CHAPTER ONE

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THE EFFECT OF PERIWINKLE SHELLSASH ON
HYDRULICCONDUCTIVITY OF MAKURDI SHALE SOILS
BY
IORLIAM GERRALD TERZUNGWE
(13/25323/UE)
A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL
ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE MAKURDI
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE
AWARD OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (B ENG) DEGREE
IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
OCTOBER/2017
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1
GENERALS
The K-value of a soil profile can be highly variable from place to place, and will also vary
at different depths (spatial variability). Not only can different soil layers have different
hydraulic conductivities (Dieleman and Trafford 1976), but, even within a soil layer, the
hydraulic conductivity can vary . In alluvial soils (e.g. in river deltas and valleys),
impermeable layers do not usually occur at shallow depth (i.e. within 1 or 2 m). In
subsurface drainage systems in alluvial soils, not only the K-values at drain depth are
important, but also the K-values of the deeper soil layers. Soils with layers of low
hydraulic conductivity or with impermeable layers at shallow depth are mostly
associated with heavy, montmorillonitic or smectitic clay (vertisols), with illuviated clay
in the sandy or silty layer at 0.5 to 0.8 m depth (Planosols), or with an impermeable
bedrock at shallow depth. Vertisols are characterized by a gradually decreasing K-value
with depth because the topsoil is made more permeable by physical and biological
processes, whereas the subsoil is not. Moreover, these soils are subject to swelling and
shrinking upon wetting and drying, so that their K-value is also variable with the season,
being smaller during the humid periods when drainage is required. If subsurface drains
are to be installed, the K-values must be measured during the humid period. Seasonal
variability studies are therefore important. If subsurface drainage of these soils is to be
cost-effective, the drains must be installed at shallow depth (< 1 m). Planosols can occur
in tropical climates with high seasonal rainfalls. Under such conditions, a high drainage
capacity is required and, if the impermeable layer is shallower than approximately 0.8
m, the cost-effectiveness of subsurface drainage becomes doubtful. Soil salinity,
sodicity, and acidity also have a bearing on the hydraulic conductivity. The variations in
hydraulic conductivity and their relationship with the geomorphology are of great
importance to civil engineers.
1.1.0 Definition
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Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants,
soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move
through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material,
the degree of saturation, and on the density and viscosity of the fluid. Saturated
hydraulic conductivity, Ksat, describes water movement through saturated media.
By definition, hydraulic conductivity is the ratio of velocity to hydraulic gradient indicating
permeability of porous media.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_conductivity)
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
This work attempts at improving the physical strength and characteristics of MakurdiAchusa village shale with Periwinkle Shell Ash for the purpose of flexible pavement
construction. The presence of shale in Makurdi especially the area of study has caused a lot of
damages, hazards and threats to most commercial, private and public buildings and road leading
to flood and washing away of road pavement.
These problems is as a result of poor permeability nature of Achusa shale soils. This calls for the
exploration of the permeability of shale inAchusa village at Makurdi using Periwinkle Shell Ash.
This could improve the soil density, increase in strength, cohesion, friction resistance and
reduction of plasticity index (Akinwumi, 2012).
1.3
AREA OF STUDY
The trial pit is a shale deposit at specific locations within the air base. The tactical air
command and the Makurdi airport is bounded villages. It is between latitude 7°45̕ N and
7°52̕N on the longitude of 8°35̕ E.
1.3.1 GEOLOGICAL SETTING
The Nigeria geology is dominated by the sedimentary and crystalline rocks. The
distribution of sedimentary rock is grouped into seven sedimentary basins, namely;
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i.
Benue Trough,
ii.
Dahomey Basin,
iii.
Anambra Basin,
iv.
Niger Delta Basin,
v.
Sokoto Basin,
vi.
Bida Basin and
vii.
South West part of the Chad Basin.
The rocks groups recognise under within the sedimentary basins include sandstones, shale,
limestone, siltstone and ironstones. With the crystalline rocks, the following rocks are
recognised. Basic Schist, granite and geinesis, migmatite and metacoglomorates, marbles and
calisilicate rock etc (Nwajide 1982).
The Makurdi formation is a member of the sedimentary basin covering a long area of
Nigeria. The Makurdi sandstone belongs to the Eze – Aku shale group, which is topped by Agwu
Shale formation.
Nwajide (1982) shows that the formation comprises three zones being the lower Makurdi
sandstones, the upper Makurdi sandstones and the wadata limestone. In addition, it was
concluded by Lees (1952) that all the geological profile across the Benue Trough shows the
underlain basement strata of sediments.
The ordinary analysis of the deposits of the area showed materials ranging from sandy and
clayey soils developed on sandstone and shale respectively to reddish brown varieties found on
the basalt and dark grey sticky soil on dolerite. The soil are underlying rocks have been affected
by different degree of primary kleritisan. Between Annune and Abinsi, many rocks cuts have
exposed virtually primary laterite profiles. Such profiles starts from fresh sandstone at the
bottom, pass through weathered zones retaining some structures (Zersatz, 1997), progress
upward into the pulled and mottled zones and lastly to laterite crust usually mantled with a patch
of gravel soil.
1.3.2 CLIMATE
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Makurdi is characterized by little seasonal variation in temperature throughout the years.
The average annual temperature is 31.5°c. They are two main seasons dry season ranging
between November and March, and raining season span through April to October. The relative
humidity is between 65% and 68% while the rainfall varies between 100cm and 250cm
(Egborany, 1989).
1.4
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
The aim of this study is to determine the permeability characteristics of Makurdi Shale when
stebilized with periwinkle shell ash. The objectives include
1 to carryout permeability test on periwinkle shell ash stabilized shale soils
2 to investigate the change in permeability with different proportions of periwinkle shell ash mix.
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The essence of this study is to determine the permeability properties of Makurdi shale when
stabilized with periwinkle shell so as to enable engineers and construction industries to make
proper use of the available waste periwinkle shell so as to minimize cost and safe the issue of
environmental pollution.
1.6
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This investigation is limited to the Makurdi Shale around the Achusa village Makurdi,
Benue State. However, the results may be used all over Makurdi zone without significant
changes in the property of shale. However, it is advisable to repeat similar test around
Makurdimetropolis to obtain the average result which is the true consideration of the
characteristic properties of shale within the study area.
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CHAPTER TWO
2.0
LITERATURE REVIEW
The engineering discipline and geotechnical research fraternity has over the years study the
properties of expansion soil; shale and necessitate remedies that could reduce the economic and
environment risk accompanied with their existence in a particular area. It has been found that
many agricultural waste products such as husk ash, coconut ash, Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) and
