University of South Asia Lahore
Layyah Campus
Course Outline
Advance Accounting
CH#01 Departmental account
CH#02 Contract account
CH#03 Hire-purchase accounts
CH#04 Ratio Analyses
CH#05 Companies Accounts
Recommended book:
Advance Accounting by SOHAIL AFZAL
Advance Accounting by M A GHANI
Advance Accounting by MUKAR G
Advance Accounting
Joint Venture Definition
Distinction between Joint Venture & Consignment
Method or Procedure/ Recording Transactions
No Separate Book
Separate Book
When Parts of Goods Sold remain unsold
Distinguish between Consignment & Sale
Branch Account
Classification of Branches
Departmental Accounts
Meaning of Departmental Accounts
Basis of Allocation of Expenses
Hire Purchase
Installment Purchase
Distinguish between Hire Purchase & Installment Purchase
Share s
Nature of Share
Classes of Share
Kinds of Debentures
Distinguish between Shares & Debentures
Various Methods of Redeeming Debentures
Redemption in Installment
Redemption by Conversion
Redemption in Lump Sum
Right Issue
Advantages of Right Issue
Bonus Issue
From Company's point of view
From Shareholder's point of view
Preparation of Final Accounts
Lying accounts before General Meeting
Audit of Accounts
Circulation of Accounts Filing
of Accounts Director's Report
Formation of Company
Promotion Stage
Incorporate Stage
Raising of Share Capital
Trading or Business Commencement Certificate
Memorandum of Association
Clause or Particulars of Memorandum
Article of Association
Content of Article
Difference between Amalgamation, Absorption and Reconstruction
Minimum Rent or Dead Rent
Short Working
Interim Dividend
Marge or Merger of Companies
Definition: A joint venture is a temporary partnership of two or more persons engaged in any
particular business adventure of enterprise of short or seasonal duration. It may in connection
with spectacular in shares underwriting of share and debentures of new company or any other
similar temporary or seasonal business enterprise. As the parties to a joint venture does business
in union with other, they also share profit & loss between themselves in some agreed proportion.
Advantages: The advantages of joint venture enterprise are that perhaps one party may buy
goods at a much cheaper rate, but has no capital; a sound person may perhaps advance the
requisite capital but has no business. While a third individual is a good salesman and can sell the
goods readily at a margin. In case to, combine their energy and work for a mutual gain.
Joint Venture
Parties: In joint venture parties to the In Consignment parties to the agreement
agreement are known as co venture.
known as Consignment and the Consignee.
Compensation: Co ventures are the parties in
the venture and share profit or loss of the
Relation: Each co venture is a principal as
well as an agent of the other co venture.
Termination: Relation of co ventures comes
to an end when venture is completed.
Investment: Co ventures usually contribute
towards the capital of the venture in the form
of money or material.
Rights: Co ventures enjoy equal rights as
Ownership: Co venture are the owners of
their venture.
Account Sales: Co venture are the relevant in
formation no regular repent are submitted.
Consignee is never a partner consignee get his
commission for acting the roll of the
Consignee is the agent of his principal i.e.
Relationship of consigner and consignee
certain until terminated by parties.
Consignee does not contribute towards the
Consignee only acts as an agent.
In consignment the consigner is the owner not
the consignee.
Consignee is required to send periodically
account sales to consigner.
There are two ways in which joint venture account can be kept e.g.
1. Where no separate books are kept and record joint venture transactions.
2. Where a separate set of books is kept to record the transaction.
No Separate Book: When it is not possible to maintain a separate set of books for joint
venture transaction cash party will use his ordinary business books for recording such
transactions. Each party will open a joint venture account and the account of other parties in his
books. Suppose ‘A’ and ‘B’ enter into a joint venture then ‘B’ will open in his books a joint
venture account and the account of ‘A’.
Separate Books: The method considered so per in value the maintenance of accounts in
respect of the joint venture in the book of the parties to the joint venture transactions can
however, is recorded in a completely separate set of books under this method a separate joint
books account is opened. The amount contributed by each partner as his share of his investment
in the joint venture is deposited in a joint bank account. Accounts of the parties concerned are
also open in a separate set of books.
The word consignment can be generally defined as the act of sending quality of goods by
the manufacturers and the producer of one country or place to their agents in another place at the
sick of principals for the purpose of sale.
Explanation: Goods to send are known as a consignment the sender of the goods is called the
consignor. Generally the manufacturers or the producer are the consigner. The person to whom
goods are forwarded for the purpose of sale is known as the consignee.
Goods sent on consignment don’t become the pro party of the consignee. He has
not bought them. The ownership remains with the sender or the consignor. If goods are
destroyed, the consignee is not at all responsible. The loss will fall on the consignor. The
consignee tries to sell the goods according to the instructions of the consignor. When the goods
have been sold, he shall deduct his expenses, commission etc from the sale proceeds and the
balance is remitted to the consignor. The relation between consignor and consignee is that of
principal & agent. The consignor is the principal and the consignee is the agent.
Legal owner ship: In case of a
consignment of goods, the legal
ownership of the goods is not transferred
to the consignee.
Relationship: In case of consignment,
the relation between consignor and the
consignee is that of a principal and an
In case of consignment, risk
attached to the consignor till the
consignee sells the goods consigned.
Return of Goods: In case of
consignment account sale, returns of
goods are possible if the goods are not
sold by the consignee.
Account sale: In case of consignment,
account sale is required to submit
periodically by the consignor to the
In case of a sale of goods the legal ownership is
transferred to the purchaser of goods.
In case of sale of goods, the relation between
seller and the purchaser of the goods is that of a
creditor and debtor.
In case of sale, risk attached the goods sold is
transferred to the purchaser of goods.
In sale, return of goods is not possible as goods
once sold are not return able.
In case of sale no account is required to be
submitted by the purchaser to the seller.
“When the parts of goods remain unsold at the case of financial period”
When all the goods sent on consignment have not been sold and party of goods
remain useless at the case of financial period the value of unsold useless goods in hands of the
consignee must be ascertained and the profit or loss should be find out by taking this stock into
account, for this purpose we will create stock on consignment account and this entry will passed.
“Stock on consignment account” is an asset and will be shown in the balance
sheet of the consignor.
The valuation of sock lying with the consignee at the time of final closing of the
account of the consignor is generally made at cost or market price “Plus” all expenses which are
occurred to the move the goods from the consignor’s premises to the premises of the consignee
Why branch accounts are maintained: L.C Crapper calls branch accounts “Departments
conducted at a distance” and William Pickles regards a branch as “A section of business
segregated physically from the main section”.
Several big business establishments have their branches scaled far and near. In a
legal and expended business several branches of business in the other city are necessary, where
it is essential that complete record be kept of the transactions relating to each branch, so that the
head office prepare such accounts. Such records show the working results and each individual
branch as well as the business as a whole.
It is thus possible for the management to see which of the branches are working
profitably and which requires also attention in order to secure better results. The question of
branch’s entrails is an important one which requires that the proper books of accounts and cash
at record of all transaction be kept at head office in case of dependent branches and in case of
independent branches.
Proper record of stock should be kept on the branch. All types of goods supplied
from the head office should be recorded separately showing quantity, saleable price and the
goods sold each day.
