terms for iv, blood

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Blood
Allogenic
Referring to blood from a donor
Anaplylaxis
An immediate life threatening allergic response
Antibody
Type of protein the immune system produces to neutralize a threat of some kind, such
as an infecting organism, a chemical, or some other foreign body
Antigen
Any substance capable, under appropriate conditions, of inducing a specific immune
response and of triggering of an antibody specific to that substance
Apheresis
A process that separates donor blood into its components, removes the needed plasma
or cellular elements, and returns the remainder to the donor
Autologous
Originating within an organism itself; applied to blood transfusion, referring to the
person's own blood
Autoimmunization
Process by which hypersensitivity to self develops. Includes genetic factors, antigenic
mimicry, The cells recognize self as foreign, mutations, viral components, sympathetic
nervous system
Blood Component
Any portion of a unit of blood that can be transfused to meet a patient's specific needs
Blood Group
Any of the classifications based on the antigens that are found on RBC's
Blood Product
Whole blood or any portion of a unit of blood that can be transferred to meet a patient's
specific needs
Compatability
The absence of demonstrable immunologic reactivaty between a recipient's serum or
plasma and the donor's cells; the lack of a transfusion reaction between donor and
recipient
Cryoprecipitate
An insoluble concentrate of certain coagulation factors obtained from fresh frozen
plasma
Erthrocyte
A blood cell whose primary function is oxygenation and carbon-dioxide transport;a RBC
Granulocyte
A type of WBC with granule-containing cytoplasm, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and
basophils
Hemacrit
The percentage of a blood sample that is RBC's
Hempglobin
The red, oxygen-carrying pigment of RBC's
Leukocyte
A WBC
Plasma
The liquid portion of the blood in which the particulate components are suspended
(including waste products delivered to kidneys and liver)
Platelet
A cellular component of blood that helps with clotting
Refractory
Resistant to treatment; applied to blood transfusion, referring to an immunologic
response developed after frequent exposure to donor cells or serum, resulting in
resistance to treatment
Serum
The clear, liquid portion of blood that remains after coagulation has taken place
Thrombocytopenia
Low platelet count
Transfusion
The introduction of whole blood or blood components directly into the blood stream
IV
Bevel
the slanted surface at the tip of a needle
Bifurcation
division into two branches; fork
Butterfly Needle
a small, winged-tip needle used to initiate intravenous access
Cannula
a tube inserted into a vessel, duct, or cavity
Catheter Hub
the "handle" of an intravenous catheter, the part that allows access to the catheter's
lumen for a variety of functions, such as the injection or infusion of fluids or drugs or the
introduction of a guide wire
Colonization
implantation and growth of a micro-organism on or in a host
Central Venous Catheter
a blood-vessel access device usually inserted into the subclavian or jugular vein with
the distal tip resting in the superior vena cava just above the right atrium; used for longterm intravenous therapy or parenteral nutrition
Drip Chamber
the portion of an intravenous administration set that lies just below the tubing insertion
spike and allows visualization of the individual drops of solution being infused; the
portion squeezed and released to begin the flow of solution immediately after insertion
of the spike into the solution bag or bottle when preparing an intravenous infusion set
Drip Factor or Drop Factor
the calibration or number of drops per milliliter of solution delivered for a particular drip
chamber
Embolus
a blood clot or a bolus of air developed in or introduced into a blood vessel that moves
from its place of origin and is capable of obstructing blood circulation
Flash Chamber
the portion of an over-the-needle catheter that allows observation of a blood return
when the catheter enters a vein
Fluid-volume Deficit
loss of both water and electrolytes from the extracellular fluid; also called hypovolemia
Heparin Lock
an intravenous catheter inserted into a vein and left in place for the intermittent
administration of medication through its port or as an open line for emergency situations
and intermittently flushed with a heparin solution to maintain patency
Hypertonic
referring to a solution that has a higher osmolarity than body fluids have
Hypotonic
referring to a solution that has a lower osmolarity than body fluids have
Infiltration
seepage or introduction of fluid, such as intravenous fluid, into the tissues surrounding a
blood vessel; similar to extravasation
Infusion
slow, intentional introduction of fluid into a vein
Infusion Pump
device that delivers intravenous fluids via positive pressure at a specific preset rate
Injection Cap
a rubber cap attached to the end of an intervenous catheter or extension tubing to allow
access to the blood vessel for injecting fluid
Injection Port
a small, covered, branched portion of intravenous tubing configured as a place to inject
medication or fluid into the infusing solution
Intravascular
within a blood vessel
Introducer Needle
the needle inside an over-the-needle catheter used to pierce the wall of a vein to initiate
intravenous access that is withdrawn and discarded after the catheter is properly
positioned within the vein
Isotonic
referring to a solution that has the same osmolarity as body fluids
Over-the-needle Catheter (ONC)
a plastic catheter that fits over a needle and is used to pierce the wall of a vein to initiate
intravenous access
Patent
open and unobstructed
Percutaneous
performed through the skin
Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC)
a catheter used for long-term intravenous access and inserted in the basilic or cephalic
vein just above or below the antecubital space with the tip of the catheter resting in the
superior vena cava
Phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
Roller Clamp
device with intravenous tubing threaded through it that acts as a valve when turned
(rolled) to increase, decrease, or stop the flow of fluid through the tubing
Saline Lock
an intravenous catheter inserted into a vein and left in place for the intermittent
administration of medication through its port or as an open line for emergency situations
and intermittently flushed with normal saline solution to maintain patency
Thrombosis
the formation or presence of a stationary blood clot within a blood vessel
Time Tape
self-adhesive, coated tape used for labeling an intravenous infusion, for example, with
the time it was started
Transparent Dressing
a protective covering often used over intravenous insertion sites to allow easy
visualization of the site for signs of inflammation
Vascular Access Device (VAD)
an umbrella term that includes a variety of catheters, cannulas, and infusion ports that
allow intermittent or continuous access to a blood vessel
Venipuncture
inserting a needle into a vein to withdraw blood samples or to establish ongoing access
to a vein
Viscosity
resistance to flow; a physical property of a substance that varies with the friction of its
component molecules as they slide past one another; refers to thickness of fluid such as
blood
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