lime, Palm Kernel Shell Ash (Onyelowe and Maduabuchi, 2017), lime-groundnut shell ash (Tiza
and others, 2016), Rice Husk Ash (Alqaraghuli, 2016), Bamboo Leaf Ash (Iorliam et al., 2012),
Palm Fruit Ash (Olonode, 2010), Locust Bean Pod Ash
(Adama and Jimoh, 2011), Cement- Cassava Peel Ash (Salau et al., 2012), Corn Husk Ash
(Raheem et al., 2012) and Corn Cob Ash (Jimoh and Apampa, 2014) and now Periwinkle Shell
Ash (PSA) as pozzolans is used in treating expansive soils.
2.1
PERIWINKLE SHELL
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Periwinkle is a waste product got from the consumption of small marine snail (periwinkle) which
is housed in a spiral cone shaped shell and is found in many coastal communities in Nigeria
(Badmus and others, 2007). It has been also described as the left over from the consumption of
the small greenish proteinous marine snail (Oke and others, 2016). It is also available in many
coastal areas worldwide and is very strong, hard and brittle material. Stretching from the Niger
Delta between Calabar in the East and Badagry in the Western part of Nigeria, the people in
these areas take the edible part as sea food and dispose of the shell as waste product, though a
few persons use the shell as coarse aggregate in concrete in places where there are neither stones
nor granite for such purposes (Olutoge, 2012). Evidently, periwinkle is largely harvested within
communities in Rivers, Cross river, Lagos and Delta states of Nigeria according to report as far
back by Powell and other (1985), Job (2008), Jamabo and Chinda (2010) and Mmom and
Arokoya (2010). There are however, large amount of these shells being disposed of as waste thus
constituting environmental problems in places where use cannot be found for them.
In nature, Periwinkle Shell Ash (PSA) as is a pozzolana and is essentially silicious or aluminous
but not cementitious. The reaction of this material with water and calcium hydroxide produces a
compound of cementitious hydration products (calcium silicate hydrates and calcium silicate
aluminate hydrates). This work has been undertaken to ascertain the influence of this pozzolans
property on the stubborn shale soils of Air force base in Makurdi. Other physical properties of
pozzolans includes particle size and specific surface, amorphousness and water demand on the
pozzolan’s reactivity; and how these properties affect the water deand and mechanical
performance of lime-pozzolan pastes (Walker and Pavia, 2011). The full implementation of the
use of this material in the construction inductry is being researched (Oke and others, 2016).
.
2.2
POZZOLANS
According to O’Flaherty (1983), are materials with an amorphous siliceous or siliceous and
aluminous content that on itself has no cementitious property but when finely divided will react
with lime in the presence of water to form compound having cementitious properties in ordinary
temperature. The term pozzolans was derived from pozzoli, the name of a port near Napolis in
Italy. It was there that early Romans found that local volcanic ash formed as stabilized product
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when mixed with sand and lime. Roughly, pozzolanic materials are classified into natural and
artificial pozzolans.
2.2.1
Natural Pozzolans
Clayey and siliceous materials of volcanic origin are the most active natural pozzolans. They
include stiff and trass, which are characterized by glass or noncrystalline structure. In volcanic
countries, they form important road materials but are not significant here.
2.2.2 Artificial Pozzolans
As noted by O’Flaherty (1983), what may be of more importance in this part of the world is
artificial pozzolans. Predominantly, they are waste product of industries or agricultural byproducts. Ground bricks, pulverized blast furnace slag and burnt shale all belong to this class of
artificial pozzolans. Pulverized fuel ash is said to have the greatest potential for use as a road
construction material.
2.3
SHALE
Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock that forms from the compaction of silt and clay-size
mineral particles that we commonly call mud this composition places shale in a category of
sedimentary rock known other mudstone because it is fissile and laminated.”laminated” means
that the rock is made up of many thin layers. Shale may be defined as highly consolidated clay,
silt and sand or a mixture of all the three function of soil derived from weathering of rocks
(Agbede and Smart, 2007).Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud
that is a mix flakes of clay mineral and tiny fragments (silt sized particles) of other minerals,
especially quartz and calcite. The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable.(Wikipedia) Shale is
prone to conditions such as swelling, shrinking, hydration, cracks, strength reduction and failure
with seasonal reduction in dampness.
In engineering, properties of shale, cognizance must be taken into both sampling and in-situ
strength of the same shale mass (Underwood, 1967). He further noted that shale has inter related
physical properties, thus it is not easy for one property to be discussed without telling of another.
Also, variance exists of testing procedure from one laboratory to another. Results also differ in
relation to the testing procedures.
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Shale is grouped into active and inactive based on their in-situ behaviours. Active shale is the
one that slide, rebound and swell.
2.3.2 Engineering Properties of Shale
Shale perhaps undergoes much wider difference in notable properties than all the intrusive
igneous rock combined most shale when shattered cannot need any more treatment to reduce the
rock pieces sizes. Most shale which appears to be solid when freshly removed soon become unfit
for road work as they soon convert to clay by handling. This is the case of soft non indurate clay.
In many occasion, although fit by first inspection, they become materials having excessive
plasticity when broken down during construction. Such rocks can only be considered fit for fill,
only if they do not contain too much montmorillonite conversely consolidating, compaction etc,
of shale make them too hard for workability and cannot be use without blasting and crushing.
Therefore, it is difficult to say of the general engineering properties of metamorphosis shale, due
to the unspecific nature of the physical and chemical properties. From an engineering
consideration, the most suitable condition is to use an undulated shale, having physical strength
to the requirement but not too hard for workability (Underwood, 1967).
Furthermore, since some shale have totally been confirmed strong as foundation rock for
structures, there is desire to experiment for the identification of ʺproblem Shaleʺ. Some common
properties obtained from the laboratory investigation are summarized below.
2.2.3 Strength
Shale’s compressive strength ranging from more than 10.3kN/m2 for a well cemented shale to
less than 172.4kN/m2 compacted weathered shale. Most shale has sustainable bearing capacity
for earth dams and similar structures. In distributing the foundation load economically, many
structural failure experienced on shale decreases exponentially with increase void ratio and
moisture content where the overall shearing resistance of the shale is equal to that of the soft clay
(Asagba, 2008).
According to Underwood (1967), generally, shale having cohesive value less than 20.69kN/m2
and an apparent angle of friction less 20° is assumed to be problem shale.
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2.3.4 Moisture Content
According to Underwood (1967), shale naturally has moisture content ranging from less than 5%
to 30% in some shale. It should be noted that if shale has natural moisture content up to 20%,
there is tendency for it to develop high pore pressure in the foundation.
2.3.5 Modulus of Elasticity
When designing a concrete structure to be founded on shale, it is necessary to note the modulus
of elasticity of the shale, because the samples are too small to take into account of representative
number of rock defects as would be expected to be encountered in-situ, it is difficult to determine
the true elastic modulus in the laboratory. Because of that, the static moduli is obtained in the
