Student Workbook

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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Student Workbook
Unit 2: BIM Design Process
Contents
Unit Overview .....................................................................................................................3!
Key Concepts.................................................................................................................3!
Lesson Roadmap ...........................................................................................................6!
Software Tools and Requirements.................................................................................7!
Suggested Resources....................................................................................................7!
Lesson 1: Area and Space Planning ................................................................................9!
Lesson Overview............................................................................................................9!
Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................10!
Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................10!
Assessment..................................................................................................................15!
Key Terms....................................................................................................................15!
Lesson 2: Project Phases and Phased Design .............................................................16!
Lesson Overview..........................................................................................................16!
Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................18!
Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................18!
Assessment..................................................................................................................21!
Key Terms....................................................................................................................22!
Lesson 3: Design Options...............................................................................................23!
Lesson Overview..........................................................................................................23!
Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................24!
Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................24!
Assessment..................................................................................................................27!
Key Terms....................................................................................................................28!
Lesson 4: Detailed Design/ Construction Documents .................................................29!
Lesson Overview..........................................................................................................29!
Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................30!
Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................31!
Assessment..................................................................................................................35!
Key Terms....................................................................................................................36!
Lesson 5: Detailed Design/Schedules and Quantities .................................................38!
Lesson Overview..........................................................................................................38!
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Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................40!
Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................40!
Assessment..................................................................................................................43!
Key Terms....................................................................................................................43!
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Unit Overview
Key Concepts
Design is typically an iterative process where ideas are successively refined in a series of
phases or stages, each focusing on specific aspects of the design. While the process
followed by every project team will have its own unique features, the stages typically
include:
•
Conceptual or schematic design
•
Preliminary design
•
Design development
•
Construction documents and details
Each of these design phases has a specific focus and questions that are typically
answered before moving to later stages.
As design activities move through these stages, a top-down approach is often used. The
early stages focus on high-level decisions with major impacts that will shape the options
available during later stages. The later phases focus on developing and exploring the
selected options and filling in the needed details.
Conceptual or Schematic Design
The conceptual design stage typically starts with a program statement that enumerates
the requirements that must be fulfilled by the design. Using this program statement as a
guide, the design team typically develops and evaluates several rough concepts for the
overall shape, massing, orientation, and positioning of the building on the project site.
In developing these design concepts, many constraints must be considered that bound
the potential building envelope. These often include site setbacks, floor area or building
footprint limitations, daylight plane and shading restrictions, and other requirements
imposed by local authorities and approval agencies.
Balancing the client requests and requirements and the site constraints can be a tricky
task. Abstract concepts of the overall building shape and placement will be developed and
evaluated, often with little detail about the precise features of the building envelope or the
configuration of the rooms inside. In order to keep the design problem manageable, this
top-down approach focuses on making the big decisions first, saving more detailed design
decisions for a later phase.
Using the power of BIM tools, many aspects of these conceptual designs can be
evaluated at even this earliest stage. For example, building performance analysis can be
performed to evaluate the potential energy use of various building shapes and
orientations. Design teams can use this early feedback to help guide their
recommendations about the best alternative to choose.
The conceptual design options will be evaluated and presented to the clients, and once a
preferred option is selected and approved, the process can move on to the next stage.
Preliminary Design
Having established the overall shape and form of the building envelope, design teams
often focus on area and space planning—allocating the space within the building envelope
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to the various program needs and considering various layouts for how these spaces might
be organized.
During the preliminary design phase, designers will also typically articulate the features of
the building envelope, proposing the exterior wall materials and assemblies, preliminary
window placements, daylighting and shading features, and the roof form. Preliminary
room layouts are also be created to develop the scheme for the interior spaces that will be
used.
As information about the proposed design is refined and added to the building model,
analysis of the proposed design can continue to guide the design. For example, during the
preliminary design phase, cost estimates are often developed based on the quantities and
materials specified in the model. These estimates provide valuable feedback that helps
design teams evaluate the impact of potential design decisions and ultimately make better
decisions.
Design Development
During the design development phase, the ideas and design features selected during the
preliminary design phase are developed and explored in more detail.
For example, once the room layouts have been approved, a wide variety of interior details
and finishes can be added to flesh out the design. Design alternatives for casework
options and fixture placement can be considered. Special architectural treatments for
interior walls or ceilings can be evaluated. While these features could have been added
during an earlier phase, it makes more sense and decreases the likelihood of wasted work
to add them after the preliminary design decisions are made.
Another common design activity during the design development phase is the evaluation of
design options—identifying key features where the design team would like to develop and
explore several alternate approaches. The flexibility of the BIM modeling process allows
teams to develop alternate design ideas and evaluate them in the context of the overall
proposed design. By making it easy to consider design options, teams have greater
latitude to test innovative ideas and find better solutions.
During the design development phase, analysis of the building model can continue at
greater detail. Cost estimates can be updated and refined. Analysis tools can be used on
the building model to assist teams in creating preliminary designs for the structural and
building systems (mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems), and the impacts and
interactions with these systems can be evaluated and used to improve the proposed
design.
Construction Documents and Details
The construction document and detailing phase focuses on adding information to the
building model to fully describe the proposed design through drawings and details that can
be used to guide the construction process.
Fully documenting a proposed design at the level of detail required to guide the
construction process can be a monumental task. Every feature of the building assemblies,
the connection details, and the components that will be installed must be documented and
presented on sheets for distribution to the project delivery team.
BIM tools can assist in this phase of the design process in several ways. The building
model provides an overall framework for generating the details that must be created.
Rather than drawing each detail from scratch as a series of lines, views of the model can
be created that form the basis for details. Annotations and notes are added to complete
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and fully explain these details, but the building model serves as a valuable starting point
as well as a consistency check. Since model views are live, any changes to the building
model are automatically reflected in the derived details.
While the output of the construction document phase is typically a set of printed plan
sheets, the building model can be shared with the project delivery team to facilitate
automated quantity takeoffs as well as conflict and interference checking. This powerful
application of the BIM design process requires innovative approaches to organizing
project teams and sharing risk, and these topics are explored in curriculum Unit 5,
Integrated Project Delivery.
Impact of BIM on the Design Process
The use of BIM tools creates the opportunity to radically change and improve the design
process in several ways. Whereas traditional 2D CAD-based design approaches focused
on increasing the productivity of the construction document phase, a BIM-based design
workflow changes the process in a more fundamental way by enabling the sharing and
incremental enhancement of design information through all project phases.