In case of credit sale, the record of each customer should be maintained in
separate account to avoid buss as by reason of bad debts, the branch must furnish details as to
the amount and age of the debts so that arrangement for collection may be made without loss of
A firm which has branches would like to know the profit or loss made by at each
branch can be ascertained easily.
The above facts indicates that the branch accounts serve most important purpose
on which the success and failure of whole business depends.
Classification branch accounts
According to the nature branch and its working system of accounting designed
and installed to record the branch transactions will very from business to business. However
from the stand of accounting the branches may be divided in the following classes.
A branch which receive goods only from the head office, sells goods only for
cash, remits cash to the head office and the expenses of the branch are not remitted from head
A branch similar to the above
(1) Except that the goods are sold also on credit.
(2) Except that the head office invoices that goods at selling price or cost plus profit.
Independent branch: Branch which carries on its own purchases or manufactures
and sells foreign branch.
The first three types of branches don’t keep the books of accounts. The head
office does that branch are required to prepare statement of stock required, sold, refit cash
statements. Branches that are allowed to make credit sells will also maintain accounts of credit
Large business entities open up branches in
diversified geographic segments such as towns and
cities and even in different countries. Segmenting
their business geographically facilitate the business
to market its products/services over a large
territory and thus increase its profits. Here we must
make this distinction that departments are business
segments whereas, branches are geographic segments.
A branch may be defined as a segment of an enterprise
that is geographically separated from the rest of the
entity, controlled by a head office, and generally
carrying on the same or substantially same activities
as of the entity.
For example in our daily life we observe branches of
banks, bakeries, shoes stores, schools, hotels and
restaurants etc.
It is worth mentioning here that a branch is not a
separate legal entity, it is simply a segment of an
entity. From accounting perspective, a branch is
identified as a profit centre and if it is an
independent branch then it becomes an investment
To have clear picture of the performance, profits of
each branches are calculated separately and then are
consolidated in the accounts of the head office.
Depending upon the size of the branch, the decision
is taken regarding the accounting system to be
implemented there. If the branch size is small, there
would have been single entry system. Where the branch
size is considerable large and it can afford a
complete accounts department there we will follow the
double entry accounting system, such are often
independent branches.
Classification of Branches
For accounting purposes branches are classified as
1. Foreign Branch (not part of our syllabus)
2. Domestic Branch
a. Independent branch (investment centre)
b. Dependent branch (profit centre)
i. Whole-sale branch
ii. Retail branch
Foreign branch
Domestic branch
Independent Branch
Whole sale branch
Retail sale branch
Dependent Branch
Income statement system / Final account system
Stock & Debtors system
Debtors system
This is the type of branch which maintains its own
set of books. The method of accounting is the double
entry book keeping.
Branch manager of such a branch is given certain
powers for decision making regarding procurement,
selling, advertising, staffing, pricing, and even for
purchasing of fixed assets. These branches are taken
as an investment centre.
Dependent Branch
This is the type of branch which does not maintain
its own set of books. All records are maintained by
the head office, which is concerned with the branch
profits only.
Branch manager of such a branch is not given decision
making powers, the manager acts according to the
instruction and policies directed by the head office.
Foreign branch
Domestic branch
Accounting Entries in the Books of Head Office
1. for opening balances of assets at the branch
Branch a/c
Branch assets a/c (individual accounts)
2. for opening balances of liabilities at the branch
Branch liabilities a/c (individual accounts)
Branch a/c
3. For goods sent to the branch
Branch a/c
Goods sent to branch a/c
4. for return of goods by the branch
Goods sent to branch a/c
Branch a/c
5. For remittance of cash or cheque to the branch
Branch a/c
Cash/Bank a/c
6. For cash or cheque received from the branch
Cash/Bank a/c
Branch a/c
7. For closing balances of assets at the branch
Branch asset a/c (individual accounts)
Branch a/c
8. For closing balances of liabilities at the branch
Branch a/c
Branch liabilities a/c (individual accounts)
9. For closing goods sent to branch account.
Goods sent to branch a/c
Purchases a/c
10. For closing branch account into the profit and
loss account
Incase of profit
Branch a/c
Profit & loss a/c
Incase of loss
Profit & loss a/c
Branch a/
From the following information relating to the
Sialkot Branch for the year ending 31 March, 2007,
prepare the Branch Account in the books of head
office. Opening Stock at Branch 37,500 Cheque sent to
Branch Opening Debtors in Branch 75,000 Salaries
22,500 Opening Petty Cash at Branch 750 Rent & Taxes
3,750 Goods Sent to Branch 630,000 Petty Cash 2,750
Cash Sales 150,000 Closing Stock at Branch 62,500
Cash Received from Debtors 525,000 Closing Debtors at
Branch 120,000 Goods Returned by Branch 5,000 Closing
Petty Cash at Branch 500
Credit Sales 570,000
Excellent Garments of Multan has a branch at Lahore.
Goods are supplied to the branch at cost. The
expenses of the branch are paid from Multan and the
branch keeps a sales journal and the debtors’ ledger
only. From the following information supplied by the
branch, prepare a Branch Account in the books of the
head office. (All figures in rupees) Opening Stock
24,000 Closing Debtors 9,150 Closing Stock 18,000
Opening Debtors ? Goods received from HO 33,600 Bad
Debt 140
Credit Sales 41,000 Exp. paid by Head office 10,400
Cash Sales 17,500 Cash received from Debtors 37,900
Pilferage of goods by the employees (Normal Loss)
From the following particulars of a dependent branch.
Prepare Branch a/c showing the profit or loss of the
branch for the year ended 31-12-2007: (all figures
are in Rs.) Opening stock 30,000 Goods sent to branch
90,000 Cash sent by head office Cash sales 120,000
for salaries 10,000
for other expenses 4,000
Closing stock could not be ascertained but it is know
that the branch usually sells at cost plus 20% of the
Income Statement System
The head office may also prepare an Income Statement
to find out the profits of branch. Such Income
Statement is merely a memorandum; the only reason for
preparing the statement is to have full information
of all transactions which are ignored in Debtor
System (already discussed in the previous section).
While preparing the Income Statement of the branch we
shall be using all those skills which we have learned
in the single entry system of accounting during
conversion of single entry into double entry.
We know very well that in “Income Statement” incomes
and expenses are measured on the basis of accrual
concept and the profits are measured according to the
matching concept. So the cost of goods sold will be
determined keeping in view that the goods sent to
branch are equivalent to purchases of the branch and
should be included at cost. Obviously the opening and
closing stocks can not be measured at a value that is
above its cost.
Above problem can be solved through Income Statement
System as well. Following is the solution.
Accounting Entries in the Books of Head Office
1. For opening balances of assets at the branch
Branch a/c
Branch assets a/c (individual accounts)
2. For opening balances of liabilities at the branch
Branch liabilities a/c (individual accounts)
Branch a/c
3. For goods sent to the branch
Branch a/c
Goods sent to branch a/c
4. For return of goods by the branch
Goods sent to branch a/c
Branch a/c
5. For reversal of loading on (net) goods set to
Goods sent to branch a/c
Branch a/c
6. For remittance of cash or cheque to the branch for
Branch a/c
Cash/Bank a/c
7. For cash or cheque received from the branch
Cash/Bank a/c
Branch a/c
8. For closing balances of assets at the branch
Branch asset a/c (individual accounts)
Branch a/c
9. For closing balances of liabilities at the branch
Branch a/c
Branch liabilities a/c (individual accounts)
10. For closing goods sent to branch account.
Goods sent to branch a/c
Purchases a/c
11. For closing branch account into the profit and
loss account
Incase of profit
Branch a/c
Profit & loss a/c
Incase of loss
Profit & loss a/c
Branch a/c
12. For abnormal loss (should always be accounted for
at cost)
Abnormal loss a/c (at cost)
Branch a/c
Insurance claim a/c (claim admitted)
Profit & loss a/c (balance if not admitted by the
insurance company)
Abnormal loss a/c (cost of the abnormal
Note: No accounting entry is required for normal
Excellent Garments of Multan has a branch at Lahore.