laboratory would be general be assumed to be higher than those obtained by in-situ method
(Underwood, 1967).
2.3.6 Density
Shale has densities ranging from 1.03Kn/m2 to 7.66kN/m2 with less than 10% of water content,
some shale can be saturated (Asagba, 2008).
2.3.7 Swelling Potentials
Since it is difficult to rip some samples down to required sizes, the finding of the Atterberg limit
of shale is hard. However, in any particular situation, the plastic index ratio to the clay content is
approximately constant (Skempton, 1964). The higher the plasticity index, the higher the clay
content and the higher the swelling potentials.
Montmorillonite and illite are the common clay minerals that have the highest ratio of activeness
and potential to swell.
2.4
EXPANSIVE SOILS
Expansive soils are called by many names; swelling soils, shrink-well soils, expandable soils,
heavable soils, expansive soil etc. (Geology.com, 2008). Expansive soils are clay soils having the
potential to change in volume with variation in moisture content of the soil (Warren, 1995). They
can swell when moist and shrink when dry (Arnold, 1984). They are sometimes called ‘‘volume10
change soil’’ and ‘‘heaving soil’’. It is important to note that uncompressed form of expansive
soil is simply clay, however, when clay soil is compressed under great weight in the geological
past, they become shale which are also expansive (Warren, 1995).
Residual product of shale and clay shale are the two classes of expansive soils. They make up of
illite and momtmorillite type of clay minerals that are very sensitive to change in humidity.
Change in humidity is partly responsible for the shrink-well ability of the expansive soils. The
effects of expansive soil are more significant in the Northern part of Nigeria where high change
in humidity is experienced. On expansive soil, there is a common experience of heavy cracking
of foundations and breakup of pavements, slab and reservoirs lining. Black cotton soil is also
expansive.
As earlier stated, the properties of expensive soil depend on its plasticity index. Warren (1995),
put it that if plastic index of a soil is greater than 20, it can be considered to be expansive. If the
range falls between 20 and 40, it can be said to be moderately expansive, between 40 to 60
highlyexpansive and finally above 60, very expansive. The table below summarize the level of
swelling potential of expansive soils.
Table 2.1: Relationship between swelling potential and plasticity index of the soil.
SWELLING POTENTIALS
PLASTICITY INDEX
Low
0 – 15
Medium
10 – 25
High
20 – 35
Very High
35 and above
Source: Peck and Ralph (1974).
2.4.1 Clay Minerals
As reported by many authorities, the clay minerals are chiefly silicates of iron, aluminium and
magnesium. Since the atom containing them has specific geometric arrangements, the minerals
are said to be crystalline based. They are very small and electro chemical active (Bowles, 1979).
A typical kaolinite particle might have a total surface area of approximately 1× 10-5mm2. As
area goes, this is very small. Smectite particles have a diameter that is 100 -1000 times smaller
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than kaolinite particles and a thickness of 10 – 400 times thinner than kaolinite and consequently
typical have a larger surface area per particle. Thus, single pound of montmorillonite particles
would have an incredible total surface area of 800 acres (325 hectares) with which to attract
water.
Clay minerals are formed from the chemical weathering of rocks which contain orthodase
feldspar, flagioclase feldspar and mica (muscovite) and are referred to as complex aluminium
silicates (Bowles, 1979).
Kaolinite, illite, smectite are commonly encountered clay minerals. Montmorillonite and
bentonite are further classified to smectite (Warren, 1995).
2.4.1.1 Illite
Illite is a clay mineral having chemical formulae (OH)4KY(SiY.ALy)ALMgGe6)O20, where Y
is between 1 and 1.5, is formed from brotites and muscovite (mica). The illite clay consists of an
octahedral layer of gibbsite sand which is between two layers of silica tetrahedral. Vermiculate is
moreso, a member of the illite clay mineral but having a double molecular layer of water
between sheets interspaced with calcium and magnesium ion with replacement of brucite for
gibbite in the octahedral layer. It was noted that illite and vermiculate clay and clay shale are
used in making light weight aggregates. On heating, vermiculate expand highly because high
expansion is resulted as layers changes to steam easily.
2.4.1.2 Kaolinite
They consist of alternate layers of silicate tetrahedral in a structural unit, with tips embedded in
alumina (gibbsite) octahedral unit (Bowles, 1979). This silica and gibbsite layer alternation
produces 1:1 basic unit. In the outcome, 7A° thick flat sheet unit, extending indefinitely in the
order of two dimensions in resulted. In addition, the kaolinite cluster is stacking of 70 – 100 or
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more of these 7A° sheet as a book with hydrogen bonds and Vander Waals forces at the interface
(OH8)AL4Si4O10 is the resulted formulae.
Hydrogen and Vander Waals forces combination results in appreciable strength and stability with
little tendency for the interior layer to absorb water and swell. So far as observed, kaolinite,
among all the clay minerals is the least active.
In the same family with kaolinite, halloysite is another clay mineral different from kaolinite on
the ground that it is irregularly stacked together so that single molecule of water can enter in
between the 7A° unit giving the resulting (OH)8AL4Si4O10. The elemental sheets are rolled
into tube. When water molecules are removed from halloysite, that is dehydration by heat in
order of 60° and 70° air-drying, it will permanently be altered. Thus, halloysite differs from
kaolinite in engineering properties. In Atterberg limit test and Hydrometer analysis, care must be
taken in sampling to ensure a realistic sample. This is because the chemistry of the sample which
is indirectly measured by Atterberg limit will be affected by air-drying (Bowles, 1979).
2.4.1.3 Montmorillonite
The structure of montmorillonite is made of sheet like units inter bounded mainly by Vander
Waals forces. In the tetrahedron structure, the silica is being replaced by aluminium whereas the
octahedral layer, aluminium is being replaced by Zn, Mg, Fe or Li. Due to this replacement,
large net unbalance negative exchange capacity and affinity for water ales, and hydrogen ion
absence of metallic ions (Bowles, 1979). Since stability by nature is balancing when water goes,
the positive end of the water molecule is attracted to the clay particles sufficiently strong that the
water molecule becomes trapped (Warren, 1995).
Montmorillonite is most abundant in regions like USA, Austria and South Africa. Bentolite is
also a form of montmorillonite clay present in partially weathered volcanic deposit.
2.6 hydraulic conductivity of soils
In theoretical terms, hydraulic conductivity is a measure of how easily water can pass through
soil or rock: high values indicate permeable material through which water can pass easily; low
values indicate that the material is less permeable. Hydraulic conductivity is typically given the
symbol k and has units of velocity, for example metres/sec or metres/day.
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Mathematically, hydraulic conductivity is actually a coefficient in Darcy’s law, which relates
water flow velocity to hydraulic gradient under laminar flow conditions. This is easy to
understand for flow through an isotropic block of porous media as you might see in a text book,
where hydraulic conductivity is the same at all points (uniform and homogeneous) and in all
directions (isotropic).
Of course flow of water through soils or rocks is anything but homogeneous and is rarely
isotropic.
In soils, the structure is made up of mineral particles in contact to form the soil skeleton, with a
network of interconnected pores in the space between.
Idealised view of soil particles (in black) and surrounding pore space
2.6.1 IMPORTANCE OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TO ENGINEERS
The obvious answer is that it is a key factor in determining the need for dewatering and