Building modeling enables design teams to systematically assess and evaluate the
performance of their designs at even the earliest stages of a project. This early feedback
enables crucial and impactful design decisions to be made earlier in the process, when
there is still an opportunity to make greater impact at a lower cost.
The use of a BIM-based workflow also provides a vehicle for sharing proposed designs
that enables members of the design team to more easily collaborate using a live version
of the building model. Rather than working in silos and passing paper-based snapshots of
the design, all members of the design team can access the latest model changes and
assess the impact of their design recommendations in the context of the overall design.
Impact of BIM on the Project Delivery Process
Beyond the direct benefits to the design team, a BIM-based design workflow also benefits
the full project team and project delivery process.
Design is just one aspect of the total project lifecycle. Capturing building design
information in a BIM model also benefits other key stakeholders, including the
procurement team, the building team, and the facility managers. Each of the project
functions is responsible for producing certain information assets, all of which originate
from the building information captured in the design model:
Design
Procure
Build
Manage
Preliminary
Sketching
Quantity Takeoffs
Quantity Takeoffs
Parts Inventory
Purchase Orders
Cost Estimates
Shop Drawings
Schedules
Maintenance
Manuals
Reviews, Checks
Field Changes
Plan, Elevation,
Section, Detail
Drafting
Perspectives
Detail Clarifications
Renderings
As-Builts
Maintenance and
Repair Records
Tenant
Improvements
Modifications,
Changes, and
Remodels
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Traditionally, each of these functions has operated in silos, without much collaboration or
communication until there was a need for information handoff. In paper-based workflows,
those handoffs occur manually via physical construction or design documents. And the
regression of the project information through these paper handoffs results in “backflows”
that require rework to rebuild the project by reinterpreting the information from the
drawings.
Figure 2.0.1 BIM improves the integrity of information between functions
Figure 2.0.1 illustrates how at each project phase, a set of digital assets (for example,
CAD drawings) is created and knowledge is built up. In traditional paper-based workflows,
these assets are used to their full potential. Converting the information into paper forms,
then reinterpreting the drawings to create new digital representations creates inefficiency
and invites misinterpretation.
A BIM-based design process enables the use of the building model as a conduit that can
capture and coordinate knowledge developed by all participants in the process in a format
that can be shared throughout the project lifecycle. In this way, information flows from one
function to another occur more smoothly and with greater integrity and reliability.
Lesson Roadmap
In this unit, you will learn how BIM tools can be used to support an integrated design
workflow by exploring how to:
•
Use area and space planning techniques to create initial layouts that fulfill
program needs and meet planned space budgets.
•
Specify project phases and use phased design approaches to coordinate the
design process on multiphase and renovation projects.
•
Create design options to consider and evaluate alternative design strategies.
•
Add details and annotations to model views to create detail views that can be
used in construction documents.
•
Create, organize, and format schedules of building elements to present tabular
summaries and support calculations using values from the model.
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Software Tools and Requirements
To complete the exercises in this unit, you should download Autodesk® Revit®
Architecture 2011 software from the Autodesk Education Community website and install it
on you computer.
For more detailed coverage and examples of how to use Autodesk® Revit® Architecture
for design tasks, you can refer to:
•
Curriculum materials available on the Autodesk Education Community website.
•
Autodesk® Revit® Architecture software’s extensive help system.
•
Videos and tutorials available in the Revit help menu.
Suggested Resources
BIM Methodology
BIM Deployment Plan
usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/item?id=14652957&siteID=123112
Case Studies/White Papers
Factor Ten Engineering Introduction
Link to White Paper
Factor Ten Engineering Design Principles
Link to White Paper
Autodesk AEC Headquarters and Integrated Project Design, Factor Ten Engineering
Case Study, August 2010
Link to White Paper
Banana Farm 1.0, Factor Ten Engineering Case Study, August 2010
Link to White Paper
10 Exchange Square, London: Information Technology for Collaboration, 2005
www.gsd.harvard.edu/people/faculty/pollalis/cases/BL-CaseStudy-mar-2005.pdf
Architecture Programs Implement Interdisciplinary Collaboration Studios to Capitalize on
the Emergence of Integrated Project Delivery
Link to White Paper
Autodesk Revit Architecture
Autodesk Revit Architecture 2011 User Assistance
docs.autodesk.com/REVIT/2011/ENU/landing.html
Autodesk Revit Architecture Services & Support Center
usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/ps/index?siteID=123112&id=2956546&linkID=9243099
Autodesk Revit Architecture 2011 Tutorials
usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/item?siteID=123112&id=14844953&linkID=9243097
BIM Curriculum Materials and Support
Autodesk BIM for Architecture, Engineering, and Construction Management 2011
Curriculum
students.autodesk.com/ama/orig/bim2010/start.htm
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BIM Curriculum Support and Discussion
http://www.bimtopia.com/bimcurriculum.html
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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Student Workbook
Unit 2: BIM Design Process
Lesson 1: Area and Space Planning
Lesson 1: Area and Space Planning
Lesson Overview
In this lesson, you explore how building modeling tools can be used to the process of area
and space planning, which is often one of the first steps in the preliminary design process.
Client requirements for a project are often described in area budgets that allocate square
footage targets to specific departments, programs, or functions. Designers typically use
these targets as a starting point for a top-down design approach, allocating specific
building areas to each of the budgets and tabulating the assignments to confirm that the
program needs are being met. This approach enables designers to make high-level
design decisions and assess their impact, long before the details of the individual rooms
are mapped out.
As preliminary design progresses, additional details are added to the building model and
the initial area allocations are typically divided into rooms with specific functions and
occupancies. As the design matures, area and space planning continues in parallel with
the design work to ensure that each iteration of the design continues to meets the client’s
needs and requirements.
You will follow this top-down approach to first allocate the total space available within a
project into areas allocated to different uses, and then subdivide these areas into rooms
with specific types to meet program needs.
Defining and Displaying Areas and Area Plans
An area is a subdivision of space within a project model. Areas are typically larger in scale
than individual rooms, and area boundaries may or may not coincide with model
elements, such as walls.
Area plans can help monitor if all of the necessary design objectives are being met during
the early conceptual and preliminary design phases, even before the room boundaries
and wall have been fixed. For example, designers often use area plans in the
programming phase of a project to allocate spaces to meet the budgeted space
requirements for each area type. Another common application is to use area plans to
show the relationship between the core and circulation spaces in a floor plan.
