Chapter 06 financial accounting summary

Summary – Ch 06
Learning Objectives
1. Determine how to classify inventory and inventory quantities.
2. Explain the basis of accounting for inventories and apply the inventory
cost flow methods under a periodic inventory system.
3. Explain the financial statement and tax effects of each of the inventory
cost flow assumptions.
4. Explain the lower-of-cost-or-market basis of accounting for inventories.
5. Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.
6. Describe the LIFO reserve and explain its importance for comparing
results of different companies.
*7. Apply the inventory cost flow methods to perpetual inventory records.
*8. Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
Chapter Outline
Learning Objective 1 – Determine how to classify inventory and
steps in the reporting of inventory at the end of the accounting period are
the classification of inventory based on its degree of completeness and
the determination of inventory amounts.
 Classifying Inventory—depends on whether the firm is a
merchandiser of a manufacturer.
o In a merchandising company, inventory consists of many
different items.
o These items have two common characteristics: (1) they are
owned by the company and (2) they are in a form ready for sale
to customers.
o Only one inventory classification, merchandise inventory, is
needed to describe the many different items that make up the
total inventory.
 In a manufacturing company, inventory is usually classified into
three categories: Finished goods, Work in process, and Raw
o Raw materials inventory—the basic goods that will be used in
production but have not yet been placed into production.
Summary – Ch 06
o Work in process—that portion of manufactured inventory that
has been placed into the production process but is not yet
o Finished goods inventory—items that are completed and
ready for sale.
By observing the levels and changes in the levels of these three
inventory types, financial statement users can gain insight into
management’s production plans.
 Determining Inventory Quantities---No matter whether they are using a
periodic or perpetual inventory system, all companies need to determine
inventory quantities at the end of the accounting period.
 If using a perpetual system, companies take a physical inventory at
year-end for two purposes: (1) to check the accuracy of their
perpetual inventory records and (2) to determine the amount of
inventory lost due to wasted raw materials, shoplifting, or employee
 Companies using a period inventory system must take a physical
inventory for two different purposes: (1) to determine the inventory
on hand at the balance sheet date, and (2) to determine the cost of
goods sold for the period.
 Determining inventory quantities involves two steps: (1) taking a
physical inventory of goods on hand and (2) determining the
ownership of goods.
 Taking a Physical Inventory—taken at the end of the accounting
o Taking a physical inventory involves actually counting, weighing,
or measuring each kind of inventory on hand.
 Determining Ownership of Goods---two questions must be
1. Do all of the goods included in the count belong to the company?
2. Does the company own any goods that were not included in the
o To arrive at an accurate count, ownership of goods in transit
(on board a truck, train, ship, or plane) must be determined.
o Goods in transit should be included in the inventory of the
company that has legal title to the goods. Legal title is
determined by the terms of the sale.
 When the terms are FOB (free on board) shipping point,
ownership of the goods passes to the buyer when the public
carrier accepts the goods from the seller.
 When the terms are FOB destination, ownership of the
goods remains with the seller until the goods reach the
o In some lines of business, it is customary to hold the goods of
other parties and try to sell the goods for them for a fee, but
Summary – Ch 06
without taking ownership of the goods. These are called
consigned goods.
Learning Objective 2 - Explain the Basis of Accounting for Inventories
and Apply the Inventory Cost Flow Methods
under a Periodic Inventory System
 INVENTORY COSTING---After a company has determined the quantity
of units of ending inventory, it applies unit costs to the quantities to
determine the total cost of the ending inventory and the cost of goods
sold. There are different inventory costing methods available:
 Specific identification method requires that companies keep
records of the original cost of each individual inventory item.
o A major disadvantage of this method is that management may
be able to manipulate net income.
Cost Flow Assumptions---other cost flow methods differ from the
specific identification method in that they assume flows of costs
may be unrelated to the actual physical flow of goods. There are
three assumed cost flow methods.
The cost of goods sold formula in a periodic system is (Beginning
Inventory + Purchases) – Ending Inventory = Cost of Goods
The value assigned to the ending inventory will depend on which
cost flow method used.
There is no accounting requirement that the cost flow assumption
be consistent with the physical movement of the goods. One of the
three cost flow assumptions may be used:
o First-in, first out (FIFO)
o Last-in, first out (LIFO)
o Average-cost
First-in, First-out (FIFO) method assumes that the earliest goods
purchased are the first to be sold. Under FIFO, the cost of the ending
inventory is obtained by taking the unit cost of the most recent
purchase and working backward until all of the units of inventory have
been assigned a cost.
o FIFO often parallels the actual physical flow of goods.
Last-in, First-out (LIFO) method assumes that the last goods