groundwater control. For example, excavations below the groundwater level in a soil of high
hydraulic conductivity will need more dewatering pumping than excavations in soil of low
hydraulic conductivity. Most textbooks and guidance documents on groundwater control relate
the applicability of different dewatering techniques back to hydraulic conductivity in one way or
another.
2.6.3 Permeability
Permeability is the property of rocks that is an indication of the ability for fluids (gas or liquid) to
flow through rocks. High permeability will allow fluids to move rapidly through rocks.
Permeability is affected by the pressure in a rock. The unit of measure is called the darcy, named
after Henry Darcy (1803–1858). Sandstones may vary in permeability from less than one to over
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50,000 millidarcys (md). Permeabilities are more commonly in the range of tens to hundreds of
millidarcies. A rock with 25% porosity and a permeability of 1 md will not yield a significant
flow of water. Such “tight” rocks are usually artificially stimulated (fractured or acidized) to
create permeability and yield a flow.
The SI unit for permeability is m2. A practical unit for permeability is the darcy (d), or more
commonly the millidarcy (md) (1 darcy \approx10−12m2). The name honors the French
Engineer Henry Darcy who first described the flow of water through sand filters for potable
water supply. Permeability values for sandstones range typically from a fraction of a darcy to
several darcys. The unit of cm2 is also sometimes used (1 cm2 = 10−4 m2 \approx 108 d).
2.7
Mechanical Stabilization
When granular material has the property to withstand and lateral displacement under load, it is
said to be mechanically stable. By far, this is most widely used stabilization method, as the
inherent properties of the soil materials is what it relies on for stability. Mechanical stabilization
can be grouped into two major parts.
(A) Mechanical stabilization be treatment:
1. Compaction
2. Consolidation
3. Electrical and thermal methods
(B) Mechanical stabilization with the help of additives:
1. Soil aggregation
2. Chlorides
3. Lignin
4. Molasses (O’ Flaherty, 1983).
.
2.7.1 Cement Stabilization
What is next to mechanical stabilization in all methods of soil stabilization is the cement
stabilization. The factors that have helped to make the use of Portland cement so popular in
almost every country of the world are:
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(i) Cement is readily available as home product in most countries of the world.
(ii) In such large quantity for concrete construction, cement is manufactured which makes its
price so cheap.
(iii)Less care and control is involved in the use of cement than many other stabilizers.
(iv) More information is available generally on cement treated soil mixture than other kinds
of soil stabilizers.
(v) Almost any soil can be stabilized using Portland cement.
2.7.2 Lime Stabilization
According to O’ Flaherty (1983), lime is strictly Calcium Oxide (CaO), but in practice, the term
is used to describe both the oxides and hydroxides of calcium from calcitic and dolomitic
materials. This implies that there are many kinds of limes:
(i) Hydraulic limes
(ii) Oliek limes, e.g. CaCO3 + heat
CaO + CO2
(iii)Hydrated lime i.e. Calcium Hydroxide – Ca (OH)2.
In lime stabilization method, the functions of the additives are two folds. They make the
soil to harden into compact mass, having analogous properties and uses similar to that of
concrete. Also they may alter the soil graduation chemically.
2.7.3 Bituminous Stabilization
Bituminous stabilization uses bitumen or road tars. When mixed with soil, they water proof the
materials and/or increase cohesion needed for stabilization. However, materials containing
excessive amounts of clay are not found suitable for stabilizing bitumen mission, due to the
difficulty in mixing and a prolonged curing period needed to obtain desired strength (Oluyemi –
Ayibiowus and Adeyeri, 2006).
IMPORTANCE OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TO ENGINEERS
The hydraulic conductivity is of importance to engineers In the following ways, it is the major
factor in determining the need for dewatering and groundwater control. For example, excavations
16
below the groundwater level in a soil of high hydraulic conductivity will need more dewatering
pumping than excavations in soil of low hydraulic conductivity. Most textbooks and guidance
documents on groundwater control relate the applicability of different dewatering techniques
back to hydraulic conductivity in one way or another.
A less obvious answer is that because hydraulic conductivity controls the rate of drainage of soil
or rock it has a significant impact on geotechnical stability problems (retaining walls, slopes,
embankments, foundations).
If a soil has a high hydraulic conductivity, when a load (total stress) is applied to a soil the excess
pore water pressures generated by the load will quickly dissipate. In soil mechanics terminology
the soil will behave in a ‘drained’ manner, with relatively high effective stresses, which in turn
increase the shear strength of the soil or rock, making it stronger. Conversely, if a soil has a low
hydraulic conductivity, when a load (total stress) is applied to a soil the excess pore water
pressures generated by the load cannot quickly dissipate. In soil mechanics terminology the soil
will behave in an ‘undrained’ manner, with high excess pore water pressures generated by the
applied load, which then dissipate slowly over time (in some cases taking several years or even
decades to dissipate). High excess pore water pressures result in low effective stresses, reducing
the shear strength of the soil or rock, making it weaker and increasing the risk of instability of
failure.
The importance of hydraulic conductivity in geotechnical engineering problems is sometimes
overlooked because it is often ‘wrapped up’ inside another parameter, such as coefficient of
consolidation cv, which may combine rate of drainage (controlled by hydraulic conductivity)
with other factors.
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CHAPTER THREE
3.0
3.1
MATERIALS AND METHODS
MATERIALS
For the present study, expansive soil was collected from Achusavillage in Makurdi metropolis of
Benue state and the periwinkle ash shall be collected from the river state area of Nigeria prior to
burning and crushing. Shale sample is to be collected on site using hoe, shovel and digger. The
colour of the collected sample shall be identified.
These two were chosen for this study as they represent the extreme cases. All the tests shall be
carried out as per the relevant BS Standards. The physical properties of the expansive soil and
the PSA used in this investigation are to be listed in tabular form thus.
Table 1 whereas Table 2 reports the chemical analysis of oven dried expansive soil and the PSA
sample of fine particles, analyzed by standard method. Different percentages of expansive soil
were added to PSA and their index properties were determined. Standard Proctor compaction
tests, consolidation tests and strength tests shall be carried out on the so obtained expansive soil
– PSA mixes. Specimens with PSA shall be cured for 7 days,14 days,21 days and 28 days and
subjected to Consolidation and unconfined compression strength tests. All the samples are to be
prepared as per standard procedures and compacted at 0.95γdmax and corresponding water
content on the dry side of optimum. The test program is given in.
3.2
PERIWINKLE SHELL ASH (PSA)
The periwinkle shell ash to be used to stabilize the shale sample is to be imported from
rivers where are known to be massively harvested. The sample is oven dried at temperatures that
can allow proper crushing into powdered form and sample will be allowed to pass through 425
micrometer BS sieve.
3.3
METHODS
The following tests were performed on the natural soil the soil treated with cement and sawdust
at various percentage of carbide waste and rice husk ash.
18
1. Natural moisture content
2. Atterberg limit
3. Grain size analysis
4. Specific gravity test
5. hydraulic permeability test
There are two broad categories of determining hydraulic conductivity:

Empirical approach by which the hydraulic conductivity is correlated to soil
properties like pore sizeand particle size (grain size) distributions, and soil texture

Experimental approach by which the hydraulic conductivity is determined from
hydraulic experiments using Darcy's law
The experimental approach is broadly classified into:

Laboratory tests using soil samples subjected to hydraulic experiments

Field tests (on site, in situ) that are differentiated into:

small scale field tests, using observations of the water level in cavities in the soil

large scale field tests, like pump tests in wells or by observing the functioning of
existing horizontal drainage systems.
The small scale field tests are further subdivided into:

infiltration tests in cavities above the water table

slug tests in cavities below the water table

LIQUID LIMITS FOR 0% PSA
BORE HOLE NO: 2
TOTAL WEIGHT OF SAMPLE (g)
SAMPLE No:
200
SOIL/WATER CURING TIME (hr)
TEST
WEIGHT OF CAN/NO. OF CAN
DEPTH(m)
2m
WEIGHT PASSING SIEVE NO: 40 (0.425mm)
% PASSING NO:40(0.425mm) SEIEVE
PLASTIC LIMITS
S1
A6
LIQUID LIMITS
A1
A3
15
A4
A5
46
23.1
21.7
WEIGHT OF CAN + WET SOIL (g)
18.8
19.1
23.4
25.7
39
26.4
WEIGHT OF CAN +DRY SOIL (g)
17.3
17.8
20.8
22.8
24.3
19
29
WEIGHT OF MOISTURE
1.5
1.3
2.6
2.9
2.1
1.4
WEIGHT OF CONTAINER (g)
16.7
17.2
16.2
17.4
18.5
17.2
WEIGHT OF DRY SOIL (g)
0.5
0.6
4.6
5.4
5.8
4.8
MOISTURE CONTENT%
40
46.2
56.5
53.7
36.2
29.2

70
Moisture content
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
No. of Blows


LIQUID LIMIT (LL) %
50.1
PLASTIC LIMIT (PL) %
43.1
PLASTIC INDEX (PI) %
LINEAR SHRINKAGE(LS) %


LIQUID LIMITS FOR 2%
BORE HOLE NO: 2
TOTAL WEIGHT OF SAMPLE (g)
SAMPLE No:
200
SOIL/WATER CURING TIME (hr)
TEST
WEIGHT OF CAN/NO. OF CAN
DEPTH(m)
2m
WEIGHT PASSING SIEVE NO: 40 (0.425mm)
% PASSING NO:40(0.425mm) SEIEVE
PLASTIC LIMITS
S6
A6
LIQUID LIMITS
WEIGHT OF CAN + WET SOIL (g)
19.6
19.2
S1
15
25.6
WEIGHT OF CAN +DRY SOIL (g)
17.6
17.8
22.5
24.3
24.3
23.7
WEIGHT OF MOISTURE
2.0
1.4
3.1
2.9
2.9
2.5
WEIGHT OF CONTAINER (g)
16.8
17.2
17.5
18.2
18.2
18.4
20
S2
S3
20
27.2
36
27.2
26.2
WEIGHT OF DRY SOIL (g)
0.8
0.6
5.0
6.1
6.1
5.3
MOISTURE OF CONTENT%
40.0
42.8
62.0
47.5
47.5
47.2

90
Moisture content %
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
No. Blows





LIQUID LIMIT (LL) %
64
PLASTIC LIMIT (PL) %
41.4
PLASTIC INDEX (PI) %

LINEAR SHRINKAGE(LS) %

LIQUID LIMITS 0F 4%
BORE HOLE NO: 2
TOTAL WEIGHT OF SAMPLE (g)
SAMPLE No:
200
SOIL/WATER CURING TIME (hr)
TEST
WEIGHT OF CAN/NO. OF CAN
DEPTH(m)
2m
WEIGHT PASSING SIEVE NO: 40 (0.425mm)
% PASSING NO:40(0.425mm) SEIEVE
PLASTIC LIMITS
A6
LIQUID LIMITS
A3
A1
WEIGHT OF CAN + WET SOIL (g)
18.8
18.5
14
25.8
A2
23
24.3
WEIGHT OF CAN +DRY SOIL (g)
18.2
17.7
21.5
20.4
24.1
20.8
WEIGHT OF MOISTURE
0.6
0.8
4.2
3.9
4.2
2.8
WEIGHT OF CONTAINER (g)
17.7
17.9
17.2
15.5
18.4
15.1
WEIGHT OF DRY SOIL (g)
0.3
0.5
4.5
4.9
5.7
5.7
MOISTURE CONTENT%
50
62.5
90.3
79.6
73.7
49.1
21
A3
A4
34
28.3
43
23.6



100
LL FOR 4% PSA
90
Moisture Content %
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
No. Of Blows



LIQUID LIMIT (LL) %
78

PLASTIC LIMIT (PL) %
56.3

PLASTIC INDEX (PI) %

LINEAR SHRINKAGE(LS) %

LIQUID LIMITS FOR 6%
BORE HOLE NO: 2
TOTAL WEIGHT OF SAMPLE (g)
SAMPLE No:
200
SOIL/WATER CURING TIME (hr)
TEST
WEIGHT OF CAN/NO. OF CAN
DEPTH(m)
2m
WEIGHT PASSING SIEVE NO: 40 (0.425mm)
% PASSING NO:40(0.425mm) SEIEVE
PLASTIC LIMITS
S5
LIQUID LIMITS
S4
A4
A5
22
31.0
S1
A6
38
28.4
48
28.0
WEIGHT OF CAN + WET SOIL (g)
18.0
19.0
11
26.5
WEIGHT OF CAN +DRY SOIL (g)
17.2
18.3
24.0
27.7
26.0
25.8
WEIGHT OF MOISTURE
0.8
0.7
2.5
3.3
2.4
2.2
WEIGHT OF CONTAINER (g)
14.4
15.8
17.4
18.9
18.4
18.2
WEIGHT OF DRY SOIL (g)
2.8
2.5
6.6
8.8
8.0
7.6
MOISTURE CONTENT%
28.6
28.0
37.9
37.5
30.0
28.9

22

45
Moisture Content%
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
No. of Blows






LIQUID LIMIT (LL) %
36
PLASTIC LIMIT (PL) %
28.3
PLASTIC INDEX (PI) %

LINEAR SHRINKAGE(LS) %

LIQUID LIMITS FOR 8%
BORE HOLE NO: 2
TOTAL WEIGHT OF SAMPLE (g)
SAMPLE No:
200
SOIL/WATER CURING TIME (hr)
TEST
WEIGHT OF CAN/NO. OF CAN
DEPTH(m)
2m
WEIGHT PASSING SIEVE NO: 40 (0.425mm)
% PASSING NO:40(0.425mm) SEIEVE
PLASTIC LIMITS
A5
LIQUID LIMITS
A4
S4
S1
23
30.6
S2
S5
39
30.4
48
30.4
WEIGHT OF CAN + WET SOIL (g)
19.9
19.7
15
30.5
WEIGHT OF CAN +DRY SOIL (g)
17.8
17.8
26.7
27.6
28.2
28.6
WEIGHT OF MOISTURE
2.1
1.9
3.8
3.0
2.2
1.8
WEIGHT OF CONTAINER (g)
17.2
16.6
18.8
19.0
19.4
19.9
WEIGHT OF DRY SOIL (g)
0.6
1.2
7.9
8.6
8.8
8.7
MOISTURE CONTENT%
28.6
63.2
48.1
34.9
25.0
20.7