Goods are supplied to the branch at cost. The
expenses of the branch are paid from Multan and the
branch keeps a sales journal and the debtors’ ledger
only. From the following information supplied by the
branch, prepare profit and loss account using income
statement system in the books of the head office.
(All figures in rupees) Opening Stock 24,000 Closing
Debtors 9,150 Closing Stock 18,000 Opening Debtors ?
Goods received from HO 33,600 Bad Debt 140
Credit Sales 41,000 Exp. paid by Head office 10,400
Cash Sales 17,500 Cash received from Debtors 37,900
Pilferage of goods by the employees (Normal Loss)
Opening stock at invoice price (1 Jan, 2008) Rs.
Goods sent to branch at invoice price Rs. 24,000
Remittance from branch Rs. 25,000
Cash paid by the head office for sundry expenses Rs.
Return from the branch invoice price Rs. 150
Closing stock at invoice price Rs. 8,000
Stock and Debtors system is generally used when the
goods are sent to the branch at pro-forma invoice
price and the size of the branch is large. Under this
system, the branch maintains a few central accounts
to exercise greater control over the branch stock and
other related expenses. These accounts usually are:
1. Branch Stock Account
2. Branch Debtors Account
3. Branch Expenses Account
4. Branch Adjustment Account
5. Goods Sent to Branch Account
6. Branch Stock Reserve Account
Branch Stock Account
This account is on the pattern of a stock account.
The account helps the Head Office in maintaining an
effective control over the Branch Stock and tells
about shortage and surplus in the branch stock
because of the difference between the pro-forma
invoice price and the selling price.
Unlike traditional accounting practice, branch stock
a/c is always maintained on the selling price or proforma invoice price. Selling price is used to record
the goods sold by the branch to its customer and
goods returned by the branch customers. Rest of the
information (even opening and closing balances) in
branch stock a/c is recorded at pro-forma invoice
Branch Debtors Account
Branch debtors’ a/c is maintained in the traditional
manner to record transactions in between branch and
its credit customers.
Branch Expense Account
The purpose of maintaining this account is nothing
but to compile all branch expenses at one place. This
will include all types of expenses i.e. cash based
expenses and receivables based expenses.
Branch Adjustment Account
Branch adjustment a/c replaces the branch income
statement (profit & loss a/c). This is the account in
which all expenses and losses are closed along with
the margin that is a difference between cost and the
selling price. This difference is split into two; one
is termed as “surplus” that comes from the branch
stock a/c representing the difference between selling
price and pro-forma invoice price, the second is
termed as “loading” that represents the difference
between pro-forma invoice price and cost. This
loading is calculated on opening and closing stock
balances and also on the net of the goods sent
Goods Sent to Branch Account
This is a supporting account, which is maintained to
show second effects of the goods sent to branch and
the goods returned from branch at pro-forma invoice
price. Although the goods sent to and returned form
the branch should be adjusted in the purchases a/c of
the head office, but as we know that the branch stock
a/c is not maintained at cost price, therefore,
second effect of goods sent to and returned from
branch is not recorded directly into the purchases
a/c instead this second effect is recorded into the
goods sent to branch a/c which after adjustment of
the loading is finally closed into the purchases a/c.
Branch Stock Reserve Account
This is contra to branch stock account. In this
account opening and closing balance of loading on
branch stock is maintained.
(1) For Goods Sent to Branch (at
Branch Stock Account (Dr)
Goods Sent To Branch Account (Cr)
(2) For Goods Sold At Branch On Credit xxx
Branch Debtors Account (Dr) (At
Selling Price)
Branch Stock Account (Cr)
(3) For Goods Sold At Branch For Cash
Branch Cash Account (Dr) (At
Selling Price)
Branch Stock Account (Cr)
(4) For Cash Received From Branch
Branch Cash Account (Dr)
Branch Debtors Account (Cr)
(5) For Goods Returned by debtors
Branch Stock Account (Dr)
Branch Debtors Account (Cr)
(6) For Goods Returned by Branch To
Head Office
Goods Sent To Branch Account (Dr)
(At Invoice)
Branch Stock Account (Cr)
For Cash Sent By Head Office to
Branch For Expenses
Branch Expenses Account (Dr)
Cash Account (Cr)
For Bad Debts/ discount Allowed To xxx
Branch Debtors
Branch expense Account (Dr)
Branch Debtors Account (Cr)
For Shortage/ Shrinkage in Branch Stock
Branch Adjustment Account (Dr)
Branch Stock Account (Cr)
(10) For Surplus In Branch Stock
Branch Stock Account (Dr)
Branch Adjustment Account (Cr)
x xxx
For Closing Branch Expenses Account
Into Branch Adjustment Account
Branch Adjustment Account (Dr)
Branch Expenses Account (Cr)
For Transfer of Opening Stock
Reserve (Loading) Into The Branch
Adjustment Account
Branch Stock Reserve Account (Dr)
(with loading of opening Branch
Adjustment Account (Cr)
For Creating Stock Reserve on
Closing Balance of Stock (Loading on
Closing Stock)
Branch Adjustment Account (Dr)
Branch Stock Reserve (Cr)
For Loading on Net Amount of Goods
Sent to Branch
Goods Sent to Branch Account (Dr)
Branch Adjustment Account (Cr)
For Closing Goods Sent To Branch
Account Into Purchase Account
Goods Sent To Branch Account (Dr)
Purchases Account (Cr)
For Closing the Branch Adjustment
Account Into Profit & Loss Account
Branch Adjustment Account (Dr) (with
the amount of profit on branch)
Profit & Loss Account (Cr)
Branch Stock Jef(6)
Branch Adjustment
Purchases (Balancing
Branch Stock
(Goods Sent)
(At Invoice)
SYSTEM (Cont.)
On 1 January, 2008 goods costing Rs. 132,000 were
invoiced by Multan head office to its new branch at
Lahore and charged at selling price to produce a
gross profit of 25% on the selling price. At the end
of the year, the return from Lahore Branch showed
that the credit sales were Rs. 150,000. Goods
invoiced at Rs. 2,000 to Lahore branch have been
returned to Multan head office. The closing stock at
Lahore branch was Rs. 24,000 at selling price. Record
the above transactions in the books of
(i) Lahore Branch Stock Account; (ii) Goods Sent to
Lahore Branch Account; (iii) Lahore Branch
Adjustment Account; and (iv) Lahore Branch
Debtors Account in the head office book and
close the said accounts on 31 December 2008.