Area plans can be used to calculate the areas allocated to different program requirements
and needs using various calculation standards and methods. Some of the commonly used
standards for area calculations include:
Gross area: The overall area of a floor or footprint of the building.
Rentable area: Individual developers and leasing companies can use different standards
and rules for computing rentable areas. For example, rentable area can be defined to
include all the spaces in a building except egress corridors, vertical transportation, and
mechanical spaces.
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Usable area: The area in a plan that is actually usable by clients and tenants. Usable
area typically excludes areas taken up by columns, walls, mechanical rooms, and shafts
and other nonusable space.
BOMA area: The Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) has defined a set
of definitions and area calculation rules that is widely used in the United States by
architects, developers, and facilities managers to help standardize the process of officebuilding development. More information on the BOMA standards and calculation rules can
be found at www.boma.org.
Defining and Displaying Rooms and Room Plans
As design progresses, building elements are added to the model that define and bound
rooms. These elements typically include roofs, walls, floors, columns, and ceilings, and
each of these elements have a property that determines whether it is used to determine
the room extents. In open spaces, room separation lines can also be added to a model to
create virtual rooms.
Designers typically create room objects within these bounding elements, and these room
objects can be deleted, modified, and queried like other elements in Autodesk® Revit®
products. Rooms automatically compute and report their area and can optionally be set up
to also compute their volume. As with most other model elements, tags can be added to
rooms to display their properties (such as area or volume) in plan views. Rooms can also
appear in schedules to present key values and properties in a convenient tabular form.
While rooms are often used by designers for area and space planning, they are also used
to provide information needed by other design disciplines. For example, they can be used
for building performance analysis and design of mechanical systems. In this application,
mechanical engineers use the room-bounding information as a starting point for
determining spaces and zones for heating and cooling load analysis.
Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
Understand the importance of creating area plans that communicate how the
project design meets the programmed space requirements for each end-use.
•
Appreciate the value of using area schedules that calculate gross building total
and subtotals.
•
Appreciate how to create room layouts and schedules to a desired level of
detail.
•
Investigate the ways of adding custom parameters to room objects which are
then reported in the room schedules.
Suggested Exercises
Exercise 2.1.1: Defining and Displaying Areas and Area Plans
In this exercise, you will learn how to:
•
Create gross building type area plans with custom area type parameters and
color fills.
•
Generate area schedules with desired fields, formatting, sorting, and grouping.
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•
Display the area plans with legends and schedules on sheets.
Video Tutorial
Unit2_Lesson1_Tutorial1.mp4
Figure 2.1.1. Creating new gross building area plans
Student Exercise
Unit2_Lesson1_Exercise1_Start.rvt
•
•
Create a gross building area plan for Building 2 that divides the space among
five departments whose requirements are outlined below:
o Earth Systems: 4000 SF
(372 square meters)
o Civil Engineering: 6500 SF
(604 square meters)
o Architecture: 4500 SF
(418 square meters)
o Electrical Engineering: 3500 SF (325 square meters)
o Urban Studies: 2500 SF
(232 square meters)
Use the Building 2 Area Schedule, which is already created in the project file,
to verify that the program requirements are being met by your proposed area
plan.
Figure 2.1.2. Example area plan and schedule for Building 1
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Exercise 2.1.2: Defining and Displaying Rooms and Room Plans
In this exercise, you will learn how to:
•
Add room objects and defining new room object parameter types.
•
Generate and configure room schedules that group and tally across different
parameters.
•
Display the room plans and schedules on sheets for sharing.
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Video Tutorial
Unit2_Lesson1_Tutorial2.mp4
Figure 2.1.3. Adding room separation lines to
differentiate rooms unbounded by walls
Student Exercise
Unit2_Lesson1_Exercise2_Start.rvt
•
Add interior walls to Building 2 to divide the areas created in Exercise 2.2.1 into
the room types needed, including offices, classrooms, and conference rooms.
Use room separation lines to define room spaces not divided by walls.
•
Create room objects and number them sequentially. Then use the room
properties to assign their room types and department.
•
Generate two room schedules, one that groups by room type and the other by
department. Configure them with the proper fields, sort/group criteria, and
formatting rules. Also define the ceiling, floor, and wall finish types for each
room.
•
Duplicate the plan views at each level and crop the new views to show the
room layouts in Building 2 only. Then place these views and the room
schedules on D-size 24x36 (0.61 m x 0.91 m) sheets, similar to the example
shown in Figure 2.2.4.
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Figure 2.1.4. Example room layout with color fill legend and room schedule
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Assessment
Defining and Displaying Areas and Area Plans
•
Why are areas useful in early conceptual design?
•
For what purposes might clients or owners want an area schedule?
•
What is the essential difference between a gross building area plan and
rentable area plan?
Defining and Displaying Rooms and Room Plans
•
How can the room type allocations be used to generate a preliminary cost
estimate for the furnishings and interior finishes?
•
How might the occupancy field be used in preliminary design?
•
How are the wall, floor, and ceiling finish fields that appear in the room
schedule typically used?
Key Terms
The following key terms were used in this lesson:
Key Term
Definition
Area Plan
Views that show spatial relationships based on area schemes
and levels in your model. You can have multiple area plans
for every area scheme and level.
Schedule
A tabular display of information, extracted from the properties
of the elements in a project. A schedule can list every
instance of the type of element being scheduled, or it can
collapse multiple instances onto a single row, based on the
schedule’s grouping criteria.
Room
A defined space in a building, used for a specific purpose and
separated from other areas by walls, partitions, or room
separation lines.
Room-Bounding
Elements
A model element that defines a boundary of a room, such as
walls, partitions, floors, ceilings, and roofs.
.
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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Student Workbook
Unit 2: BIM Design Process
Lesson 2: Project Phases and Phased Design
Lesson 2: Project Phases and Phased
Design
Lesson Overview
Many projects, whether new construction or renovations, are designed and constructed in
distinct phases. These phases can represent either the time periods themselves or the
state of the project at specific points in time.
In this lesson, you explore two applications of project phases and phased design and will
learn how to:
•
Use project phases to organize the information in a building model based on
the project phases during which different portions will be constructed.
•
Use project phases to coordinate the elements in a renovation project and
display accurate views of the as-built conditions, demolition work, and
proposed new design.
By defining project phases and using phase-based filters to determine the information
presented in model views, the building model can be used to facilitate design and
visualization at each of the stages in the project lifecycle.