23
60
Moisture Content%
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
No. of Blows
40
50
60



37
LIQUID LIMIT (LL) %

PLASTIC LIMIT (PL) %

PLASTIC INDEX (PI) %


LINEAR SHRINKAGE(LS) %

LIQUID LIMITS FOR 10%
BORE HOLE NO: 2
TOTAL WEIGHT OF SAMPLE (g)
SAMPLE No:
200
SOIL/WATER CURING TIME (hr)
DEPTH(m)
2m
WEIGHT PASSING SIEVE NO: 40 (0.425mm)
% PASSING NO:40(0.425mm) SEIEVE
TEST
PLASTIC LIMITS
LIQUID LIMITS
WEIGHT OF CAN/NO. OF CAN
A2
A3
S3
A4
T2
A1
20
28.0
33
29.8
42
31.3
WEIGHT OF CAN + WET SOIL (g)
19.8
18.9
12
28.8
WEIGHT OF CAN +DRY SOIL (g)
18.4
17.6
26.0
25.8
27.2
29.0
WEIGHT OF MOISTURE
1.4
1.3
2.8
2.2
2.6
2.6
WEIGHT OF CONTAINER (g)
17.8
16.6
16.8
17.4
17.2
18.3
WEIGHT OF DRY SOIL (g)
0.6
1.0
9.2
8.4
10.
10.7
MOISTURE CONTENT%
42.9
76.9
30.4
26.0
26.2
21.4

24
35
Moisture Content%
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
No. of Blows




LIQUID LIMIT (LL) %

PLASTIC LIMIT (PL) %

PLASTIC INDEX (PI) %

LINEAR SHRINKAGE(LS) %

LIQUID LIMITS FOR 12%
BORE HOLE NO: 2
TOTAL WEIGHT OF SAMPLE (g)
SAMPLE No:
200
SOIL/WATER CURING TIME (hr)
TEST
WEIGHT OF CAN/NO. OF CAN
DEPTH(m)
2m
WEIGHT PASSING SIEVE NO: 40 (0.425mm)
% PASSING NO:40(0.425mm) SEIEVE
PLASTIC LIMITS
G1
G3
LIQUID LIMITS
WEIGHT OF CAN + WET SOIL (g)
20.4
20.3
G1
15
33.5
WEIGHT OF CAN +DRY SOIL (g)
19.2
18.8
31.2
30.1
28.4
31.8
WEIGHT OF MOISTURE
1.2
1.5
2.3
2.7
2.6
2.4
WEIGHT OF CONTAINER (g)
18.6
17.0
18.6
18.7
17.8
17.9
WEIGHT OF DRY SOIL (g)
1.2
1.5
2.3
2.7
2.6
2.4
MOISTURE CONTENT%
50.0
83.3
18.4
23.7
24.5
19.7

25
G2
21
32.8
G4
G3
32
31.0
46
34.2
30
Moisture Content%
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
No. of Blows


LIQUID LIMIT (LL) %
PLASTIC LIMIT (PL) %
PLASTIC INDEX (PI) %
LINEAR SHRINKAGE(LS) %


LIQUID LIMITS FOR 14%
BORE HOLE NO: 2
TOTAL WEIGHT OF SAMPLE (g)
SAMPLE No:
200
SOIL/WATER CURING TIME (hr)
TEST
WEIGHT OF CAN/NO. OF CAN
DEPTH(m)
2m
WEIGHT PASSING SIEVE NO: 40 (0.425mm)
% PASSING NO:40(0.425mm) SEIEVE
PLASTIC LIMITS
G3
LIQUID LIMITS
A4
S1
S2
29
31.4
S4
38
32.0
S5
WEIGHT OF CAN + WET SOIL (g)
18.4
18.0
12
30.1
WEIGHT OF CAN +DRY SOIL (g)
17.8
17.4
27.7
28.0
28.4
28.2
WEIGHT OF MOISTURE
1.2
1.2
2.4
3.4
3.6
3.3
WEIGHT OF CONTAINER (g)
17.2
16.8
18.4
18.8
19.0
17.8
WEIGHT OF DRY SOIL (g)
0.6
0.6
9.3
9.2
9.4
13.4
MOISTURE CONTENT%
50.0
50.0
25.8
37.0
38.3
24.6

26
47
31.5
45
Moisture Content%
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
No. of Blows


LIQUID LIMIT (LL) %
PLASTIC LIMIT (PL) %
PLASTIC INDEX (PI) %
LINEAR SHRINKAGE(LS) %


LIQUID LIMITS FOR 16%
BORE HOLE NO: 2
TOTAL WEIGHT OF SAMPLE (g)
SAMPLE No:
200
SOIL/WATER CURING TIME (hr)
TEST
2m
WEIGHT PASSING SIEVE NO: 40 (0.425mm)
% PASSING NO:40(0.425mm) SEIEVE
PLASTIC LIMITS
WEIGHT OF CAN/NO. OF CAN
DEPTH(m)
T2
A5
LIQUID LIMITS
G1
A1
14
G2
33
30.4
G4
WEIGHT OF CAN + WET SOIL (g)
19.2
18.9
31.4
21
31.4
WEIGHT OF CAN +DRY SOIL (g)
18.0
18.2
28.5
29.0
27.8
25.8
WEIGHT OF MOISTURE
1.2
0.7
2.9
2.4
2.6
2.7
WEIGHT OF CONTAINER (g)
17.4
17.6
19.0
18.8
18.4
18.4
WEIGHT OF DRY SOIL (g)
0.6
0.6
9.5
10.2
9.4
7.4
MOISTURE CONTENT%
50.0
85.7
30.5
23.5
27.7
36.5


LIQUID LIMITS FOR 16%
27
48
28.5
35
Moisture Content%
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
No. of Blows


LIQUID LIMIT (LL) %
PLASTIC LIMIT (PL) %
PLASTIC INDEX (PI) %
LINEAR SHRINKAGE(LS) %




BS STANDARD /LIGHT COMPACTION
NO. OF LAYERS: 5
VOL. OF MOULD: 1000
APPENDIX A2
NO. OF BLOWS: 46
WT. OF MOULD: 3365
COMPACTION TEST FOR 0% PSA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
BRITISH STANDARD LIGHT
Percentage of water %
Test No.
Container no.
Wt. of container + Wt. soil
Wt. of container + dry soil
Wt. of container
Wt. of moisture
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Wt. of Mould + wet soil
Wt. wet soil (w)
Bulk Density Pb=w/y
Dry Density Pd= 100DW/100+m
6%
1
B12
33.5
33.0
17.5
0.5
15.5
3.23
4927
1562
1.56
1.51


BS STANDARD /LIGHT COMPACTION
28
12%
2
S7
30.6
30.4
17.7
0.2
12.7
1.6
5140
1775
1.78
1.75
18%
3
A5
42.0
41.5
17.7
0.5
23.8
2.1
5117
1752
1.75
1.72
24%
4
A4
41.2
40.4
17.5
0.8
22.9
3.5
5001
1636
1.64
1.58