X Ltd. of Karachi has a branch at Lahore. Goods are
invoiced to the branches at cost plus 33 /3%. The
branch remits all cash received to the head office
and all expenses are paid by the head office. From
the following particulars, prepare Branch Stock
Account, Branch Adjustment Account, Branch Debtors
Account and Branch Profit & Loss Account in the books
of the head office. (All figures in Rs.)
Branch Debtors on 1.1.2008
Branch Stock on 1.1.2008 (invoice
Sales Cash
Goods from head office (invoice price)
Cash received from Debtors
Discount allowed to Debtors
Bad debts
Branch expenses paid by Head Office
Branch stock on 31.12.2008 (invoice
Whole Sale Branch
Sometimes, the head office (specifically dealing the
manufacturing activities) sells goods to actual
consumers through its retail shops. In this case, the
head office sends goods to the branches at wholesale
prices which cost plus a percentage of profit. The
branch is likely to sell those goods at retail prices
which are more than the wholesale prices. The real
profit earned by the branch is the difference between
the retail selling price and the wholesale price. For
example the cost price of an article is Rs. 100, the
wholesale price, Rs. 160 and the retail selling
price, Rs. 180. Where an article is sold by the
branch, the actual profit is Rs. 180 – 100 = Rs. 80
but the branch’s profit is Rs. 180 – 160 = Rs. 20.
This system of accounting is followed for dependent
branches where these are treated as profit centre
only. The real cost of the branch is the whole sale
price of the goods sent. But, we must remember that
wholesale prices are fixed above cost. Therefore, if
all the goods that have been sent to branch are sold
no problem arises. The real problem arises when a
part of stock remains unsold at the branch, which
includes an element of profit that could not be
realized by the head office. Such unrealized profit
is reversed in the books of head office by recording
this accounting entry:
Income Statement a/c Dr. (Wholesale price less cost
Stock Reserve a/c Cr.
In the balance sheet the branch stock is shown at
cost i.e. after deducting stock reserves.
White limited has retail branch at Gujranwala. Goods
are sold on 60% profit on cost. The wholesaler price
is cost pus 40%. Goods are invoiced from Calcutta
head office to Gujranwala branch at wholesale price.
From the following particulars, ascertain the profit
made at head office and branch for the year ended
31.12.2007. You are required to calculate the profit
of head office and the profit of branch also.
Head office
Branch (Rs.)
Stock on
---------Goods sent
(invoice price)
Stock on
Steps involved in preparing accounts of independent
Reconciliation of the balance of head office account
appearing in the books of Branch with the balance of
branch account appearing in the books of head office
Reasons of Difference
The two balances might be different because of
following reasons:
1. Cash in transit
2. Goods in transit
3. Mistake committed by either party
NOTE: Accounting entry for reconciliation will be
passed in the books of either partyAccounting Entries
Cash in transit
Cash in transit A/C
Branch A/C or Head office A/C
Goods in transit
Goods in transit A/C
Branch A/C or Head office A/C
Account to be rectified
Branch A/C or Head office A/C
Branch A/C or Head office A/C
Account to be rectified
Adjustments on the books of both parties
Certain information are required to be adjusted in
the books of both the parties (head office and
branch). These include:
1. Allocation of head office expense
2. Depreciation on branch assets
3. Inter branch transfers
Accounting Entries
Books of head office
Allocation of head office expense
Branch A/C
Specific Expense A/C
Depreciation of branch assets
Branch A/C
Provision for depreciation A/C
Inter branch transfers
Receiving Branch A/C
Transferring Branch A/C
Books of branch
Allocation of head office expense
Specific Expense A/C
Head office A/C
Depreciation of branch assets
Depreciation Expense A/C
Head office A/C
Inter branch transfers
Books of Transferring Branch
Head office A/C
Goods returned to head office
Books of Receiving Branch
Goods received from head office
Head office A/C
Incorporation of branch trial balance into the
books of head office. (Consolidation)
Note: Accounting entries for incorporation are passed
in the books of head office only
Accounting Entries
To incorporate Branch other income
Branch A/C
Profit & Loss A/C (income)
To incorporate Branch Assets
All assets (individually)
Branch A/C
To incorporate Branch Liabilities
Branch A/C
All Liabilities (individually)
Note: After passing the accounting entries for
incorporation the branch account Appearing in the
trial balance of head office will give Nil Balance.
(Incorporation of branch)
The following is the Trial Balance of Murree Branch
as on 31 December, 2007.
Particular Dr.
(Rs.) (Rs.)
(Rs.) (Rs.)
Lahore head
3,240 138,000 Debtors
3,700 1,850
6,000 6,000
Stock 1 Jan.
Goods received
Cash at
from H O
Goods supplied
to head office /
on on
Sales to H O
business entity where diversified natures of
economic activities are undertaken is split into
number of departments for accounting purposes.
Generally, it is management who will decide the
number of departments in which the whole business is
to be divided, but the criteria for identifying the
departments in an examination question is always the
separate sales/work done revenue. Each department is
considered as a profit centre, though none of the
department is separated geographically from the rest
of the departments. This type of organizational
subdivision creates a need for internal information
about the operating results (profitability) of each
department. Based upon the departmental knowledge of
profitability and growth rate, the management takes
certain decisions e.g. pricing, costing, sales
promotion, closure etc.
Allocation of Incomes and Expenses
Until unless the size of the business entity is very
large, the entire book keeping system for the entity
is kept by a central accounts department along with
some departmental specific records e.g. sales,
purchases, stocks and staff salaries etc. Rest of the
operating expenses and other incomes need to be
allocated among the departments based on their
nature, utility, economic benefits and belongingness.
For allocation and division purposes the
expenses/incomes can be categorized as:
1. Separately identified
2. Obvious just ratio
3. Specific ratio/sales ratio
4. Un-allocable
Separately identified
It depends upon the size of the entity that it can
separately identify its expenses with each of the
department. A large entity will be incurring most of
the operating expenses that are department specific
e.g. carriage inward, receiving and handling, wages
and salaries, electricity, telephone, repair and
maintenance, entertainment, advertisement, sales
promotion, selling commissions, research and
development cost etc.
Obvious just ratio
Most of the expenses are allocated on the most
logical basis that is obvious and also just. Nature
of the expenses and nature of the business will
determine the basis for division. Some important
basis and expenses are given below:
Sales/Work-done Revenue Selling and
After sales service
Discount allowed
Bad debts
Selling commissions
Number of Employees
Salaries and wages
Staff welfare
Canteen/cafeteria facility
Group insurance
Area Occupied
Purchases of
goods/raw material
Building rent
Building depreciation
Building insurance
Building repair and
Air conditioning and
Property tax
Carriage/freight inward
Import duties
Custom tax
Receiving and handling
Discount received (income)
Specific ratio or sales ratio
Still there are some expenses which provide economic
benefits to more than one department and should be
allocated but the ratio is not obvious, for such
expenses a specific ratio will be determined or
otherwise these will be divided in the ratio of their
respective departmental sales revenue. These may
Insurance on stock/inventory
Insurance on plant and machinery
Power and fuel
These are the expenses which provide economic
benefits to the business entity on the whole; these
cannot be identified with a specific department. Such
expenses are often incurred against financial
facilities. Examples include; loss on disposal of
investments, damages paid for infringement of law,
interest on loan and bank overdrafts etc.
