn.

The skier moves vertically upward before moving into the new turn.

The skis pivot or skid as they move through the turn.

The skier's outside (downhill) hand, shoulder, and hip lead throughout the turn.

The skier is looking directly at the ski tips or down at the snow, limiting vision.

The pole swing is directed too close to the tip of the ski or too far behind the foot instead of in the
direction of the new turn.
(Source: © Copyright 2010 by American Snowsports Education Association Education Foundation.)
Additional table of Causes and Effects
(Work in progress)
#
Effect
Cause
Skill
Hips behind the knees
No Ankle flex
B/S
Skier too far forward
Too much Ankle Flex
B/S
Upper body tipped inside
Weight on inside ski
B/S
Inside ski bends more than outside ski
B/S
Skier is stiff/static and gets bounced
around by terrain
Skier’s hands and hips are behind his
feet
Fast and heavy edge set at end of turn
– Blast skis
Stands straight up or moves back
instead of diagonal in new turn
Lifting the inside ski or stemming to
change edges.
Over flexing hips/knees to tip skies on
an edge
Shoulders and/or torso initiate the
turning of the skies
B/S
Skis pivot or skid throughout the turn
creating a z shaped turn
Skis turn too quickly causing
overturning or do not turn fast enough
causing under turning
R
Skier and skis get bounced around on
the terrain
Skier is on the back and front of the
skies throughout turn instead of
balanced in the middle of the skis
No flexion and extension in response
to terrain
Pole plant erratic – too early or too late
PCM
Upper body flailing or undisciplined
PCM
Fix(s)
B/S
E
E
E
E
R
R
PCM
PCM
PCM
Source: From PSIA Alpine Technical Manual 2nd Edition, Visual Cues of Effective and Ineffective Skiing.
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Movement Analysis from A to Z
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Triage
There are some questions on which Skill an instructor should focus on in all cases. After fixing the primary skill of
Balance/Stance, in the West, Rotary is the key skill. This section is still being developed.
Sample Skier Videos for MA
This material is being developed. Here are some videos for practicing Movement Analysis. The form to
use to do the analysis is separate. As time permits, the form will be completed to provide a sample to
use to compare results.
Movement Analysis Exercises
Practice Videos
Instructions: Watch the video a couple of times and then do your own report. Check your report
against the listed report. Format of the report available below. Comments – [email protected]
#
URL – On YouTube
1
2
3
4
5
6
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SfWqVlT5Jlg
https://youtu.be/x0MLaKMDH40
https://youtu.be/kjfefzFA24o
https://youtu.be/ogrYdncrinw
https://youtu.be/V0GRABHuuac
https://youtu.be/6x5Fg9w76Hs
MA Report
Instructor
Analysis
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tI6ShymF_H8&list=PLtPlKCXiloEh3kaCJDDjEnLU_oQF1CoW&index=4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DeNr_pRqxhM&index=5&list=PLtPlKCXiloEh3kaCJDDjEnLU_oQF1CoW
Notes:
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