NO. OF LAYERS: 5
VOL. OF MOULD: 1000
NO. OF BLOWS: 46
WT. OF MOULD: 3365
COMPACTION TEST FOR 2% PSA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
BRITISH STANDARD LIGHT
Percentage of water %
Test No.
Container no.
Wt. of container + Wt. soil
Wt. of container + dry soil
Wt. of container
Wt. of moisture
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Wt. of Mould + wet soil
Wt. wet soil (w)
Bulk Density Pb=w/y
Dry Density Pd= 100DW/100+m
6%
1
C2
35.0
33.7
18
1.3
15.7
8.3
4950
1585
1.59
1.46
12%
2
C3
39.0
36.2
18.5
2.8
17.7
15.82
5120
1755
1.76
1.52
18%
3
C20
39.5
37.0
18.5
2.7
18.5
14.6
5202
1833
1.83
1.55
24%
4
C5
40.1
37
18.5
3.1
18.5
16.7
5150
1785
1.79
1.53




BS STANDARD /LIGHT COMPACTION
NO. OF LAYERS: 5
VOL. OF MOULD: 1000
NO. OF BLOWS: 46
WT. OF MOULD: 3365
COMPACTION TEST FOR 4% PSA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
BRITISH STANDARD LIGHT
Percentage of water %
Test No.
Container no.
Wt. of container + Wt. soil
Wt. of container + dry soil
Wt. of container
Wt. of moisture
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Wt. of Mould + wet soil
Wt. wet soil (w)
Bulk Density Pb=w/y
Dry Density Pd= 100DW/100+m
6%
1
A9
35.0
33.6
20.0
1.2
13.8
8.7
5016
1651
1.65
1.52
12%
2
S1
36.8
34.5
20.7
2.3
13.8
16.7
5122
1757
1.76
1.51
18%
3
C3
38.7
42.7
20.0
3.4
15.4
22.1
5251
1886
1.89
1.55
24%
4
C20
59.0
50.3
20.0
8.7
30.0
28.7
5250
1885
1.89
1.47




BS STANDARD /LIGHT COMPACTION
NO. OF LAYERS: 5
VOL. OF MOULD: 1000
NO. OF BLOWS: 46
WT. OF MOULD: 3365
COMPACTION TEST FOR 6% PSA
1
BRITISH STANDARD LIGHT
Percentage of water %
6%
29
12%
18%
24%
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Test No.
Container no.
Wt. of container + Wt. soil
Wt. of container + dry soil
Wt. of container
Wt. of moisture
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Wt. of Mould + wet soil
Wt. wet soil (w)
Bulk Density Pb=w/y
Dry Density Pd= 100DW/100+m
1
71
37.2
35.5
19.9
1.7
15.6
10.9
5115
1750
1.75
1.51
2
42
35.7
33.1
19.9
2.6
13.2
19.7
5244
1879
1.88
1.50
3
63
37.5
34.5
19.5
3.0
15.0
20.0
5360
1995
2.0
1.59
4
70
38.3
34.5
19.8
3.8
14.7
25.9
5200
1835
1.84
1.39





BS STANDARD /LIGHT COMPACTION
NO. OF LAYERS: 5
VOL. OF MOULD: 1000
NO. OF BLOWS: 46
WT. OF MOULD: 3365
COMPACTION TEST FOR 8% PSA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
BRITISH STANDARD LIGHT
Percentage of water %
Test No.
Container no.
Wt. of container + Wt. soil
Wt. of container + dry soil
Wt. of container
Wt. of moisture
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Wt. of Mould + wet soil
Wt. wet soil (w)
Bulk Density Pb=w/y
Dry Density Pd= 100DW/100+m
6%
1
C1
42.8
40.2
19.5
2.6
20.7
12.6
5008
1643
1.64
1.46
12%
2
C2
40.5
37.5
19.0
3.0
18.5
16.2
5188
1823
1.82
1.57
18%
3
C3
47.7
44.5
19.3
3.2
25.2
12.7
5208
1843
1.84
1.63
24%
4
C4
48.4
41.5
19.8
6.9
21.7
37.8
5088
1723
1.72
1.31




BS STANDARD /LIGHT COMPACTION
NO. OF LAYERS: 5
VOL. OF MOULD: 1000
NO. OF BLOWS: 46
WT. OF MOULD: 3365
COMPACTION TEST FOR 10% PSA
1
2
3
4
5
6
BRITISH STANDARD LIGHT
Percentage of water %
Test No.
Container no.
Wt. of container + Wt. soil
Wt. of container + dry soil
Wt. of container
6%
1
B1
38.6
37.5
18.8
30
12%
2
B2
45.5
43.5
19.4
18%
3
B3
49.4
45.8
20.0
24%
4
B4
51.0
47.7
19.3
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Wt. of moisture
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Wt. of Mould + wet soil
Wt. wet soil (w)
Bulk Density Pb=w/y
Dry Density Pd= 100DW/100+m
1.1
18.7
5.9
4997
1632
1.63
1.54
1.8
24.1
7.5
5135
1770
1.77
1.65
3.6
25.8
14.4
5180
1815
1.83
1.60
4.3
28.4
15.1
5212
1847
1.85
1.58





BS STANDARD /LIGHT COMPACTION
NO. OF LAYERS: 5
VOL. OF MOULD: 1000
NO. OF BLOWS: 46
WT. OF MOULD: 3365
COMPACTION TEST FOR 12% PSA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
BRITISH STANDARD LIGHT
Percentage of water %
Test No.
Container no.
Wt. of container + Wt. soil
Wt. of container + dry soil
Wt. of container
Wt. of moisture
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Wt. of Mould + wet soil
Wt. wet soil (w)
Bulk Density Pb=w/y
Dry Density Pd= 100DW/100+m
6%
1
B1
40.0
39.0
20.0
1.0
19.0
7.9
5030
1665
1.67
1.59
12%
2
B2
41.5
39.5
20.0
2.0
12.5
16.0
5070
1705
1.71
1.53
18%
3
B3
30.5
29.0
19.8
1.5
9.2
16.3
5210
1845
1.85
1.59
24%
4
B4
39.7
39.0
20.4
3.7
15.6
23.7
5170
1805
1.81
1.46




BS STANDARD /LIGHT COMPACTION
NO. OF LAYERS: 5
VOL. OF MOULD: 1000
NO. OF BLOWS: 46
WT. OF MOULD: 3365
COMPACTION TEST FOR 14% PSA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
BRITISH STANDARD LIGHT
Percentage of water %
Test No.
Container no.
Wt. of container + Wt. soil
Wt. of container + dry soil
Wt. of container
Wt. of moisture
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Wt. of Mould + wet soil
Wt. wet soil (w)
6%
1
B5
33.9
33.0
20.0
0.9
13.0
6.9
4965
1600
31
12%
2
B6
31.2
29.1
20.4
2.1
8.7
24.1
5000
1640
18%
3
B8
38.8
37.0
19.8
1.8
17.2
10.5
5225
1820
24%
4
B9
39.2
35.5
20.0
3.7
15.5
23.9
5110
1750
Bulk Density Pb=w/y
Dry Density Pd= 100DW/100+m
12
13
1.6
1.5
1.64
1.32
1.82
1.68
1.75
1.41