There are certain financial incomes as well that
cannot be identified or allocated among the
department e.g. interest on investment, profit on
disposal on investments, profit on fixed deposits
All these types of expenses and incomes are shown in
a general profit and loss account where profits or
losses of each department are clubbed to ascertain
the operating results of the business on the whole.
Allocation of income tax expense
Unlike other operating expenses income tax expense is
divided on the basis of departmental operating
profits. Some students having knowledge of income tax
law may possibly get confused that nevertheless there
are certain expenses or losses admissible from the
tax stand point that are shown in the general profit
and loss account have not yet been deducted from the
departmental operating results then why this income
tax expense is being charged before subtracting
certain expenses.
Remember this is just an allocation of income tax
expense (that has already been calculated) among the
different departments. It has nothing to do with the
calculation of taxable profit or income tax charge
for the year.
Meaning of departmental accounts:
Business is divided into a number of departments have to be kept in such a
manner as to disclose not only trading result of the each department separately. Such accounts
are known as Departmental Accounts. A big business establishment dealing in a large number of
different kinds commodities is usually divided in a number of departments. Each department
deal with a certain class of articles are separately managed all those departments are federated
together by General Manager who maintains unity and co-ordination in its various departments.
This form of departmental organization is today quite common in the big business concerns.
“Basis of allocation of expenses”
When the profit and loss account of each department is made the question of
allocation of expenses raise; they count in this connection, has to divided which item of
expenditure belongs to which department should be allocated to each of the department
concerned for this purpose the expenses may be divided in following items may be treated as
stated below.
1. Expenses incurred for the direct benefit of particular. Expenses incurred specially for a
particular department should be charged to that department. Instances of such item are
special advertisement, special insurance of stock, special departmental salaries etc, etc.
2. Expenses incurred for the benefit more then one department but which can be allocated
to them on some obviously just principal the treatment of such expenses can be as
a. Expenses, which clearly depend upon sales, should be allocated on the basis of
sales some times such expenses are allocated on the basis of number of units sold.
b. Expenses on building and premises should be allocated according to area
occupied. Such expenses will include rent and rate, insurance on building, repair
c. Lighting, heating etc. should be allocated on the basis of numbers of points unless
metered separately. If numbers of points are not available, allocation can be made
on the basis of area.
d. Depreciation for each machine should be calculated separately and charged to
department accordingly.
e. Power unless metered separately, should be allocated according to the horse
power of machine installed.
f. Insurance premium should be charged to departments according to the value of
subject matter incurred.
g. Labor welfare expenses should be allocated according the basis of number of
workers in each department.
h. Advertising is usually allocated on the basis of sale. But should rather be
allocated according the space devoted to each department.
3. Expenses incurred for the benefit of more then one department but which can not be
allocated on some obviously just principle. The allocation of such expenses should be
arbitrary. Salary paid to the manager, expenses of the Accounting Department etc, are the
instances of this type of expenses. They have to be allocated according to the turn over,
or the cost of goods sold, or the number of articles sold.
4. Expenses which can not be allocated in reasonable manner. Some times expenses like
interest on capital, debenture interest, legal expenses, share transfer, office expenses and
other lie items can not be satisfactorily allocated. In such a case no allocation should be
made, as nothing will be gained by an arbitrary allocation. Profits revealed by various departments
are brought down in one account and these unallocated expenses should be debited there. Non
departmental profit should also be credited in this account.
Format of departmental profit and loss account
Income statement
For the year ended December 31, 2008
*** ***
Less Cost of goods sold
*** ***
Gross profit
*** ***
Less Operating expenses
*** ***
Salaries & Wages
*** ***
Rent, rates & taxes
*** ***
Repair & renewal
*** ***
Lighting & heating
*** ***
Profit from operations
*** ***
Add Other incomes
*** ***
Profit before tax
*** ***
Less Income tax
*** ***
Net profit/Profit after tax
Less General expenses
Net profit of the business
From the following information of Trendy Store
prepare departmental Income Statement and also
compute net profit of the entity on the whole for the
year ending on 31.12 2008
Opening stock
Closing stock
Sales and work
Staff salaries
Following expenses cannot be traced to any particular
Rent 3,500
Repair expenses 4,800
Air conditioning & lighting 2,000
General expenses 1,200
Sometimes departments prefer to buy goods from their
internal departments. For this purpose, prices are
charged equal to the normal selling prices or a
department may transfer at its original cost price.
Since each department is considered as a separate
profit centre, it is necessary to have separate
records for inter-departmental transfer of goods or
even services.
The department which transfers the goods considers
its transfers as equal to sales and the department
which receives the goods considers it as equal to its
purchases and put it in the cost of goods sold.
Generally a periodical analysis sheet is prepared to
record these departmental transfers
April 400
X to
April ----
Receiving Departments
Y to
Z to
X to
At the end of the period the inter-departmental
transfers are recorded by recording the following
accounting entry:
Receiving Department Dr. (at transfer price)
X 500
Y 700
Z 200
Transferring Department Cr. (at transfer price)
X 600
Y 500
Z 300
A firm has two departments X and Y. Department Y
(manufacturing department) receives goods from
department X as its raw material. Department X
supplies the goods to Y at cost price. From the
following information prepare a Departmental Income
Statement for the year ended on 31 December 2007:
Opening Stock (1-12007)
Purchases (Outside
Sales (Outside customer
Closing stock (31-1207)
tion is charged on building @ 20% p.a. Cost of
building is Rs. 105,000 and occupancy ratio is 2/3
and 1/3 for X and Y respectively.
2. X department transferred goods Rs. 250,000 to
department Y.
3. Manufacturing expenses Rs. 10,000.
4. Selling expenses Rs. 15,000.
5. General expenses Rs. 58,000
The law governing partnership is contained in the
Partnership Act, 1932. Section 4 of the Act defines
partnership as “the relation between persons who have
agreed to share the profits of a business carried on
by all or any of them acting for all”.
The following are the essential elements of
1. There must be an agreement entered into by all the
persons concerned.
2. The agreement must be to share the profits of a
3. The business must be carried on by all or any of
them acting for all.
All these elements must be present before a
partnership can come into existence. If any of them
is not present, there cannot be formed a partnership.
Net Profit 70,000
Mr. A`s Capital 100,000
Mr. B`s Capital 200,000
Interest on Capital @ 10%
Additional Salary to A 2,000
Calculate the Profit for both (A & B) the partners.
Particulars A
Net Profit ------70,000
Interest on 10,000
A 16,000
B 16,000 x
Partnership agreement:
Partnership is the result of an agreement. The
agreement among the partners that sets out the terms
on which they have agreed to form a partnership is
called partnership agreement. It may be in writing or
by words of mouth or be implied from the course of
conduct of the parties. It is desirable to have the
partnership agreement in writing to avoid future
disputes. The document in writing containing the
various terms and conditions as to the relationship
of the partners to each other is called the
‘partnership deed’. The following clauses are
normally included in partnership agreement.
1. Name under which business of the firm is to be
carried on.
2. Nature of partnership business.
3. The capital of the firm and the proportion in
which it is to be contributed by each partner.
4. Ratio in which profits and losses are to be
shared by partners.
5. Rate at which interest is to be allowed on the
capital and charged on the drawings.
6. Amount, which each partner is allowed to
withdraw in anticipation of, profits from the
business for private expenses and the timing of
such drawings.