Modeling Phased Projects in Autodesk Revit
Phases are distinct, separate time periods or “milestones” within a project. Every project
includes at least one phase, and by default, Autodesk® Revit® software defines two
phases (named Existing and New Construction) in new projects. The project team can
rename these phases or add as many phases as needed to accurately describe the
project.
All elements in the building model have two properties that control the time periods during
which the element is considered to be present—Phase Created and Phase Demolished.
In project phases before the Phase Created or after the Phase Demolished, the element is
ignored and will not be displayed in model views.
The visibility of model elements in any view is determined by a combination of the Phase
property for that view and a Phase Filter that determines how elements will be displayed
based on their creation and demolition state relative to the current phase. Every element
is assigned a status relative to the phase of the current view:
•
New—If the element was created in the phase of the current view
•
Existing—If the element was created in an earlier phase and continues to exist
in the current phase
•
Demolished—If the element was created in an earlier phase and demolished in
the current phase
•
Temporary—If the element was created and demolished during the current
phase
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Phase filters control the appearance of elements based this phase-based status by
specifying how elements of each status should be displayed:
•
By Category―The display settings in Visibility and graphics for that view will be
used to display any objects in that Phase Status.
•
Not Displayed―Any object that is that Phase Status will not display in the view.
•
Overridden―Any object that is that Phase Status will use the Graphic override
that is set on the Graphic Overrides tab of the Phases dialog box.
This phase information and phase filters are commonly used to create phase-specific
views of the building model that present or hide the model elements in a way that is most
appropriate for that project phase. The following table illustrates one scheme for using
phases and phase filters to create views for specific project uses.
View
Phase
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 2
Phase Filter
Show Previous + New
Show Previous + New
Show Previous + Demo
Shows
Omits
Anything created before
Phase 1
Anything demolished in
Phase 1
Items created in Phase 1
Any temporary items created
and demolished in Phase 1
Anything created before
Phase 2
Anything demolished in
Phase 2
Items created in Phase 2
Any temporary items created
and demolished in Phase 2
Anything created before
Phase 2
Objects created in Phase 2
Views
showing
demolition
between
Phases 1
and 2
Anything created before
Phase 2
Views
showing new
elements
added in
Phase 2
Objects demolished in
Phase 2
Phase 2
Show New
Used for:
Only items created in
Phase 2
Phased New Construction
Many projects consisting of several buildings are designed and constructed using a
phased process that divides the work into manageable packages based on the planned
construction sequence. For these projects, it is often useful to assign the building model
elements to distinct phases so views can be filtered to show the elements relevant to a
specific phase.
By setting the phase property and phase filters for each model view and schedule, we can
control the appearance of building model information and create phase-specific project
documentation. This approach simplifies the management of complex building models and
assists in the preparation of construction documents by allowing designers to focus on a
single phase at a time.
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Views of
proposed
design at end
of Phase 1
Views of
proposed
design at end
of Phase 2
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Phased Renovations
Another common design situation in which project phasing can be useful is renovations or
retrofits of existing structures. Renovations are typically modeled using two phases:
•
Existing—which is used to model the existing as-built conditions
•
New Construction—which is used to model the proposed design
Demolition is typically not modeled as a separate phase. Rather, it is better practice to
indicate the building elements to be demolished by setting the Phase Demolished property
for these elements to the New Construction phase. Demolition plans can then be created
by using a phase filter to display and highlight the elements to be demolished.
An important consideration to keep in mind while modeling renovation projects is that
building elements can only be created or demolished between phases. When only a
portion of a building element should be demolished, it is often helpful to split that element
into individual parts, so that each segment can be treated separately.
Building elements created in prior phases should not be edited, stretched, reshaped, or
deleted because these operations will change their appearance in all phases. This
limitation mirrors the physical reality of how objects can change between phases—you
can typically create new objects and demolish existing ones, but physical elements
typically cannot be stretched to a new configuration.
Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
Appreciate the importance of deciding in early stages how many phases they
need, what to name them, and how to order them.
•
Appreciate the method of setting up individual views to show only the desired
phases and to generate temporal snapshots of the project.
•
Understand how to attribute phases properties―phase created and phase
demolished―to objects and to attribute phase and phase filters to views.
•
Explore how to model elements in the correct phase filtered view to correspond
with the phase you are editing or adding to.
•
Appreciate techniques of modeling that accurately represent, in practical
construction terms, how they change through the project.
Suggested Exercises
Exercise 2.2.1: Phased New Construction
In this exercise, you will learn how to:
•
Enable phases and define the necessary phases for a given project.
•
Set up phase-specific views with phase filters applied in order to accurately
represent the state of project at any given time.
•
Assign phase properties of model elements to properly represent when each
structure will be built relative to the others.
•
Adjust graphics overrides for phase filters to display as desired.
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Video Tutorial
Unit2_Lesson2_Tutorial1.mp4
Figure 2.2.1. Setting the phase filter to Show Previous +
New model elements
Student Exercise
Unit2_Lesson2_Exercise1_Start.rvt
•
Add another phase to the project and name it Phase 3.
•
Duplicate the existing views (plan views, elevations, and 3D views) of Phase 2
to create two sets of new views for Phase 3, setting the Phase and Phase Filter
properties to show these states:
•
•
o
Phase 3 Planning: Use the Previous + New phase filter to override
elements from previous phases and display them in gray.
o
Phase 3 Complete: Use the Show Complete phase filter to display
elements from all three phases by category.
Open the new Phase 3 views and place building elements (walls, doors,
windows, roofs, and so on) to construct the envelope of a third building in the
space indicated.
Open the views for the prior phases and verify that your new building elements
appear only in the views for Phase 3.
Figure 2.2.2. Adding a new phase to the project
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Exercise 2.2.2: Phased Renovations
In this exercise, you will learn how to:
•
Set up the phase-specific views in order to model construction for a renovation
or remodel.
•
Perform the demolition operations on model elements to make way for the
elements in the new construction.
•
Create model elements that have correctly defined phase parameters.
Video Tutorial
Unit2_Lesson2_Tutorial2.mp4
Figure 2.2.3. New elements placed in kitchen during
renovation phase
Student Exercise
Unit2_Lesson2_Exercise2_Start.rvt
•
Open the proposed plan view of the home remodel, and demolish the building
elements located in the bedroom wing of the residence.
•
Place elements (walls, doors, windows, roofs, and so on) in the project model
to illustrate a proposed design for the bedroom suite addition.
