Name _______________________________________ Date of test______________ Ecology Review Worksheet #1 Main Idea: Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. Level Description 1. Organism Example 2. Population 3. Community 4. Ecosystem 5. Biosphere Fill in the diagram below with the Levels of Organization studied in Ecology. Use the terms from the table above. Specify which level of organization the phrase describes: 6. There were Monarch Butterflies, finches, and bumble bees in the field_______________________ 7. A family of raccoons was near the garbage cans last night.____________________________ 8. The water at the lake was so clear that perch, bass and pike could be seen.___________________ 9. The lonely deer was quietly nibbling grass._______________________ 10. There were many types of birds eating berries from the tree.____________________________ 11. In the clear water around a coral reef, clownfish could be seen swimming among the stinging tentacles of the sea anemones.______________________________________ 12. A baby bird that must have fallen out of its nest lay on the ground.____________________________ 13. Many black bears could be seen hanging around the camp sight.____________________________ Main Idea: An ecosystem includes both abiotic and biotic factors. Producers provide energy for other organisms in an ecosystem. Complete the following sentences with the correct term from the list below autotrophs eating nonliving abiotic living temperature producers moisture plants animals biotic consumers heterotrophs nonliving 14. All ecosystems are made up of ________________ and ___________________ components. 15. ______________ factors are living things, such as _______________ or _______________. 16. ______________factors are nonliving things, such as wind, ______________, or ______________. 17. ____________________ are organisms that get their energy from __________________ resources, meaning they make their own food. These organisms are also called ______________________. 18. ___________________ are organisms that get their energy by __________________other organisms. These organisms are also called _________________________. 19. Why are producers so important to an ecosystem?_______________________________________ KEY CONCEPT: Food chains and food webs model the flow of energy in an ecosystem. Choose the correct term from the box below to fit each description. carnivore herbivore secondary consumer decomposer detritivore omnivore primary consumer tertiary consumer trophic levels 20. I eat only plants. I am a(n) ___________________________. 21. I eat only other animals. I am a(n) _______________________. 22. I eat both plants and animals. I am a(n) _____________________. 23. I eat dead organic matter. I am a(n) _______________________. 24. I break down organic matter into simpler compounds. I am a(n) ______________________. 25. I am the first consumer above the producer level. I am a(n) ____________________. 26. I am a carnivore that eats herbivores. I am a(n) __________________________. 27. I am a carnivore that eats other carnivores. I am a(n) __________________________ . 28. The levels of nourishment in a food chain are called _______________________. 29. How is a food web different from a food chain? _______________________________________________________________________________ 30. Label the four tiers/trophic levels of the energy pyramid with the correct trophic level (producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers). 31. Pollution in water moves through ecosystems much like food, except the pollutants remain in the tissues of organisms. What process is this? _______________________ 32. Fill in the pyramids below ____ units ____ hawks 10,000 ppm DDT ____ units ____ snakes ____ ppm DDT 1000 units ____rabbits ____ ppm DDT ____ units 3000 flowers ____ ppm DDT Energy Biomass DDT/pesticide KEY CONCEPT: Matter such as carbon and nitrogen are recycled in ecosystems. bacteria animals producers decomposition photosynthesis (2) carbon dioxide nitrogen oxygen fossil fuels respiration (2) recycled plants 33. Carbon is found in the atmosphere and is made usable by the process of_____________. ________ remove_______ __ _____from the atmospherein the process of photosynthesis make it usable to the rest of the biotic community. Carbon is returned back into the atmosphere as _______&_______release it out as a product of __________. Carbon can also bereturned into the atmosphere when humans burn ____________ which are the deposition of dead material. bacteria animals producers decomposition photosynthesis (2) 34. The Nitrogen cycle is different in that nitrogen is mostly found in an unusable form. ________ are the only ones that can break down nitrogen into a usable form. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria make __________gas available to plants in the _____ by converting it to nitrates and nitrites. Plants use this nitrogen to build structures. Consumers eat ______ then return nitrogen to the soil with either _________________ or excretion. The nitrogen cycle is important because nitrogen is included in the base pairs of ______ as they are called nitrogen bases. Nitrogen also is important for the production of ____________which code for proteins which enzymes are. soil nitrogen oxygen waste DNA amino acids recycled plants Ecology: Population size & Human Impact Review Worksheet #2 1. Complete the chart with an example of each and use the terms “Benefits,” or “Harmed” Symbiotic Relationship Mutualism Organism A Organism B Parasitism 2. How is parasitism similar to and different from predation? _____________________________________________________________________________ MAIN IDEA: Changes in a population’s size are determined by immigration, births,emigration, and deaths.Choose a word from the box below that best completes each sentence. births increases emigration deaths immigration abundant 3. When resources are ___________________ in a particular area, individuals may move into thepopulation of this area. This movement of individuals into a population from a different population is called _______________________. A very cold winter has left many deer in a population hungry and sick. By the end of the winter, this population will likely decrease because of __________________. A deer population experiences growth when the rate of reproduction __________________. This change in population size is due to _____________________.As humans move into their territory, many members of a deer population move away and join other herds. This movement of individuals out of a population into a new population is called ___________. How does the availability of resources affect population growth?______________________________________________________ The population of a predator can be limited by the available prey, and the population of prey can be limited by being caught for food. Use the information in the graph below to answer the questions that follow. 4. Describe the pattern seen in the graph above. ___________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. How does the wolf population affect the carrying capacity of the moose population? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ MAIN IDEA: Limiting factors affect the growth of a population. carrying capacity growth density-dependent logisticexponential density-independent grow stop growingrapid 6. __________ _______________ limiting factors matter when a population reaches a C certain number of organisms. For example, when a population reaches a certain size, there won’t be enough resources (food, B shelter, water) for all of the organisms. This could cause the population to _________________ when it reaches the maximum number of organisms that can be supported, or ___________ ____________. A This type of population growth is called ___________________ 7. This type of population growth is called ___________ ____________; it represents what occurs as a population’s numbers get too large for the environment to support it. 8.What is the rabbit population’s carrying capacity? ________ 9. Match the letter with the growth:_____ rapid growth _____ slow grow_____ birth rate =death rate 10. Before a population reaches its carry capacity, it experiences a period of ______________. This type of growth is called _____________. During this time period, there are plenty of resources available for all organisms, so more organisms are being born than are dying. 11. This type of population growth is called ___________ ____________; 12. This is because there are ___________resources available for all organisms, so more organisms are being _________ than are dying. 13. Fill in the differences below: density-independent limiting factor logistic population growth density-dependent limiting factor exponential population growth 14. The human population is currently growing at an exponential rate. Since you have learned that populations cannot grow forever, what are some things (more than one!) that could happen when the human population reaches its carrying capacity?___________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ MAIN IDEA: Human population growth has had a negative impact on ecosystems. Humans are the greatest threat to biodiversity AcidRainCarbon dioxide Greenhouse effect CFC’s Deforestation OzoneLayerGlobalWarming Pollution 15.__________________ is the contamination of the environment by human acts. Pollution is harmful to all living things and can take many forms including, air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels, and water and soil pollution form the dumping of waste products and the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pollution has caused health problems in humans including respiratory disease and different forms of cancer. 16. The________________ is the upper portion of the Earth's atmosphere that screens out most of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. Industrial air pollutants, such as _______, has damaged the ozone layer by creating a hole in it. Through this hole, damaging UV radiation penetrates to the Earth's surface. Increased exposure to this radiation can cause skin cancer in humans, damage crops, and destroy the marine ecology. 17. ___________________ is the widespread destruction of the world's forests. One of the largest areas of destruction are the tropical rainforests. These forest are cut down for the hardwood lumber, to clear space for farming, for building settlements, and for grazing animals. 18. The effects of this destruction include a change in weather patterns, continued buildup of _____________________ , a greenhouse gas, and extinction of plants and animals, which will result in the destruction of entire ecosystems. 19. _____________________ is the rising of the average temperature worldwide. If it continues, it will reach a point where the arctic glaciers begin to melt, causing worldwide floods. Scientists believe this is caused by the __________________, which is a build up of warm air in the lower atmosphere. This occurs from the use of CFCs, the burning of fossil fuels, and deforestation. 20.____________________ happens when rain is polluted by airborne contaminants such as those left by the burning of fossil fuels and automobile exhaust. Acid rain is damaging to farmland, bodies of water, by altering the pH and destroying plant tissues.