7. Amount of salaries and other allowances if any
payable to partners.
8. Commencement and duration of partnership.
9. Whether the capital accounts are to be fixed or
10. Valuation of goodwill at the time of retirement
or death of a partner.
11. The method of ascertaining the amount due to
the retiring partner or the representative of a
deceased partner at the time of retirement or death
and the manner in which the amount due will be
12. Keeping of proper books of accounts and
preparation of balance sheet.
13. Audit of the accounts of the firm and the
manner of appointment of auditor.
14. Right and duties of partners.
15. Arbitration clause, laying down the procedure to
be followed for the settlement of disputes among the
Partner`s Capital Account:
There are two accounting treatments available for the
distribution of profit in partnership accounts.
1. Fluctuating Capital.
2. Fixed Capital.
The concept of fluctuating and fixed capital can be
understood with the help of example discussed in
the last lesson`s solved question.
Advance Financial Accounting (FIN-611)VU
Fluctuating Capital:
Particular A
Balance c/f
30,000211 Opening
Owner’s Capital (Balance Sheet)
Capital 100,000
Current A/c 23,600
Capital 200,000
Current A/c 11,400
Tariq and Saeed have been in partnership for one
year, sharing profits and losses in the ratio of
Tariq 3/5 & Saeed 2/5. They are entitled to 5% per
annum interest on capitals. Tariq and Saeed have
the capital of Rs. 2, 000 and Rs. 6,000
respectively. Saeed is entitled of salary Rs.500.
They also decided to charge interest on drawings,
Tariq being charged Rs.50 and Saeed Rs.100. The net
profit, before any distributions to the partners,
amounted to Rs.5, 000 for the year ended 31
December 2007.
Changes in partnership firm
Subsequent to the formation of a partnership firm, a
different accounting treatment is required when any
of the following changes occur in the constitution of
the partnership (Partnership deed) these changes
might occur because of the following reasons:
• Admission of a new partner
• Retirement of an existing partner
• Death of a partner
Admission of a new partner
A new partner may be admitted for different reasons
such as personal influence, need of more capital, or
special skills.
At the time of admission of a new partner, certain
adjustments are necessary in the books of accounts;
among those calculation of good will is very
Admission of Partners (Issues)
1. Change of profit sharing ratio
2. Revaluation of assets and liabilities or
revaluation of Net Assets
3. Calculation of goodwill
4. Accounting treatment of goodwill
Journal entries for the introduction of the capital:
1. Introduction of capital by new partner in term of
Cash Account xxx
Partner’s Capital Account xxx
2. Introduction of capital in shape of assets:
Stocks xxx
Furniture xxx
Machinery xxx
Partner’s Capital Account xxx
The admission of a new partner may have an effect on
the following items also
1. Interest on capital
2. Partner’s salary
3. Profit sharing ratio
Change in profit sharing ratio:
Old partner’s profit sharing ratio
A 3/5
B 2/5
C entered as a new partner. He will get 1/6 profit
What will be the new profit sharing ratio?
Change in profit sharing ratio:
Old partner’s profit sharing ratio
A 3/5
B 2/5
C entered as a new partner. He will get 1/6 profit
What will be the new profit sharing ratio?
Change in profit sharing ratio:
Old partner’s profit sharing ratio
A 3/5
B 2/5
C entered as a new partner. He will get 1/6 profit
What will be the new profit sharing ratio?
Calculation of sacrifice ratio:
On the admission of a partner in a firm, loss is
suffered by old partners. The old partner may
sacrifice either in their old sharing ratio or in
some other ratio. Sacrifice made by the old partner
can be found by deducting their new share from the
old share.
A and B are partners who share the profits in the
ratio of 3/5 and 2/5 respectively they admit C into
partnership and the profit sharing ratio is agreed
at 3/8 : 3/8: 2/8 respectively. Calculate the
sacrifice ratio of old partners
Revaluation of Assets & Liabilities
When a new partner is admitted into the partnership
firm, he acquires the ownership rights of the assets
and also makes himself responsible for the
liabilities of the firm. It is, therefore, desirable
both from the point of view of the incoming partner
as well as the existing partner that the assets and
the liabilities appearing in the balance sheet on the
date of admission of a new partner should be properly
Three probabilities of revaluation:
1. No change in the value
2. Increase in the value
3. Decrease in the value
Revaluation journal entries
Increase in assets
Assets A/c xxx
Revaluation A/c xxx
Decrease in assets
Revaluation A/c xxx
Assets A/c xxx
Increase in liabilities
Revaluation A/c xxx
Liabilities A/c xxx
Decrease in liabilities
Liabilities A/c xxx
Revaluation A/c xxx
Increase in assets Rs. 10,000
Decrease in assets Rs. 2,000
Increase in liabilities Rs. 3,000
Increase in liabilities Rs. 500
Pass the necessary journal entries for the above
information and prepare the revaluation account
Goodwill may arise from such attributes of a business
as good reputation, good customer relationship,
strategic location, skill of its employees, dynamic
management, durability of its products, effective
advertisement, patented manufacturing process,
outstanding credit rating, training program of the
employees, and good relationship with suppliers and
employees, etc.
Goodwill may be described as the aggregate of those
intangible attributes of a business that contribute
to the superior earning capacity of the business.
Goodwill is the outcome of an impression created in
the mind of each customer and related persons.
Average Profit Method for calculating goodwill:
After calculating average profit, it is multiplied by
a number (times) 3, or 4, or 5, whatever, as agreed.
The product will be the value of the goodwill.
For example:
Goodwill is three times of the average profit of
previous five years.
Let’s suppose:
Average profit = 100 / 5 = 20
Goodwill = 20 x 3 = 60
Valuation of Goodwill
Methods to be adopted in valuing goodwill will depend
upon the circumstances of each particular case. At
the time of valuation of goodwill, the partnership
deed should be examined and valuation should be done
in such a manner as must have been agreed upon by the
Goodwill Calculation methods
1. Average profit method
2. Super profit method
3. Market capitalization method
Average Profit Method
Under this method, at first, average profit is
calculated on the basis of the past few years’
profits. At the time of calculating average profit,
precaution must be taken in respect of any abnormal
items of profit or loss which may affect future
profit. It should be mentioned that average profit is
based on simple average method.
Problem No 1:
1st year
2nd year
3rd year
4th year
Market Capitalization Method
Under this method the value of the firm is first
determined based on the market capitalization rate
using the following formula:
Average profit of the firm x 100
% of market rate of return
The above formula will give an estimate of the firm’s
value in the market. By subtracting the book value of
the net assets (owners’ equity/capital) of the firm
from the above calculated value we shall get the
amount of goodwill.
Suppose average profit of the firm is Rs. 45,000 and
the market rate of return is 18% and the capital (net
assets) of the firm is Rs. 200,000.
Then the good will of the firm will be calculated as
Goodwill = 45,000 / 18 x 100 = 250,000
= 250,000 -200,000
= Rs. 50,000
Goodwill Raised Scenario-1
When the incoming partner cannot bring cash as
premium for goodwill
Here, the capital accounts of the old partners are
artificially inflated towards the right of the
goodwill, without any cash contribution. The idea is
that if the business were sold immediately after the
admission of the new partner and the goodwill as well
as other assets are realized at their book value, the
old partners would automatically receive cash for
their share of the goodwill since the amounts
attributable to them in respects of the goodwill are
now included in their respective capital accounts.