•
As you place new elements, be certain not to delete, stretch, or edit existing
building elements. To accurately model a renovation project, elements should
only be demolished or created.
•
Place the floor plan views and elevations showing each of the project states
(as built, demolition, and proposed) on D-size 24x36 (0.61 m x 0.91 m) sheets,
cropping and scaling the views as needed to fit on the sheets.
o
Place all of the four elevations on one sheet.
o
Place the floor plan on a separate sheet.
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Figure 2.2.4. Example of proposed design for bedroom suite renovation during second
project phase
Assessment
Phased New Construction
•
Would it be appropriate to create a separate phase named Demolition?
•
Why do room objects exist in a single phase and not span between phases?
•
Which settings determine whether an element will be displayed in a view in a
phased project?
Phased Renovations
•
How can you demolish a portion of an existing wall or building element?
•
What happens when a hosted object is demolished, such as a door or window?
•
How could you apply phases to schedules, which are essentially just another
model view?
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Key Terms
The following key terms were used in this lesson:
Key Term
Definition
Project Phase
A distinct time period in the life of the project.
Phase Filter
A phase filter is a rule that you apply to a view to control the
display of elements based on their phase status. Filters can
specify that elements be displayed by category, overridden,
or not shown.
Graphic Override
A rule that specifies how overridden elements be displayed
based on their phase status.
Phase Status
The status of each building element relative to the phase
specified for the current view. Each phase status typically has
a different display style associated with it to make it easy to
identify the phase status of the elements in a view.
Existing
The phase status assigned to elements that were created in
an earlier phase and continues to exist in the current phase.
Demolished
The phase status assigned to elements that were created in
an earlier phase and demolished in the current phase.
New
The phase status assigned to elements that were created in
the phase of the current view.
Temporary
The phase status assigned to elements that were created
and demolished during the current phase.
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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Student Workbook
Unit 2: BIM Design Process
Lesson 3: Design Options
Lesson 3: Design Options
Lesson Overview
In this lesson, you experience the process of identifying areas of a project where multiple
design options are being considered and a workflow for exploring, evaluating, and
presenting those options within a single integrated design model.
The suggested exercises present two examples of varying scales; they:
•
Consider options for the design of an entire building wing.
•
Compare alternatives for room layouts in a portion of a building.
Defining Option Sets and Options Within Each Set
Designers often explore many options and possible alternatives to particular design
problems in their quest for the best design solutions. For example, designers might
consider several options to:
•
Fit out and furnishing an interior space
•
Provide a landmark canopy over the entrance to a building
•
Articulate the balcony railings on a prominent building façade
A BIM-based design process enables designers to define key features or areas where
sets of design options will be considered and manage the proposed options in the context
of the overall design. Designers can define as many options sets as needed to evaluate
proposed design alternatives—there is no limit.
Rather than maintaining separate models for each of the proposed options, a single model
is used to coordinate the design of all options. The main building model includes all the
elements that are fixed—that is, not affected by the options being explored—and thus,
acts as a backdrop in which the design options can be evaluated. This single model
approach ensures consistency as the design progresses and continues to evolve.
Presenting and Comparing Design Options
Separate views are typically created that display each design option in the context of the
main model for presentation to the design team, clients, and other stakeholders in the
review process. These views can be presented individually or placed on a single sheet for
easy comparison.
One of the options in each design option set is assigned to be the primary option or
leading candidate among the options being considered. By default, the features of this
option are displayed in model views. To easily see and consider additional design options,
views can be duplicated and each view can be set to display a specific design option.
This ability to display the elements in specific design options extends to all model views
including schedules. This powerful feature enables design options to be fully evaluated in
both graphical and tabular views. For example, one wall schedule can tabulate data for
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AUTODESK CURRICULUM
the primary option and another wall schedule can present the revised data for a
secondary option.
After the design options have been considered and the preferred option has been
selected, that option can be accepted as the primary design solution and moved back into
the main model. When a design option is accepted, elements in the other design options
are removed from the building model to reduce the file size and improve model efficiency.
This approach is recommended if you have made a definite design decision and intend to
move forward with that decision. Keeping unused and out-of-date options in the project
needlessly inflates the file size and adds unwanted complexity.
Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
Explore how to define new design option sets and experiment with design.
alternatives
•
Appreciate how to present each design option in separate views.
•
Understand how to choose a design option as the final solution and discard the
other alternatives.
Suggested Exercises
Exercise 2.3.1: Using Option Sets to Compare Building Envelope
Design Alternatives
In this exercise, you will learn how to:
•
Define option sets for the major design decisions and design options within
each set.
•
Copy model elements into design options.
•
Experiment with design variations, by adding, deleting, or modifying the
elements in each design option.
Video Tutorial
Unit2_Lesson3_Tutorial1.mp4
Figure 2.3.1. Defining an option set and placing model
elements into play
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Student Exercise
Unit2_Lesson3_Exercise1_Start.rvt
•
Create two new design options in the Auditorium option set to explore
alternative designs for the auditorium space and building envelope.
•
Use these design options to illustrate two new proposed designs for the
auditorium that vary key features of the building envelope, for example:
•
o
Wall layout and materials
o
Window placement and glazing options
o
Roof design and materials
Create floor plan and 3D views showing each of the proposed design options
for the auditorium, and place them on sheets.
Figure 2.3.2. 3D view showing Option 2 for the auditorium
Exercise 2.3.2: Using Option Sets to Compare Interior and Room
Design Alternatives
In this exercise, you learn how to:
•
Define option sets for the interior design alternatives and creating design
options within each set.
•
Experiment with interior design variations, by adding, deleting, or modifying the
elements in each design option.
•
Accept a chosen design option and discarding the remaining options.
Video Tutorial
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Unit2_Lesson3_Tutorial2.mp4
Figure 2.3.3. Changing interior furniture layouts for
Option 2
Exercise
Unit2_Lesson3_Exercise2_Start.rvt
•
Create a new option set for the north end of Building 3 and three design
options in it.
•
Add the currently defined interior wall elements and all furniture in this area to
the set and choose only design Option 1.
•
Switch the plan view to show Design Option 2 and create a new layout that
illustrates the use of this area as a computer-training center with workstations
and desks.
•
Switch the plan view to show Design Option 3 and create another layout that
proposes a design for a new student lounge in this area.
•
Duplicate the plan view to create three views and set the visibility/graphic
overrides to show each of the design options in a separate view.
•
Crop and scale the plan views to highlight the option set area. Place those
views on sheets.