BS STANDARD /LIGHT COMPACTION
NO. OF LAYERS: 5
VOL. OF MOULD: 1000
NO. OF BLOWS: 46
WT. OF MOULD: 3365
COMPACTION TEST FOR 16% PSA
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
BRITISH STANDARD LIGHT
Percentage of water %
Test No.
Container no.
Wt. of container + Wt. soil
Wt. of container + dry soil
Wt. of container
Wt. of moisture
Wt. of dry soil
Moisture content %
Wt. of Mould + wet soil
Wt. wet soil (w)
Bulk Density Pb=w/y
Dry Density Pd= 100DW/100+m
6%
1
A1
36.4
34.5
20.0
1.9
14.5
13.1
4960
1595
1.6
1.22




















APPENDIX A3
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) FOR 0% PSA
32
12%
2
A2
33.3
31.7
20.0
1.6
11.7
13.7
5096
1731
1.73
1.52
18%
3
A3
41.0
37.6
19.4
3.4
18.2
18.7
5210
1845
1.85
1.56
24%
4
A4
39.5
36.3
20.0
3.2
16.3
19.6
5115
1750
1.75
1.46

TOP READING
READING
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
1
1
1
1
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
0.122
0.122
0.122
0.122
0.183
0.183
0.183
0.183
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.244
BOTTOM
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
1.38
19.96
1.22
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
0
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
0.00
0.061
0.061
0.122
0.183
0.183
0.183
0.183
0.183
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.244
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
1.38
19.96
1.22



CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) FOR 2% PSA
TOP READING
READING
Penetration Dial
Load Standard CBR
Penetration
(mm)
Reading (KN)
Load
(mm)
(mm)
(KN)
0.5
0.5
0.061
0.5
1.0
0.5
0.061
1.0
1.5
1
0.122
1.5
2.0
2
0.244
2.0
2.5
2
0.244 13.24
1.84
2.5
3.0
2
0.244
3.0
3.5
2.5
0.305
3.5
4.0
2.5
0.305
4.0
4.5
3.0
0.366
4.5
5.0
3.0
0.366 19.96
1.83
5.0
5.5
3.0
0.366
5.5
6.0
3.0
0.366
6.0
6.5
3.0
0.366
6.5
7.0
3.0
0.366
7.0
7.5
3.0
0.366
7.5
 CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) FOR 4% PSA
33
BOTTOM
Dial
Reading
(mm)
0.5
0.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
Load
(KN)
0.061
0.061
0.183
0.183
0.183
0.183
0.244
0.244
0.305
0.305
0.366
0.366
0.366
0.427
0.427
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
1.38
19.96
1.83

TOP READING
READING
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
0.061
0.122
0.183
0.244
0.305
0.366
0.366
0.366
0.366
0.366
0.366
0.366
0.427
0.488
0.488
BOTTOM
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
2.3
19.96
1.83
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
0.122
0.183
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.305
0.305
0.366
0.366
0.427
0.427
0.488
0.488
0.549
0.610
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
1.84
19.96
2.14




CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) FOR 6% PSA
TOP READING
READING
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5

Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
BOTTOM
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
1.5
0.183
0.5
2.5
0.305
1.0
3.0
0.366
1.5
6.0
0.732
2.0
8.0
0.975 13.24
7.37
2.5
8.5
1.037
3.0
9.0
1.098
3.5
10.5
1.281
4.0
11.5
1.403
4.5
12.5
1.525 19.96
7.95
5.0
13.0
1.586
5.5
14.5
1.769
6.0
14.5
1.769
6.5
14.5
1.769
7.0
15.0
1.830
7.5
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) FOR 8% PSA
34
2.5
3.5
6.5
8.0
9.0
9.5
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
16.0
16.0
0.305
0.427
0.793
0.976
1.098
1.159
1.403
1.464
1.525
1.647
1.708
1.769
1.83
1.952
1.952
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
8.29
19.96
8.25

TOP READING
READING
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
2.5
4.0
5.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
0.305
0.488
0.610
0.793
0.854
0.915
0.976
1.037
1.098
1.159
1.220
1.281
1.281
1.281
1.281
BOTTOM
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
6.45
19.96
5.81
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
0.244
0.305
0.366
0.488
0.549
0.610
0.671
0.732
0.732
0.793
0.854
0.854
0.915
0.976
1.037
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
4.15
19.96
3.97



CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) FOR 10% PSA
TOP READING
READING
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
4.5
9.0
16.0
19.0
23.0
26.0
27.0
28.5
30.0
31.0
32.0
33.0
34.0
34.5
35.0
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
0.549
1.098
1.952
2.318
2.806 13.24
3.172
3.294
3.477
3.660
3.782 19.96
3.904
4.148
4.209
4.270
4.270
BOTTOM
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
21.19
18.95
35
8.5
9.0
10.5
19.5
20.0
25.0
27.0
30.0
31.5
32.0
34.0
35.0
36.0
37.0
38.0
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
1.037
1.098
1.281
2.379
2.440 13.24
3.050
3.294
3.66
3.843
3.904 19.96
4.148
4.270
4.392
4.514
4.636
18.43
19.56
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) FOR 12% PSA
TOP READING
READING
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
6.5
7.0
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
10.5
0.122
0.183
0.244
0.366
0.488
0.610
0.732
0.793
0.854
0.976
1.098
1.159
1.220
1.281
1.281
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
3.69
19.96
4.89
BOTTOM
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
1.0
2.5
4.5
6.0
6.5
7.5
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
0.122
0.305
0.549
0.732
0.793
0.913
1.098
1.220
1.342
1.525
1.586
1.647
1.708
1.769
1.830
13.24
5.99
19.96
7.64
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) FOR 14% PSA
TOP READING
BOTTOM READING
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
6.5
7.0
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
10.5
1.0
2.0
2.5
3.5
4.0
5.0
5.5
7.0
10.5
11.0
12.0
12.5
13.0
14.0
14.5
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
3.69
19.96
6.42
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
36
2.0
4.0
5.0
8.0
8.5
9.5
10.0
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
0.244
0.488
0.610
0.976
1.037
1.159
1.220
1.342
1.403
1.464
1.525
1.586
1.647
1.708
1.769
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
7.83
19.96
7.34
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) FOR 16% PSA
TOP READING
BOTTOM READING
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
1.0
1.5
1.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.0
0.122
0.183
0.183
0.305
0.305
0.366
0.427
0.549
0.610
0.732
0.854
0.976
1.098
1.159
1.220
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
2.3
19.96
3.67
Penetration Dial
Load
(mm)
Reading (KN)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
37
3.0
4.5
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.5
10.5
12.0
13.5
13.5
14.5
15.5
15.5
16.0
16.5
0.366
0.549
0.732
0.854
0.976
1.159
1.281
1.464
1.647
1.647
1.769
1.891
1.891
1.952
2.013
Standard CBR
Load
(KN)
13.24
7.37
19.96
8.25
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