Christianity Founder • Jesus of Nazareth was born of a virgin named Mary, who was supposed to wed Joseph, a carpenter in a manger in Bethlehem. • Jesus was raised as a Jew, he obeyed the laws and learned Hebrew scriptures. Thus, he was condemned to death due to His unorthodox teachings, through the aggressiveness of the Chief Priests and Pharisees. History • Jesus Christ founded the Christianity in Jerusalem, on Pentecost Day of the year 33 AD, fifty days after His resurrection. The Holy Spirit came down upon the followers of Jesus, in the form of wind and fire, to inspire them to spread their leader’s teaching and starting to evangelized the people in the name of Christ • The globalization of Christianity was done by St. Paul, formerly known as Saul, who travelled across the globe to gives the message of Christ and to founded many churches. Thru, his efforts Christianity become known in the Roman Empire. • About 64 AD , Rome was devastated by a terrible fire. A persistent rumour said that the Emperor Nero did it to blame the growing number of Christians. So as a result, Nero persecuted a great number of Christians may be in the form of burning, crucifixion and exposure to wild beasts. • The most terrible persecution of the Christians was launched under Emperor Decius in 249 AD and the last was occurred under Diocletian in 303 AD. • The Roman persecution ended in 313 AD with Emperor Constantine the Great through the Edict of Milan, he granted permanent freedom of religion to the Christians. • Emperor Constantine promoted the material and spiritual welfare of the church. He is also considered as the first Christian Roman Emperor in the history but he was baptized only at his death-bed. • In 380 AD, Emperor Theodosius eliminated paganism and made Christianity the only official religion of the roman empire. • The barbarians were North European populations that began migrating southward, around the year 400 AD. The Visigoths were the first Barbarians to defeat the Roman Army followed by Huns who invaded and plundered the Roman Empire with diabolic violence. In 568 AD, the Longbards made bloody raids throughout the Italy, causing famine and deadly pestilence. • The religion of Islam, was founded in Arabia by Mohammed in the year 622 AD. • Christians in Europe trembling with fear to the Muslim because of their rapid growing number and their large conqueredruled territory. • When the Muslim captured Jerusalem, Christians with the authority of the pope do their best to recaptured it by doing the Crusades. The crusades was called and organized by Pope Urban II on 1096-1099 • After the death of Charlemagne in 814, the Holy Roman Empire fell into ruins. St. Francis and St. Dominic repaired the wakening church by making the order of Franciscan and Dominicans. • Hence, there was a time that the whole populace of Christianity got a confusion on who will rule when the Great Schism happened, the ruling of the 3 popes. • The vast reformation done in the church was happened during the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, when Martin Luther outraged by the practice of selling indulgences. On October 31, 1517, Luther posted his famous Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Church. • The vast reformation done in the church was happened during the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, when Martin Luther outraged by the practice of selling indulgences. • On October 31, 1517, Luther posted his famous Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Church and he gets excommunicated because of that and repudiated his religious vows and married a former nun. His followers grew and it was called Lutheran or Protestant. • Today Christianity have different modes of interpreting, following or knowing Jesus crystalized into hundreds of churches and denominations. Sacred Books • Christian Bible includes the Hebrew Bible as their Old Testament, and the New Testament. • The New Testament is divided into four parts: the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles, and the Revelation Place of Worship Antipolo Cathedral Religious Organization Belief System • The majority of the Christians believe that there is only one God but he has different persona: God the Father (Yahweh/El Shadai/Jehovah), God the Son (Jesus Christ), and the God the Holy Spirit. • The Holy Trinity have different roles in the humanity. It was the God the Father who created the world, and God the Son often speaks about Him in the Gospels. Jesus was sent to save the world from sin. And the God the Holy Spirit appeared in the Baptism of Jesus and was also sent down to the disciples to guide them in spreading Christianity and guide also the believers. • Christian holds that Jesus is the “Son of God or the incarnation of God”; the bearer of the gospel; the messiah; the King of all kings; he resurrected on the third day of his death and ascended into the heaven after 40 days, and the way, the light and the guide to the father. • Christians agree that without Jesus Christ, the faith they identify themselves with would not exist. • The whole Christian conviction could be summarized in Jesus’ two great commandments: -Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind -Love your neighbor as you love yourself • Christians believe in the life after death. After death, the soul will be judged according to his deeds in his life in the world, and either will go to heaven or hell. • There is also a belief in Purgatory, where there is temporary punishment for those who do not deserve to go either in Heaven or Hell. • Most of the Christians believe and also devoted to Mary, the mother of Christ. • Christians believed on the fruits of the sacraments, signs of God’s grace: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Baptism Eucharist Confirmation Reconciliation Matrimony Ordination Anointing • Saint is referred to a Christian who has lived a particularly good and holy life on earth, and with whom miracles are claimed to have been associated after their death. • Prayer is the means by which Christians communicate with God. The Christians are encouraged to address their prayer to the Father and submit it through Jesus Christ. Sign & Symbol The Donkey and Ox • The donkey and the ox symbolize that the humblest and least of the animal creation were present when jesus was born and that they recognized him as the son of god. The Bee • The bee, because of its industrious habits, has become the symbol of activity, diligence, work, and good order. The Dove • The dove has been the symbol of purity and peace. The Fish • The most frequent use of the fish is as a symbol of Christ. The