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Figure 2.3.4. Interior model elements added to Option 1 of Interior Fit out Option Set
Assessment
Using Option Sets to Compare Building Envelope Design Alternatives
•
What building features would typically be changed as building envelope
alternatives are explored?
•
How are elements that have been added to the options sets different from the
main model?
•
How is the primary option different from the other design options?
Using Option Sets to Compare Interior and Room Design Alternatives
•
Can hosted elements (for example, windows and doors) be added to a design
option?
•
When design options are used, which elements appear in room, door, and
window schedules?
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Key Terms
The following key terms were used in this lesson:
Key Term
Definition
Option Set
A collection of design alternatives that focus on a particular
aspect or feature of the design.
Design Option
An alternative design solution for a specific feature or
problem. Design options are grouped into option sets.
Active Option
The design option that you are currently editing. Elements in
other options are hidden from view.
Primary Option
The currently selected default design option, which is
displayed in views by default (where a specific option has not
been specified).
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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Student Workbook
Unit 2: BIM Design Process
Lesson 4: Detailed Design/Construction Documents
Lesson 4: Detailed Design/
Construction Documents
Lesson Overview
Creating detailed construction documents marks the beginning of the conversion of a
proposed design into a constructible project. No drawing set is complete without
descriptions of the materials and the assembly details, which is why adding annotations,
linework, and detail components is a crucial phase of the complete BIM workflow.
The process of detailing is often used to present:
•
•
•
Project information not captured in the building model.
Information that goes beyond the level of detail represented in the building
model.
Revisions or corrections needed to clean up the display of model elements.
The following annotation categories are often added to model views to transform them into
fully functional construction: dimensions, detailing (detail lines, regions, components,
revision cloud, and detail group), text, element and view tags, and symbols. Annotations
and drafting detail are view-specific and do affect the underlying building model.
Here we will.
In this lesson, you explore the progressive layering of detail describing the construction of
a single wall and its features by creating a building section, drilling down to a wall section,
and creating details to illustrate the key connections between the wall and other building
elements.
Creating Annotated Section Views
The detailing process often begins by creating section views of the entire building and
specific wall assemblies.
Building sections often serve as road maps that point the way to related wall sections and
connection details. Wall sections typically display the detailed layers in a wall assembly
and how they connect to other building elements.
Since these section views are automatically updated when changes are made to model
elements, internal consistency of the model views is ensured. The BIM methodology can
save a great deal of time otherwise spent cross-referencing changes and looking for
consistency errors that are typical in paper-based workflows.
Creating Details and Callouts
Detail views are typically added to a set of construction documents to present information
at a larger scale or a finer level of detail needed to accurately understand specific
elements and connections between elements. Although detailing can be a tedious
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process, it is an essential step in converting designs into realizable construction
documents.
Details bridge the gap between design and construction, conveying crucial information to
the builders and contractors about how a design should be built. While it would be
unrealistic to try to model every single construction detail in 3D, details enable design
professionals to quickly convey practical assembly information in an easily shared 2D
form.
Using Autodesk® Revit® software, details can be created in two ways:
•
Detailed Model Views display the actual building model geometry at a larger
scale. Detailed model views are created by adding callouts or section cuts to
other views.
•
Drafting Views can be generated from scratch, independent of the building
model, or by importing an image or CAD detail as a starting point.
It is common practice to incorporate details from product manufacturers or even standard
details from an office library in the project drawings. Drafting views provide a convenient
vehicle for including this model independent information into the project.
References to details can be placed on larger-scale views using view tags, such as callout
tags or section tags. These callouts and section tags provide markers that lead to the
detail views and increase the coherence and usability of the document sets by pointing
users from one view to other related views. Therefore, we should plan our use of views
and callout or section tags to provide a logical sequence moving from large-scale view to
greater levels of detail.
View Tags
View tags (such as elevation tags, section tags, and callout tags) provide pointers to
related views in two ways:
Double-clicking a view tag opens the referenced view in a manner similar to a
hyperlink.
Information about where a view has been placed on sheets is displayed in the
view tag. The tag shows both the sheet number and the view number relative to
that sheet.
•
•
View tags are dynamically updated to show the proper sheet number and view number as
views are placed or moved between sheets. This real-time coordination prevents errors in
cross-referencing, thus creating more reliable documents and saving costly rework.
Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
Explore the many ways we add detail and annotation to our views.
•
Appreciate what level of detail is appropriate and how to create duplicate
versions of views with varying level of details for different audiences.
•
Understand how to place the views onto sheets, to modify their appearance or
scale, and to enhance by adding schedules.
•
Investigate the automated cross-referencing that occurs between sheets and
views.
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Suggested Exercises
Exercise 2.4.1: Creating Annotated Section Views
In this exercise, you will learn how to:
•
Create building sections showing an overview of the interaction between
building elements.
•
Use a building section as a map referencing more detailed views.
•
Create wall sections to display typical wall assemblies and connections.
Video Tutorial
Unit2_Lesson4_Tutorial1.mp4
Figure 2.4.1. Adding detailing to views is critical in
preparation of construction documents
Student Exercise
Unit2_Lesson4_Exercise1_Start.rvt
•
Create a building section to show the interaction of building elements along
grid C. Display this section at 1/4" (1:48) scale and with a medium level of
detail as illustrated in Figure 2.4.2a.
•
Create a wall section for the south wall at grid C to show the wall assemblies
and connection details. Crop this view to focus on this individual wall and its
connection to floor, roof, and foundation elements. Display this section at 1/2"
(1:24) scale and with a fine level of detail.
•
Add annotations to the wall section to explain the wall construction and
connection features, including text, tags, and detail components as illustrated
in Figure 2.4.2b.
•
Place the building section and wall section views on a D-size sheet.
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Figure 2.4.2a. Example of building section showing annotations and wall section callout
Figure 2.4.2b. Example of wall section showing annotations and detail components
Exercise 2.4.2: Creating Details and Callouts
In this exercise, you will learn how to:
•
Use callouts to create detailed model views and adding annotations to these
views.
•
Create drafting views to illustrate standard details and present views
independent of the model.
•
Use callouts to reference drafting views.
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•
Understand how the information presented a view tag is updated as views are
placed on sheets.
Video Tutorial
Unit2_Lesson4_Tutorial2.mp4
Figure 2.4.3. Calling out a detail for a wall-to-slab
connection
Student Exercise
Unit2_Lesson4_Exercise2_Start.rvt
Manufacturer_Window_Head_Detail.dwg
•
•
Create a callout showing a detailed model view of the area at the center of the
wall section created in Exercise 2.4.1 focusing on the wall-to-second floor
connection.
o
Set the view type to Detail.
o
Set the view scale to 1 ½” = 1’-0” (1:8).
