Surgical Terms

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Surgical Terms
A list of common surgical terms, including the meaning and origin of prefixes and suffixes.
PREFIXES
CircumContraCystEndoInfraInterIntraIntroLaparoLateroLithoMediOligoPathPerPeriPostPreProPseudoRetroSubSupra-
Around
Against
Bag, bladder
In, within, inside (Greek endo)
Beneath
Between, among (Latin inter, ‘between, among’)
Within or inside (Latin intra)
Into or inward (Latin intro)
Abdomen, loin
Side
Stone or callculus (Greek lithos, ‘stone’)
Middle
Few
Disease
Going through a structure
Around (Greek peri)
After
Before
Before
False, spurious (Greek pseud ‘to lie’)
Backward
Under, below, beneath (Latin sub, ‘under’)
Over, on top of (Latin supra, ‘above, beyond’)
SUFFIXES
-aesthesia, esthesia
-algia
-cele
-cide
-coel(e)
-cyst
Sensation
Pain (Greek algos, ‘pain’)
Tumor, cyst, hernia
Causing death
A cavity (Greek koilos, ‘hollow’) e.g. hydrocoele
A fluid filled sac
-creas
-dynia
Flesh (Greek kreas, ‘flesh’) e.g. pancreas
Pain
-ectomy
Surgical excision of a part of the body (Latin -ectomia, ‘cutting out’) e.g.
tonsillectomy – excision of the tonsils
Inflammation (Greek) e.g. appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix)
Condition, pathological state
Set free, disintegrate
Anormal enlargement (Greek megal-) e.g. splenomegaly
Something that has a particular form, shape, or structure (Greek morphe) e.g.
pleomorphic
-itis
-lasis
-lysis
-megaly
-morphic
-oid
-oma
-osis
-oscopy
-ostomy
-ostosis
-otomy
Shape, resemblance
A tumour (Latin) e.g. hepatoma – a tumour of the liver
Abnormal condition, process (Greek)
Inspection of a cavity
A connection between two hollow organs e.g. cholecystoduodenostomy – an
anastomosis between the gall bladder and the duodenum
Formation of bone (Greek osteon, ‘bone’)
To cut into a part of the body (Latin -tomia, ‘cutting’) e.g. laparotomy – an
incision into the peritoneum
-pathy
-plasia
-plasty
Disorder or disease (Greek pathos)
Growth or formation (Greek plassein, ‘to form, mould’)
Surgical revision e.g. pyloroplasty (Greek plastos, ‘refashion’)
-rhage
-rhaphy
-rrhoea
-sclerosis
-scopy
-stomosis
Flow
Suturing
Flow, discharge (Greek rhein, ‘to flow’)
Dryness, hardness
To see
To create an outlet
-tomy
Cutting
Surgical Terms
A list of common surgical terms, including the meaning and origin of prefixes and suffixes.
PREFIXES
A-/AnAbAdAnteAntiApoAutoCholeCircumContraCystDiaDisDysEct-,
EuEndoEpiEx, exoInfraInterIntraIntroIsoJuxtraLaparoLateroLithoOligoOrthoOxyPachyPathPerPeriPostPre-
not, without, less, absent: also, in a particular place or condition
(Old English, from an, an alternative for on)
Away from, off (Indo-European ‘off, away’)
To, toward (Latin ad, ‘toward, near’)
Before
Against, opposite (Greek anti, ‘opposite, against’)
From, opposed
Self
To do with bile
Around
Against
Bag, bladder
Through, across (Greek dia)
Apart, absence of
Bad or abnormal (Greek dus-)
External, outside (Greek ektos ‘out’)
Normal
In, within, inside (Greek endo)
On, over, above (Greek epi, ‘upon’)
Out
Beneath
Between, among (Latin inter, ‘between, among’)
Within or inside (Latin intra)
Into or inward (Latin intro)
Equal
Near
Abdomen, loin
Side
Stone or callculus (Greek lithos, ‘stone’)
Few
Correct; straight (Greek orthos, ‘straight, right’)
Sharp
Thick
Disease
Going through a structure
Around (Greek peri)
After
Before
Before
ProPseudo- False, spurious (Greek pseud ‘to lie’)
Salpingo- Fallopian tube
Under, below, beneath (Latin sub, ‘under’)
SubSupra- Over, on top of (Latin supra, ‘above, beyond’)
With, together
SynTrans- Going across a structure (Latin trans, ‘across, over, through’)
SUFFIXES
-aesthesia, - Sensation
esthesia
Substance promoting a flow of something (Greek agogos, ‘a
-agogue
drawing off’)
Tumor, cyst, hernia
-cele
A cavity (Greek koilos, ‘hollow’) e.g. hydrocoele
-coel(e)
A fluid filled sac
-cyst
Flesh (Greek kreas, ‘flesh’) e.g. pancreas
-creas
Pain
-dynia
Dilatation of ducts
-ectasia
Surgical excision of a part of the body (Latin -ectomia,
-ectomy
‘cutting out’) e.g. tonsillectomy – excision of the tonsils
An imaging technique using contrast medium
-gram
Inflammation (Greek) e.g. appendicitis (inflammation of the
-itis
appendix)
Condition, pathological state
-lasis
Set free, disintegrate
-lysis
Anormal enlargement (Greek megal-) e.g. splenomegaly
-megaly
Something that has a particular form, shape, or structure
-morphic
(Greek morphe) e.g. pleomorphic
Shape, resemblance
-oid
A tumour (Latin) e.g. hepatoma – a tumour of the liver
-oma
Abnormal condition, process (Greek)
-osis
Inspection of a cavity
-oscopy
A connection between two hollow organs e.g.