Grasshopper Or Locust • The grasshopper, or locust, was one of the plagues visited upon the Egyptians because the pharaoh’s heart was hardened against the word of the lord. The Lamb • The lamb, as a symbol of Christ, is one of the favorite, and most frequently used, symbols in all periods of Christian art. The Apple • In Latin, the word for apple and the word for evil, malum, are identical. It is for this reason that the legend has grown up that the tree of knowledge in the garden of Eden, the fruit of which Adam and eve were forbidden to eat, was an apple tree (genesis 3:3). The apple may also be symbolic of Christ, the new Adam, who took upon himself the burden of man’s sin. The Grape • Bunches of grapes with ears of grain were some-times used to symbolize the wine and bread of holy communion. In general, the grape, like the eucharistic wine, is a symbol of the blood of Christ. The Laurel • The laurel symbolizes triumph, eternity, and chastity The Olive • The olive is a true biblical tree, a tree "full of fatness" which yields great quantities of oil. Its rich yield symbolized the providence of god toward his children. The olive branch has always been regarded as a symbol of peace. The Palm • Among the romans, the palm frond was traditionally the symbol of victory. The Reed • The reed is one of the symbols of the passion, for, on the cross, Christ was tendered a sponge soaked in vinegar on the end of a reed. It thus symbolizes the humiliation of greatness. The Thorn • Thorns and thorn branches signify grief, tribulation, and sin. It is a symbol of martyrdom The East • East, being the direction in which the sunrise appears, is symbolic of Christ, the sun of the universe. Honey • The purity and sweetness of honey have made it a symbol of the work of god and the ministry of christ. Paradise, the reward of the faithful in their labors for christ, is known as "the land of milk and honey." Oil • Oil is the symbol of the grace of god. It is used in the church in the sacraments of baptism, confirmation, ordination, and union. Smoke • Symbolically, it is a reminder of the shortness of this life and the futility of seeking earthy glory. The anger and wrath of god were of times indicated by smoke. The Star • The star, lighting the darkness of the heavens at night, is a symbol of divine guidance or favor. The star of the east, often seen in pictures of the magi, was the star that guided the wise men to Bethlehem and stood in the sky over the manger where Christ was born. Water • Water is a symbol of cleansing and purifying. Wings • Wings are the symbol of divine mission. That is why the angels, archangels, seraphim, and cherubim are painted with wings. Blood • By its very nature, blood is the symbol of life and of the human soul. Red, the color of blood, has become the common attribute of all those martyrs who died rather than deny Christ. I H S, I H C • These letters are the first three letters OF IHSUS, or IHCUC, the name of Jesus in Greek. The S and the C are variant forms in the Greek alphabet. This refers to the legend that Constantine, on the eve of battle and before his conversion, had a vision. In this vision he beheld a banner on which these words were inscribed: "In Hoc Signo Vinces" (in this sign you will conquer). After victory in the battle, he is said to have embraced the Christian religion. Furthermore, these letters are sometimes misinterpreted as being an abbreviation of the Latin phrase, "Iesus Hominum Salvator" (Jesus Savior of Men). The Foot • The human foot, because it touches the dust of the earth, is used to symbolize humility and willing servitude. Bells • Bells in church towers and spires summon the faithful to worship. The Censer • A censer is the vessel in which incense is burned. It is cup-shaped, with a pierced cover, and is suspended by chains. In Christian symbolism, the smoke of the incense symbolizes the prayers of the faithful ascending to heaven. INRI • These represent the first four letters of the Latin words, “Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judaeorum,” meaning “Jesus of Nazareth, king of the Jews.” XP • Xp: the two Greek letters Chi and Rho, which most frequently appear in a monogram, are the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ. The combination of these two letters readily gives the form of a cross. Furthermore, as rho resembles “p” and chi is similar to “x” , the monogram could be read as the Latin word pax, meaning peace. The Cross • The cross is one of the oldest and most universal of all symbols. It is, of course, the perfect symbol of Christ because of his sacrifice upon the cross. In a broader sense, however, the cross has become the mark or sign of the Christian religion, the emblem of atonement, and the symbol of salvation and redemption through Christianity. The Chalice • A chalice is the cup from which the consecrated wine and water of the Eucharist are partaken at holy communion. It refers to the last supper and the sacrifice of Christ upon the cross, thus, the chalice is a symbol of the Christian faith Clothing & Accessories Ceremony/Ritual/Festival All Saints Day Is a holiday honoring all Christian saints. In Western Christianity, All Saints' Day begins at sundown on October 31 (Halloween) and finishes at sundown on November 1 (All Saints' Day). Advent The season of Advent (adventus, "coming") marks the beginning of the church year and the approach of Christmas. Christmas Is the celebration of the birth of Jesus. The English word "Christmas" derives from the old English Christes maesse, or "Christ's mass." Boxing Day Celebrated in Great Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, this was when servants and the poor were traditionally given gifts. Epiphany The celebration of Epiphany (epiphaneia, "manifestation") recalls the visit of the Magi, symbolizing Christ's manifestation to Gentiles. Lent Lent is a 40-day period of fasting and repentance in preparation for Easter. Ash Wednesday The first day of Lent, a period of fasting that leads up to Easter. Its central ritual is placing of ashes on the forehead. Palm Sunday Palm Sunday is the sixth Sunday of Lent and the last Sunday before Easter. It commemorates the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem. Good Friday Good Friday is the Friday before Easter Sunday. It is a solemn holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Easter/Lord's Day (Sunday) Easter is the spring festival that celebrates the resurrection of Christ. It is the oldest Christian holiday and the most important day of the church year. In Christianity, the day of the week devoted to rest and worship is Sunday, or the "Lord's Day."