Add detail components, adjust the filled regions, and add text notes explaining
the essential framing elements and building details:
o
Use Nominal Cut Lumber-Section:6x12 (0.14 m x 0.29 m) for the
rim beam.
o
Use Nominal Cut Lumber-Section:2x6 (0.04 m x 0.14 m) for the
bottom plate of the second floor wall, and two of this component for
the double top plate of the first floor walls.
o
Use Wood I Joist-Section:2 5/16x11 7/8 (0.06 m x 0.30 m) for the
floor joists.
o
Adjust the cut profile for gypsum wall board layer of the wall elements
on first and second floors as shown to eliminate the overlap with the
intersecting floor element. Also adjust the cut profile of the finish layer
of the floor assembly to remove the overlap with the wall framing
layers.
o
Add a detail component representing the molding at the base of the
wall. Use Base Molding-Section and choose the 3/4”x 4” (0.02 m x
0.10 m) type.
o
Add 5 ½” (0.14 m) thick insulation to the upper and lower walls.
o
Add text notes notes as shown in Figure 2.4.4.
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Figure 2.4.4. Example of callout view showing wall-to-floor connection details
•
Create a new drafting view for a standard detail of a typical window header.
o
Name this view Window Header - Typical.
o
Set the view scale to 3” = 1’-0” (1:4).
•
Import a CAD file (Manufacturer_Window_Head_Detail.dwg) containing the
manufacturer’s standard window header detail. The file is located in the same
folder as the exercise file.
•
Add filled regions, detail compoments, and annotations to develop the full detail
as shown in Figure 2.4.5.
o
o
Create filled regions representing the layers of the wall assembly:

1/2 inch (13 mm) gypsum wall board

5 1/2 inch (140 mm) stud framing

1/2 inch (13 mm) plywood

7/8 inch (22 mm) stucco
Add detail components:

Use Nominal Cut Lumber-Section:6x8 (0.14 m x 0.19 m)
for the typical window header.

Use Common Wood Nails Side:10 penny for the nails at
the window flange.
o
Add a fill region to represent caulking between the window and the
gypsum wall board.
o
Edit the fill region for the gypsum wall board to wrap around the
header component and into window opening to meet caulking.
•
Add text notes similar to those shown in Figure 2.4.5.
•
Add Break Line components at top and bottom of the detail.
•
Place on sheet S3 – Wall Details.
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•
Add a callout to the Wall Section A view to reference the new drafting view.
Enable the Reference other view option, and choose Drafting View: Window
Header – Typical from the list.
•
Place both of these details on a Sheet S3 – Wall Details and observe how the
view tags update with the sheet and view numbers referencing the placement
location.
Figure 2.4.5. Example of drafting view showing typical window header details
Assessment
Creating Annotated Section Views
•
What is the essential difference between annotations and model elements?
•
Are annotations in a view static or dynamic?
•
Can we annotate views dedicated to specific design options or phases?
•
How can annotations placed in a specific view be reused in other similar
views?
Creating Details and Callouts
•
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using drafting views versus
detailed model views?
•
If a view tag does not show a view and sheet number, what does this indicate?
•
Can a view be referenced by more than one callout?
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Key Terms
The following key terms were used in this lesson:
Key Term
Definition
Construction Documents
Documents that communicate all of the building information
and construction details required to construct the design.
Detailing
The process of adding layers of information to a project to
clearly explain how the proposed design should be
constructed.
Annotations
View-specific elements (such as symbols, tags, keynotes,
and dimensions) used to add information to the views and
describe the elements displayed.
Callouts (Callout Mark)
Tags referencing related views in a project.
Section Views
Views that cut vertically through the model and are
particularly handy for wall and building sections.
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37
Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Student Workbook
Unit 2: BIM Design Process
Lesson 5: Detailed Design/Schedules and Quantities
Lesson 5: Detailed Design/Schedules
and Quantities
Lesson Overview
In this lesson, you explore ways to create tabular views called schedules and summarize
information about the building elements through groupings, sorting, and calculating
values.
One of the key benefits of the BIM workflow is the ability to manage not only the drawings,
but also the tabular information in the project database. With BIM, users can dynamically
generate and update schedules of building elements to support many purposes, including
to:
•
Improve the visibility and predictability of costs and material quantities.
•
Facilitate construction management tasks, such as cost estimating and
procurement.
•
Summarize building performance and LEED certification data.
Since the information flow in Autodesk® Revit® products is bidirectional, the data from
changes in the model flows automatically into the schedule, and changes in the schedule
automatically flow back into the model. The model data can be edited through our
schedules, and this technique should be used when it is easier or more efficient than
doing so selecting and changing elements in graphical model views.
Creating and Presenting Models through Schedules
A schedule presents a tabular view of the project data, which can be filtered, grouped, and
formatted to fit your needs. Schedules can list every instance of the building elements or
collapse multiple instances into single rows, based on the schedule’s grouping criteria.
Since Revit software products create a database of the elements, building a schedule is
similar to creating a database query.
Schedules should be formatted to meet the needs of the end-user, whether they are
engineers, designers, clients, or code officials. Schedules are often placed on sheets
either alone or accompanied by the corresponding model view. Finally, schedules can be
exported to many formats, including delimited text files compatible with spreadsheet
software and database formats.
Enhancing and Adding Information to Schedules
By adding information, or “intelligence,” to schedules, we optimize the workflow and
maximize the utility of the building model. In this way, enhanced schedules can be the
basis of analysis for many goals of project.
Since model elements store all information about their physical properties, we can add
information fields or parameters to model element type―for example, type mark, size,
material, fire rating, and any other custom data fields we need. These parameters can be
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either user entered, such as text fields, or calculated values that depend on other
parameters.
Adding calculated values to schedules helps avoid errors and unnecessary time spent
performing manual calculations. A simple example of a calculated value formula would be
a width parameter set to equal twice the height of an object. In practice, formulas can be
used in many ways, both simple and sophisticated. For example, formulas can be used to:
•
•
•
•
•
Calculate area or volume of geometry.
Create a clearance dimension parameter controlled by element size.
Convert continuously variable values into integer values.
Add shelves as the height of casework increases.
Add diagonals in an open web joist as the length increases.