-ostomy
cholecystoduodenostomy – an anastomosis between the gall
bladder and the duodenum
Formation of bone (Greek osteon, ‘bone’)
-ostosis
To cut into a part of the body (Latin -tomia, ‘cutting’) e.g.
-otomy
laparotomy – an incision into the peritoneum
Lack
-penia
-pathy
-plasia
-plasty
-rhaphy
-rrhoea
-sclerosis
-scopy
-stomosis
-tomy
Disorder or disease (Greek pathos)
Growth or formation (Greek plassein, ‘to form, mould’)
Surgical revision e.g. pyloroplasty (Greek plastos, ‘refashion’)
Suturing
Flow, discharge (Greek rhein, ‘to flow’)
Dryness, hardness
To see
To create an outlet
Cutting
TERMS
The insertion of a cannula or tube into a hollow body organ
The abnormal protrusion of the contents of a cavity beyond
the normal confines of that cavity
Intestinal obstruction
Ileus
Infarct: localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the
Infarction
blood supply
Intussusception The enfolding of one segment of the intestine within
another
An area of raised pink or red fibrous scar tissue at the edges
Keloid
of a wound or incision (Greek khele, ‘crab claw’)
Laparoscopy Laparotomy performed with a laparoscope that makes a
small incision to examine the abdominal cavity
Nephrectomy Surgical removal of a kidney
Closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel)
Occlusion
Pertaining to the omentum (a fold of peritoneum supporting
Omental
the viscera)
The developmental process of bone formation
Ossification
Of or relating to or affecting the peritoneum
Peritoneal
Going a reverse direction against flow e.g. endoscopic
Retrograde
retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP)
An artificial tube inserted into a tubular organ to keep it
Stent
open
Surgical opening: an artificial opening made in an organ,
Stoma
especially an opening in the colon (colostomy) or ileum
(ileostomy) made via the abdomen. (Greek, ‘mouth’). Plural
stomata
The fine thread or other material used surgically to close a
Suture
wound or join tissues; an immovable joint (especially
between the bones of the skull)
Cannulation
Hernia
Thrombus
Tomography
A blood clot that forms in a blood vessel and remains at the
site of formation (Greek thrombos, ‘clot’)
Obtaining pictures of the interior of the body
TERMS
A collection of pus in a body cavity
Empyema
Endarterectomy Surgical removal of the inner lining of an artery that is
clogged with atherosclerosis
A pipe or tube (Latin), plural fistulae. An abnormal
communication between two hollow viscera, or one hollow
viscera and the skin. It is conventional to name the
diseased viscus first i.e. colovesical fistula due to
diverticula disease; whereas, vesicocolic fistula from a
bladder cancer.
Fundoplication A surgical procedure involving making tucks in the fundus
of the stomach around the lower end of the oesophagus
Fistula
Gangrene
Keloid
Laparoscopy
Metastasis
Nephrectomy
Retrograde
Stent
Stoma
Death of tissue with putrefaction, sometimes referred to as
‘wet’ gangrene (Greek gaggraina, ‘death of tissue). C.f.
necrosis, mummification
An area of raised pink or red fibrous scar tissue at the
edges of a wound or incision (Greek khele, ‘crab claw’)
Laparotomy performed with a laparoscope that makes a
small incision to examine the abdominal cavity
The spreading of a disease (especially cancer) to another
part of the body
Surgical removal of a kidney
Going a reverse direction against flow e.g. endoscopic
retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP)
An artificial tube inserted into a tubular organ to keep it
open
Surgical opening: an artificial opening made in an organ,
especially an opening in the colon (colostomy) or ileum
(ileostomy) made via the abdomen. (Greek, ‘mouth’).
Plural stomata
Suture
The fine thread or other material used surgically to close a
wound or join tissues; an immovable joint (especially
between the bones of the skull)
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