Chapter 6 Assignment

Eryka β€œRee” Joseph
Dr. Lynne Telesca
CMD 310_01: Anatomy & Physiology of Speech and Swallowing
07 November 2018
1. What is the articulatory system?
a. Movement of structures to produce speech sounds.
2. What is the source filter theory?
a. The "source" in the source filter theory is the larynx and the filter is the vocal
The laryngeal source is the first part of speech production.
ii. The vocal tract is a resonator that will modify the sound source.
3. What oral structures make up the vocal tract?
a. The shape of the throat, oral, and nasal cavities changes the vibration sounds
produced by the larynx into sounds humans understand.
b. The pharynx branches off into two parts: the esophagus, which goes down into
your stomach, and. the trachea, which goes down into your lungs.
4. How does the source of sounds vary?
a. The sound source creates vibrations in the surrounding medium.
b. As the source continues to vibrate the medium, the vibrations propagate away
from the source at the speed of sound, thus forming the sound wave.
c. At a fixed distance from the source, the pressure, velocity, and displacement of
the medium vary in time.
5. Which articulators are mobile?
a. The mobile articulators are the tongue, velum (soft palate), mandible, and lips.
6. Which articulators are immobile?
a. The primarily fixed articulators are the hard palate, alveolar ridge, and upper
7. State the function of each of these bones:
a. Mandible
The mandible, or lower jaw, is the bone that forms the lower part of the
skull, and along with the maxilla (upper jaw), forms the mouth structure.
ii. Movement of the lower jaw opens and closes the mouth and also allows
for the chewing of food. The lower set of teeth in the mouth is rooted in
the lower jaw
b. Maxilla(e)
The alveolar process of the maxillae holds the upper teeth and is referred
to as the maxillary arch.
ii. Each maxilla attaches laterally to the zygomatic bones (cheekbones).
Each maxilla assists in forming the boundaries of three cavities: the roof
of the mouth.
c. Vomer
The vomer separates the nasal cavities into left and right sides.
d. Zygomatic
In the human skull, the zygomatic bone (cheekbone or malar bone) is a
paired bone which articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the
sphenoid bone, and the frontal bone.
e. Ethmoid
Like all the sinus cavities in the skull, is to provide lubrication (mucus) to
the inner nose.
ii. In addition to creating mucus, the sinuses β€” including the ethmoid sinus
β€” reduce the skull's overall weight and make one's voice more resonant as
they grow in size during puberty.
f. Sphenoid
a compound bone that forms the base of the cranium, behind the eye and
below the front part of the brain.
8. What is a nasal endoscopy?
a. Endoscopy is a minimally invasive, diagnostic medical procedure.
b. The nasal endoscope is a medical device consisting of a thin, rigid tube with
fiberoptic cables for bringing in the light.
9. What causes cleft lip/palate?
a. There are many causes of cleft lip and palate.
Problems with genes passed down from 1 or both parents, drugs, viruses,
or other toxins can all cause these birth defects.
ii. Cleft lip and palate may occur along with other syndromes or birth
10. What is synostosis and craniostenosis?
a. Craniosynostosis, or simply synostosis, is the early growing together (or fusion)
of two or more bones of the skull.
During normal development, interdigitations (folds of the membranes)
develop between the bones and form a definitive suture.
ii. Later, the open cranial and facial sutures close by forming bony bridging.
11. What do the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital bones overlie (cover)?
a. The frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital bones overlie (covers) the frontal
lobes of the brain.
12. What are the four main types of permanent teeth?
a. We have different types of deciduous teeth:
incisors, canines, first molars, and second molars.
b. Each tooth has four types of surfaces.
They are the inner surface, an outer surface, chewing surface and adjacent
13. List the characteristics of each type of dental malocclusion:
a. Class I
the most common
ii. The bite is normal, but the upper teeth slightly overlap the lower teeth.
b. Class II
Class 2 malocclusion, called retrognathism or overbite
ii. occurs when the upper jaw and teeth severely overlap the bottom jaw and
c. Class III
means that the mandibular first molar is anteriorly placed in relation to the
maxillary first molar.
14. In relation to dentition, what is
a. Overjet?
The term overjet refers to the space between your upper and lower teeth at
the front of your mouth. Ideally, this space is minimal, usually only just
enough to let the front upper teeth rest comfortably in front of the bottom
b. Overbite?
An overbite is when your upper front teeth overlap with your lower front
teeth. Most people have at least a little overbite.
c. Relative micrognathia?
a term used to describe an abnormally small mandible
15. What are some things that can happen to the teeth if they develop abnormally?
a. Too small
b. Malocclusion
c. Oral ectoderm
d. Speech problems
e. Malformations of tooth root
16. What are the 3 cavities of the pharynx?
a. The pharynx is the part of the digestive system situated posterior to the nasal and
oral cavities and posterior to the larynx.
b. It is therefore divisible into nasal, oral, and laryngeal parts:
the (1) nasopharynx,
ii. (2) oropharynx, and
(3) laryngopharynx.
17. Tell how the shape of the following cavities can be altered or changed:
a. Nasal cavity
in the nasal cavity, changes in these blood vessels contribute to nasal
ii. Altered by means of velum
b. Oral cavity
is altered, the oral tissue becomes much more susceptible to cavity
ii. the most significant cavity of the speech mechanism; undergoes the most
change during speech; shape can be altered by movement of tongue or
c. Pharyngeal cavity
The shape and size of the rima are altered by movements of the arytenoid
18. List the general type of movements each kind of muscles makes (e.g., elevate, depress):
a. Facial muscles
Depress mandible
1. Angle of mouth
2. Skin of lower lip
ii. Elevate maxilla
Elevate upper eyelid
Tongue muscles
Elevates hyoid and/or depresses mandible
ii. Elevates larynx
Elevates hyoid and floor of mouth; depresses mandible
Muscles of the mandible
Depresses corner of the mouth
ii. Depresses lower lip
Elevates and protrudes lower lip
Muscles of the velum
Compresses, purses lips
ii. Tenses skin of the neck, depresses mandible
Elevates hyoid and floor of mouth; depresses mandible
Pharyngeal musculature
ii. Depresses
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