Formula Guidelines
Formulas support the following arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, exponentiation, logarithms, and square roots. Formulas also support the following
trigonometric functions: sine, cosine, tangent, arcsine, arccosine, and arctangent.
The valid formula abbreviations for arithmetic operations and trigonometric functions are:
Addition: +
Division: /
Square root:
sqrt: sqrt(16)
Tangent: tan
Arccosine:
acos
Subtraction: ─
Exponentiation:
^: x^y, x raised
to the power of y
Sine: sin
Arcsine: asin
e raised to
an x power:
exp
Multiplication: *
Logarithm: log
Cosine: cos
Arctangent:
atan
Absolute
Value: abs
You can enter integers, decimals, and fractional values in formulas, using normal
mathematical syntax, as shown in the examples below:
Length = Height + Width + sqrt(Height*Width)
Length = Wall 1 (11000mm) + Wall 2 (15000mm)
Area = Length (500mm) * Width (300mm)
Volume = Length (500mm) * Width (300mm) * Height (800 mm)
Width = 100m * cos(angle)
x = 2*abs(a) + abs(b/2)
ArrayNum = Length/Spacing
Lastly, we can even introduce conditional statements to our schedules. A conditional
statement uses the following structure: IF (<condition>, <result-if-true>, <result-if-false>).
And it means that the values entered for the parameter depends on whether the condition
is satisfied (true) or not satisfied (false).
Conditional statements can contain numeric values, numeric parameter names, and
Yes/No parameters. You can use the following comparisons in a condition: <, >, =. You
can also use Boolean operators with a conditional statement: AND, OR, NOT. Currently,
<= and >= are not implemented. To express such a comparison, we can use a logical
NOT. For example, a<=b can be entered as NOT(a>b).
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AUTODESK CURRICULUM
The following are sample formulas that use conditional statements.
Simple IF: =IF (Length < 3000mm, 200mm, 300mm)
IF with a text parameter: =IF (Length > 35', “String1”, “String2”)
IF with logical AND: =IF ( AND (x = 1 , y = 2), 8 , 3 )
IF with logical OR: =IF ( OR ( A = 1 , B = 3 ) , 8 , 3 )
Embedded IF statements: = IF ( Length < 35' , 2' 6" , IF ( Length < 45' , 3' , IF (
Length < 55' , 5' , 8' ) ) )
IF with Yes/No condition: = Length > 40 (Note that both the condition and the results
are implied.)
Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
Explore the application of schedule configuration rules to create schedules to
meet various audiences and information needs.
•
Understand how to use the completed schedule to edit the model through
BIM’s bidirectional information flow.
•
Appreciate the value of adding custom information to model elements, thus
making our model “smarter,” in ways that can enable schedules to host and be
the basis for useful engineering calculations.
•
Explore various modes of exporting the schedules to be shared and used by
other team members.
Suggested Exercises
Exercise 2.5.1: Creating and Presenting Model Schedules
In this exercise, you will learn how to:
•
Create schedules of model elements such as doors, windows, roofs, walls,
curtain walls, furniture objects, and so on.
•
Configure schedules by changing their fields, sorting logic, grouping, and
format.
•
Place schedules into printable sheets either alone or with appropriate graphical
displays.
•
Export the schedules in common formats, such as delimited text files, which
can be used in Microsoft® Excel®.
Video Tutorial
Unit2_Lesson5_Tutorial1.mp4
Figure 2.5.1. Adding fields to a door schedule
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Student Exercise
Unit2_Lesson5_Exercise1_Start.rvt
•
Create a schedule of the floor elements that includes the following fields: level,
family, type, and area.
•
Sort and group the schedule rows first by level and then by type. Configure the
grouping and sorting to display subtotals for each level and for each type within
a level. In addition, display a grand total at the bottom of the schedule.
•
Format the schedule to calculate totals for the area field.
•
Export the schedule as a delimited text file and import it into Microsoft Excel or
another spreadsheet program.
Figure 2.5.2.Floor schedule grouped and sorted by level and type with area subtotals
Exercise 2.5.2: Enhancing and Adding Information to Schedules
In this exercise, you learn how to:
•
Add parameters to building elements to capture additional design information
needed for analysis.
•
Define new parameters as calculated values.
•
Use formulas to compute values based on other parameters.
Video Tutorial
Unit2_Lesson5_Tutorial2.mp4
Figure 2.5.3. Entering information into the new window
parameter
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Student Exercise
Unit2_Lesson5_Exercise2_Start.rvt
•
Open the Curtain Wall Panel Schedule and add two new parameters:
o
Orientation: A text field describing the compass orientation of the
panel, similar to the field added in the video tutorial.
o
Glazing Area: A calculated value showing the exposed glazing area
for each panel. For this calculation, assume the exposed glazing area
is 95 percent of the panel area.
•
Open the Exterior Curtain Panels view and assign the orientation to each panel
by filling in values for the new orientation property.
•
Filter the schedule to only show exterior curtain wall panels, which all have a
type mark of A.
•
Group the schedule rows by the orientation field and display subtotals for each
orientation as well as a grand total for the entire schedule.
•
Format the schedule to calculate totals for the Glazing Area field.
•
Export the schedule as a delimited text file and import it into Microsoft Excel or
another spreadsheet program.
Figure 2.5.4. Curtain Wall Panel Schedule grouped by orientation
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Assessment
Creating and Presenting Model Schedules
•
Can you change an element’s model category or type from within a schedule?
•
Is the schedule a frozen snapshot of a particular stage in the design process or
does it dynamically update as the model changes?
•
Can you use schedule views to find or delete elements?
Enhancing and Adding Information to Schedules
•
Can schedules be copied or transferred between projects?
•
Give examples of calculated values that would be useful for different
participants on the project team.
•
Can schedules be used to automatically create a complete material take-off?
Key Terms
The following key terms were used in this lesson:
Key Term
Definition
Schedule
A live view of project elements within the model that can be
used to enumerate items, including building objects (walls,
doors, windows, and so forth); calculate material quantities or
areas and volumes; or list project sheets, text notes,
keynotes, and so on.
Tag
A text label for elements such as doors, walls, windows, that
displays information about that element in a view. Tags are
typically used to provide a reference between objects in a
view and a row in a schedule of the building elements.
Parameter
A data value that describes a property of a building element.
Parameters are also commonly called fields.
Calculated Value
A parameter whose value is calculated based on a formula
that relates other parameters of the same element.
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