purchased are the first to be sold. LIFO seldom coincides with the
actual physical flow of inventory. Under LIFO, the cost of the ending
inventory is obtained by taking the unit cost of the earliest goods
available for sale and working forward until all the units of inventory
have been assigned a cost.
Summary – Ch 06
o Beginning inventory is the earliest cost.
Use the example of a bicycle shop to illustrate LIFO.
Beginning inventory
500 @ $100
$ 50,000
400 @
350 @
Goods available
Ending inventory
250 @
Cost of goods sold
When using LIFO, one assumes the last units in are the first units sold. Which of
the above units were sold?
350 @ $130
$ 45,500
400 @
250 @
Cost of goods sold
Average-cost method assumes that the goods available for sale are
similar in nature and allocates the cost of goods available for sale on
the basis of the weighted-average unit cost incurred. The weightedaverage unit cost is then applied to the units on hand to determine
the cost of the ending inventory.
Learning Objective 3 - Explain the Financial Statement and Tax
Effects of Each of the Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions
METHODS---Each of the three assumed cost flow methods is
acceptable for use under GAAP.
The reasons companies adopt different inventory cost flow methods
are varied, but
they usually involve one of the following three factors:
o Income statement effects
o Balance sheet effects
o Tax effects
Income Statement Effects—In periods of increasing prices, FIFO
reports the highest net income, LIFO the lowest net income and
Summary – Ch 06
average-cost falls in the middle. In periods of decreasing prices, the
opposite is true. FIFO will report the lowest net income, LIFO the
highest, with average-cost in the middle.To management, higher net
income is an advantage:
o It causes external users to view the company more favorable.
o Management bonuses, if based on net income, will be higher.
o Thus, when prices are rising, companies tend to prefer
In a period of increasing prices, the use of LIFO enables the company to
avoid reporting paper or phantom profit.
Balance Sheet Effects—In a period of inflation, the costs allocated
to ending inventory, using FIFO, will approximate current costs.
Conversely, during a period of increasing prices, the costs allocated
to ending inventory using LIFO will be significantly understated.
Tax Effects—Both inventory on the balance sheet and net income on
the income statement are higher when FIFO is used in a period of
inflation. Many companies have switched to LIFO because it yields
the lowest net income and therefore, the lowest income tax liability in
a period of increasing prices.
o LIFO Conformity Rule: A tax rule that requires if a company uses
LIFO for tax purposes it must also use LIFO for financial reporting
o Thus, if a company uses LIFO to reduce its tax bills, it must show
the lower net income in its external financial statements.
 Using Inventory Cost Flow Methods Consistently---company should
use the method chosen from one accounting period to another. When a
company adopts a different method, it should disclose in the financial
statements and its effects on net income.
Learning Objective 4 - Explain the Lower-of-Cost-or-Market Basis of
Accounting for Inventories
 LOWER-OF-COST-OR-MARKET---When the value of inventory is lower
than its cost, the inventory is written down to its market value by valuing
the inventory at the lower-of-cost-or-market (LCM) in the period in which
the price decline occurs.
 LCM is an example of conservatism which means that the
approach adopted among accounting alternatives is the method
that is least likely to overstate assets and net income.
 Under the LCM basis, market is defined as current replacement
cost, not the
selling price.
Summary – Ch 06
o For a merchandising company, market is the cost of
purchasing the same goods at the present time from the
usual suppliers in the usual quantities.
Learning Objective 5 - Compute and Interpret the Inventory Turnover
 ANALYSIS of INVENTORY---For merchandising companies, managing
inventory levels is critical. Too much inventory on hand costs money, and
too little inventory results in lost sales.
 Inventory turnover ratio is computed by dividing cost of goods sold
by average inventory. The ratio indicates how many times the
inventory “turns over” (is sold) during the year.
 Days in inventory, computed by dividing 365 days by the inventory
turnover ratio, indicates the average number of days inventory is
o High inventory turnover (low days in inventory) indicates the
company is tying up little of its funds in inventory (has minimal
inventory on hand at any one time). Although minimizing the funds
tied up in inventory is efficient, it may lead to lost sales due to
inventory shortages.
o Management should closely monitor the inventory turnover ratio to
achieve the best balance between too much and too little inventory.
Learning Objective 6 - Describe the LIFO Reserve and Explain its
Importance for Comparing Results of Different Companies
difference between inventory reported using LIFO and inventory
using FIFO is referred to as the LIFO reserve.
Accounting standards require firms using LIFO to report the amount by
which inventory would be increased (or on occasion decreased) if the
firm had instead been using FIFO.
Reporting the LIFO reserve enables analysts to make adjustments to
compare companies that use different cost flow methods.
Learning Objective 7- (Appendix 6A) Apply the Inventory Cost Flow
Methods to Perpetual Inventory Records
INVENTORY SYSTEMS---Each of the inventory cost flow methods
for a periodic inventory system may be used in a perpetual inventory
Summary – Ch 06
First-In, First-Out (FIFO)--Under FIFO, the cost of the earliest goods
