Genetics Review

SBI3U Genetics Review
Test: Total = 65 marks
15 MC
5 def'n
35 SA (20 are crosses/ pedigrees)
10 transcription/translation
Ch4, p112-135
Ch5, p140-163
Ch24, p608-624
Ch25, p628-638
Cell Division
-be able to compare and contrast mitosis (p116) and meiosis (p124)
-know the stages of each (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase)
-be able to trace chromosomes or genes through the processes
-know roles of interphase, cytokinesis
-know role of meiosis (spermatogenesis, oogenesis) in creating diversity
-be able to relate to humans (46 csomes, X and Y csomes)
-be familiar with the related terms in ch4 (eg. spermatogenesis, homologous
chromosomes, centriole, spindle fibres, haploid, crossing over, etc)
-be able to relate cell division to cloning, identical twins, cell aging, transplants,
genetic disorders (p119-124)
-know the meaning of non-disjunction, when and where it can occur, and its
effects, such as monosomy, trisomy, disorders when it occurs in meiosis
-know some genetic disorders such as Klinefelter's, Down's, Turner's (p128)
-be able to use and read karyotypes, and explain their purpose (p128)
Mendel's Genetics
-be able to relate genetic diversity to the process of meiosis, crossing over
-know Mendel's three laws and be able to apply them to genetic crosses
-know the related terms (eg. dominant, gene, trait, phenotype, homozygous, allele,
codominant, hybrids, etc) (ch5- bold terms)
-be able to solve genetic problems using Punnet squares
-monohybrid crosses -one gene (p145)
-test crosses - double recessive parent (p147)
-multiple alleles- eg ABO blood types (p147)
-incomplete or co-dominance (p148)
-dihybrid crosses (two genes at a time- p153)
-gene interactions -one gene influences expression of other (p157)
-sex-linked traits -genes on X csome eg colour blindness (p163)
-be able to make or read pedigrees, and use them to solve genetic problems(p176)
DNA: Structure and Function
-be able to describe the structure of DNA (double helix, nitrogen bases: A,C,T,G,
sugar-phosphate backbone) (p614)
-know that DNA is the genetic code or sequence that provides instructions on how
to build proteins.
-proteins are long chains of amino acids that perform specific tasks for the
cell or organism; they are often enzymes or structural proteins
-explain the process of DNA replication, and its purpose and necessity (p617)
-makes 2 copies of DNA from one double stranded molecule, for division
-nitrogen bases match up in pairs, DNA polymerase makes the backbone
-understand that DNA can be tightly packaged for protection during cell division,
or loosely arranged for protein synthesis
-describe the process of protein synthesis (two parts) (p632-634)
-transcription - makes mRNA (to ribosomes) from DNA (in nucleus)
-translation- makes the protein from the mRNA code
-know roles of codons, anti-codons, tRNA, ribosomes, uracil, mRNA,
amino acids, start and stop codons
-be able to give the sequence of amino acids in a protein, given the DNA
Genetic Technologies
-be able to briefly describe the technology and its use / purpose
-cloning (p 119)
-in-vitro fertilization, surrogate mothers (p134-5)
-amniocentesis, ultrasound, chorionic villi sampling, X-rays (p131)
Practice Questions:
P172#2-4,6,8-10; #1,2
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