In this case, goodwill account is to be raised in the
books of account at its full value by debiting the
goodwill account and crediting the old partners’
capital accounts in old ratio.
Journal Entry
Goodwill A/c 135,000
A’s capital A/c 81,000
B’s capital A/c 54000
A’s share = 135,000 x 3/5 = 81,000
B’s share = 135,000 x 2/5 = 54,000
Important Note
Following should be taken in to account when doing
the above treatment for goodwill:
1. If goodwill already appears in the Balance Sheet
which is equal to full value of goodwill so
calculated, then no entry is required to be passed.
2. If goodwill already appears in the Balance Sheet
which is less than the full value of goodwill then
goodwill is to be raised for the balance (full value
of goodwill calculated less goodwill already
appearing in the Balance sheet)
3. If goodwill already appears in the Balance sheet
which is more than the full value of goodwill, then
excess goodwill is to be written off. The journal
entry will be as under:
Old partners’ capital accounts Dr
Goodwill accounts Cr
(Being the value of the goodwill written down to its
calculated value)
Goodwill Raised & Written-Off Scenario-2
When the incoming partner cannot bring anything as
premium for goodwill but no goodwill is to appear in
the books:
Since the value of the goodwill constantly changes
and partners may not wish that an account should
remain in the books, goodwill is raised in the books
first and, thereafter it is written off. Advance
Financial Accounting (FIN-611) VU (C) Copyright
Virtual University of Pakistan 94
Journal Entry (Goodwill raised)
Goodwill A/c 135,000
A’s capital A/c 81,000
B’s capital A/c 54000
Journal Entry (Goodwill raised & written off )
A’s capital A/c 67,500
B’s capital A/c 45,000
C’s capital A/c 22,500
Goodwill A/c 135,000
A’s benefit
Old ratio (Cr) 81,000
New ratio (Dr) 67,500
(Cr) 13,500
B’s benefit
Old ratio (Cr) 54,000
New ratio (Dr) 45,000
(Cr) 9,000
A’s benefit + B’s benefit
13,500 + 9,000 = Rs. 22,500
C’s share = 22,500
C’s share = 135,000 x 1/6 = Rs. 22,500
Goodwill Brought in Cash Scenario-3
When the required amount of premium for goodwill is
brought in by the incoming partner and the money is
retained in the business to increase the cash
In this situation, premium for goodwill is to be
shared by the old partners in the sacrificing ratio.
The sacrificing ratio is to be calculated by
deducting the new ratio from the old ratio for each
partner. It should be noted that when the profit
sharing ratio between the old partners does not
change as between themselves, this old profit sharing
ratio is their sacrificing ratio.
Goodwill brought in cash
Bank A/c 22,500
C’s premium for goodwill A/c 22,500
Distribution of goodwill (sacrifice ratio)
C’s premium for goodwill A/c 22,500
A’s capital A/c 13,500
B’s capital A/c 9,000
A’s share = 22,500 x 3/5 = 13,500
B’s share = 22,500 x 2/5 = 9,000 Advance Financial
Accounting (FIN-611) VU (C) Copyright Virtual
University of Pakistan 95
Goodwill Brought in Cash & Withdrawn Scenario-4
When the required amount of premium for goodwill is
brought in by the new partners and this amount is
immediately withdrawn by the old partners:
Goodwill brought in cash
Bank A/c 22,500
C’s premium for goodwill A/c 22,500
Distribution of goodwill (sacrifice ratio)
C’s premium for goodwill A/c 22,500
A’s capital A/c 13,500
B’s capital A/c 9,000
Goodwill withdrawn
A’s capital A/c 13,500
B’s capital A/c 9,000
Bank A/c 22,500 Advance Financial Accounting (FIN611) VU (C) Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan
Laiquee, Imran and Ishtiaq are in partnership. They
shared profit in the ratio 2:5:3. It is decided to
admit Amir. Amir will bring Rs. 4,000 cash into the
business for capital. It is agreed that goodwill was
worth Rs. 10,000, but that is not to be brought into
business record. The new profit sharing ratio is to
be 3:4:2:1.
The balance sheet before Amir was introduced as a new
partner was as follow:
Assets (Rs.)
Less Creditors 3,500
Net Assets
Capital (Rs.)
After the admission of Amir Assets are revalued:
Assets (Rs.)
Building 10,000
Machinery 2,500
Stock 1,800
1. Record necessary accounting entries
2. Prepare capital Accounts
3. Post admission balance sheet
Two partners A & B were sharing profit ratio 3:2. “A”
gets salary of Rs. 2,800 per annum. After six months,
C was admitted as a new partner and shared profit
1/5. According to new profit sharing ratio, A and B
will get equal share. The new profit ratio is 2:2:1.
C will also get salary Rs. 2,400 per annum.
• Total sales Rs. 160,000
• Sales of first six months Rs. 96,000
• Sales of next six months Rs. 64,000
Required: Distribute Rs. 19,000 profit among
Retirement of Partner
Issues Relating to Retiring Partner
Step 1. Calculation of goodwill
Step 2. Revaluation of goodwill/raise the goodwill
Step 3. Revaluation of net assets
Step 4. Preparation of partner's capital account
Step 5.Transfer of retiring partner’s capital account
into his loan account
Step 6. Make part payment or full payment of his loan
account (depending upon the cash availability)
Step 7. Prepare post retirement balance sheet
Let us understand the accounting treatment by
retiring Laiquee (Solved Question # 1):
Total Profit Distribution:
Transfer capital account to loan account
Retiring partner capital A/c
Retiring partner Loan A/c
Transfer Laiquee’s capital account to loan account
Laiquee’s capital A/c 5,260
Laiquee’s loan A/c 5,260
Part payment of Laiquee loan
Laiquee’s loan A/c 2,000
Cash A/c 2,000
Definition: The hire purchase system is a system under which the purchase is paid in number of
installments as soon as the contract is entered into and the first installment is paid the
hire purchaser acquires position (not the owner ship) of the goods. After the payment of the final
installment the hire purchaser becomes the full fledged owner of the goods. So long as he
does not become the owner, the installments paid by him are considered to be the payments
for hire. In case the hire purchaser fails to pay any particular installment, the seller or vendor
can take away the goods, and the installments already paid become forfeited. Thus, the
essential features of a hire purchase system are
The position of goods (not the owner ship) is transferred to the hire purchaser
the goods remains the property of seller until the buyer as paid the entire installments.
If default is made by the hire purchaser in payments, the seller can take away the
The hire purchaser is not forced to complete the whole transactions. If he so
desires, the hire purchase agreement may be cancelled and the goods returned,
but he will forfeit the installments he has paid.
c. The hire purchaser is responsible for keeping the goods in good condition so long as
they remain the property of the seller.
d. As the seller retains the ownership of goods he must get them insured against loss or
It’s the system, under which the purchase price has to pay by the purchaser in
a number of periodical installments which easily resembles the hire purchase system, is
called installments purchase system.
Hire Purchase
Installment Purchase
The purchaser obtains the possession of the In this case of the purchaser becomes owner
goods and begins to use the units but of goods. The contract is enter into and he
legally he does not become the owner of obtains the delivery of it and begins to use.
the corollas units until he pays the final
If the purchaser fails to pay any installment
due and does not make arrangement
payment in spite of reminding
him, the
vendor can take away the goods for his
legally owner. The amount of installment
price so far will be forfeited and treated as
hire of the use of the goods.