on hand prior to each sale is charged to cost of goods sold.
Last-In, First-Out (LIFO)--Under LIFO, the cost of the most recent
purchase prior to sale is charged to cost of goods sold.
Average-Cost--Under the average-cost method, a new average cost is
computed after each purchase.
Learning Objective 8 - (Appendix 6B) Indicate the Effects of Inventory
Errors on the Financial Statements
 INCOME STATEMENT EFFECTS---Under a periodic system, both
the beginning and ending inventories appear in the income
Inventory errors affect the computation of cost of goods sold and net
income in two periods.
Effects of inventory errors on current year’s income statement
Inventory Error
Beginning inventory understated
Beginning inventory overstated
Ending inventory understated
Ending inventory overstated
Cost of
Goods Sold
Net Income
If ending inventory errors are not corrected, in the following period their
effect on net income for that period is reversed, and total net income
for the two year period will be correct.
 BALANCE SHEET EFFECTS---Ending inventory errors will have the
same effect on total assets and total stockholders’ equity and no effect on
Learning Objective 9 – Compare the accounting procedures under
 A Look at IFRS---The major IFRS requirements related to
accounting and reporting for inventories are the same as
GAAP. The major differences are that IFRS prohibits the use of
the LIFO cost flow assumption and determines market in the
lower-of-cost-or-market inventory valuation differently.
Summary – Ch 06
The requirements for accounting for and reporting inventories are
more principles-based under IFRS. That is, GAAP provides more
detailed guidelines in inventory accounting.
The definitions for inventory are essentially similar under IFRS and
GAAP. Both define inventory as assets held-for-sale in the ordinary
course of business, in the process of production for sale (work in
process), or to be consumed in the production of goods or services
(e.g., raw materials).
Who owns the goods—goods in transit or consigned goods—as
well as the costs to include in inventory, are accounted for the
same under IFRS and GAAP.
Both GAAP and IFRS permit specific identification where
appropriate. IFRS actually requires that the specific identification
method be used where the inventory items are not interchangeable
(i.e., can be specifically identified). If the inventory items are not
specifically identifiable, a cost flow assumption is used. GAAP does
not specify situations in which specific identification must be used.
A major difference between IFRS and GAAP relates to the LIFO
cost flow assumption. GAAP permits the use of LIFO for inventory
valuation. IFRS prohibits its use. FIFO and average-cost are the
only two acceptable cost flow assumptions permitted under IFRS.
IFRS requires companies to use the same cost flow assumption for
all goods of a similar nature. GAAP has no specific requirement in
this area.
In the lower-of-cost-or-market test for inventory valuation, IFRS
defines market as net realizable value. Net realizable value is the
estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the
estimated costs of completion and estimated selling expenses. In
other words, net realizable value is the best estimate of the net
amounts that inventories are expected to realize. GAAP, on the
other hand, defines market as essentially replacement cost.
Under GAAP, if inventory is written down under the lower-of-costor-market valuation, the new value becomes its cost basis. As a
result, the inventory may not be written back up to its original cost
in a subsequent period. Under IFRS, the write-down may be
reversed in a subsequent period up to the amount of the previous
write-down. Both the write-down and any subsequent reversal
should be reported on the income statement as an expense. An
item-by-item approach is generally followed under IFRS.
An example of the use of lower-of-cost-or-net realizable value
under IFRS follows.
Mendel Company has the following four items in its ending inventory as of
December 31, 2012. The company uses the lower-of-cost-or-net realizable
Summary – Ch 06
value approach for inventory valuation following IFRS.
Item No.
Net Realizable Value
The computation of the ending inventory value to be reported in the financial
statements at December 31, 2012, is as follows.
Item No.
$ 3,600
Net Realizable Value
$ 3,400
$ 14,300
Lower-of-Cost-or NRV
$ 3,400
Unlike property, plant, and equipment, IFRS does not permit the
option of valuing inventories at fair value. As indicated above, IFRS
requires inventory to be written down, but inventory cannot be
written up above its original cost.
Similar to GAAP, certain agricultural products and mineral products
can be reported at net realizable value using IFRS.
One convergence issue that will be difficult to resolve relates to the use of
the LIFO cost flow assumption. As indicated, IFRS specifically prohibits its
use. Conversely, the LIFO cost flow assumption is widely used in the
United States because of its favorable tax advantages. In addition, many
argue that LIFO from a financial reporting point of view provides a better
matching of current costs against revenue and, therefore, enables
companies to compute a more realistic income.
With a new conceptual framework being developed, it is highly probable
that the use of the concept of conservatism will be eliminated. Similarly,
the concept of “prudence” in the IASB literature will also be eliminated.
This may ultimately have implications for the application of the lower-ofcost-or-net realizable value.
Related flashcards

Payment systems

18 cards


30 cards


16 cards

Banks of Germany

43 cards

Banks of Russia

30 cards

Create Flashcards