In the vender system the vender can not relike to position of goods for he is no longer
their owner. All that he can do is to use the
purchases for the balance as to exercise an
unpaid seller’s loan the amount of paid
installment can not be forfeited as deduction
of goods sold. In other words seller can only
say the purchaser for the balance of his bad
if the purchaser fails to pay any
How a company differs from other organizations? This
is the question that will make able the
students/readers to understand company accounts. In
the upcoming section of this chapter, emphasis will
be put on the points of difference from accounting
Company style of business entity is a bigger setup
comparing with the sole proprietorship and
partnership. People with business ideas join their
hands with people having money. Jointly they form a
business in which the investors (normally) do no take
interest in the day to day management affairs.
Salient Features of Limited Liability Companies
Following are the salient features that make a
limited liability company different from other
business entities.
1) Separate legal entity
Unlike sole proprietorship and Partnership
organizations the Company style of business is an
incorporated organization that enjoys a separate
legal entity. It means that from the legal point of
view company and owners of the company are two
different persons.
This concept is often confused with the “Business
entity concept” which is merely an accounting concept
and is used to record financial information of an
entity. Whereas, “Separate legal entity” signifies
that a company has a legal status and it can sue and
can be sued in its own name.
2) Limited liabilities
Owners of a Company style of business enjoy an
advantage that if a company runs into financial
difficulties, they cannot be forced to make further
contributions to the company. Even they are not asked
to make good any financial losses suffered by the
Liabilities of the owners of a company are limited to
the amount of paid up share capital (amount
contributed by them). Maximum risk exposed to an
owner of a company is the loss of contributed capital
3) Board of directors
Management affairs of a company are run by a board of
directors that is elected or appointed by the owners.
The board of directors runs the company on behalf of
its owners, in a way it can be said that directors
act like stewards.
Directors are responsible for decision making, for
running day to day business affairs, for managing
financial issues.
4) Sources of finance
Like other business organizations a company also gets
its finances from owners and lenders but the circle
of its owners and lenders is very large.
5) Capital from owners
At the time of its incorporation the company makes an
estimate of the total amount of capital that will be
required in the business. This capital is split into
shares and hence is known as share capital. People
(investors) who want to become owner of the company
contribute in the share capital. Contributors of the
share capital are known as share holders or members
of the company. A limited liability company is
jointly owned by its members.
6) Borrowings from lenders
Large business projects are undertaken by the company
style of business which need huge amount of finance.
Such financial requirements are often cannot be met
with the contributed share capital alone. For this
purpose a company borrows finances from the financial
institutions (like Banks etc.) and also a company can
borrow from public in general by issuing
loan/debenture certificates. Holders of these
certificates are known as debenture holders.
7) Legal formalities
Company style of business entity undertakes huge
ventures that involve contracts with suppliers,
customers, lender and so many other concerns. Also it
has large number of share holders. This might create
certain difficulties to the management and to the
related parties as well. Therefore incorporation of
Limited Liability Company requires certain legal
formalities and is tied up in more tight regulations
to run the entity, which are not required to be
abided by the sole proprietorship and partnership
style of business entities.
8) Reporting requirements
As a limited liabilities company is involved in
transactions with a huge number of stake holders,
therefore its directors are required to publish and
circulate financial statements with regular intervals
which may be a quarter, six months or a year,
depending upon the nature of the company.
Finances of a Limited Liability Company
A company gathers its finances from two sources:
1. Owned Equity
2. Borrowed Equity
1) Owned Equity
Owned equity comprises of:
a) Equity share capital (contributed by the member)
b) Reserves (realized/unrealized profits)
i. Capital Reserves
Share premium (unrealized profit)
Revaluation reserve (unrealized profit)
Capital redemption reserve (realized profit)
Share premium
Companies having strong background often issue their
shares at a price that is more than the nominal
(face) value. Excess of the issue price over the
nominal value is known as share premium.
Note: Remember one very important tip; share capital
a/c always credits with its nominal (face) value
only, any excess received as resources will be
credited to the share premium a/c.
Rafi Ltd Co issues 100,000 ordinary share capital @
Rs 10 each with a premium @ Rs 7 per share.
Record the above transaction in the books of
Components of financial statements
As per International Accounting Standards there are
five components of financial statements:
Balance Sheet
Income Statement
Statement of Changes in Equity
Cash Flow Statement
Here we will discuss all in detail except cash flow
1) Balance Sheet
It has already been discussed in the preceding
section that balance sheet of an entity shows
financial position, which comprises of resources and
source. A very simple equation of balance sheet is:
Assets = Owners’ Equity + Liabilities.
Where Assets are the resources and Owners’ Equity and
Liabilities are the sources.
Limited Liability Company
Balance Sheet
As on December 31, 2009
Assets (Resources)
Non Current Assets
Fixed Assets
Tangible Assets
Intangible Assets *** ***
Long Term Investments ***
Long Term Loans ***
Long Term Advances, Deposits & Prepayments *** ***
Current Assets ***
Current Liabilities (***) ***
Capital Employed ***
Financed By (Sources)
Owners’ Equity
Ordinary Share Capital ***
Capital Reserves ***
Revenue Reserves *** ***
Non Current Liabilities
Loan Stocks/Term Finance Certificates ***
Loan from financial institutions ***
Finance lease liability *** ***
Capital Employed
Simple Co. has been trading for a number of years
manufacturing domestic appliances. Its trial balance
for the year ending 31 August 2005 is noted below,
along with some additional information.
Simple Co.
Trial Balance
As at 31 August 2005
(Rs. 000)
(Rs. 000)
Opening inventories
Manufacturing wages
Other manufacturing costs
Selling and distribution costs
Administration costs
Interest expense
Interim dividend paid
Long-term investments
Non-current assets at cost
Trade receivables
Staff loans
Bank and cash balances
Bank overdraft
Trade payables
Debenture redeemable in 2009
Two million ordinary shares of 25
paisa each
Share premium
Retained profits: 1 September 2004
Straight Co. has been trading for a number of years
manufacturing steel girders. Its trial balance for
the year-ending 31 March 2006 is noted below, along
with some additional information.
Straight Co.
Trial Balance
As at 31 March 2006
(Rs. 000)
(Rs. 000)
Opening inventories
Manufacturing wages
Other manufacturing costs
Selling and distribution costs
Administration costs
Investment income
Interest paid on the bank
Interim dividend
Long-term investment
Fixed assets at cost
Trade receivables
Staff loans
Bank and cash balances
Bank overdraft
Trade payables
10% Debenture redeemable in 2005
Four million ordinary shares of 50
paisa each
Share premium
Retained profits: 1 April 2005
Share and Debenture”
Definition: Justice Farewell has defined share in the following word,
“A share is the interest of the share holder in the company, it is measured by the sum of
money for the purpose of liability in the first place and of interest (dividend) in the second place
a company’s capital is divided into a number of equal parts called as a share”.
Nature of Share:
a. The share of a company shall be movable property. It is transferable in the manner
provided by the article of the company.
b. The share capital non refundable except in the case of winding up and reduction of
c. Each share in a company shall have distinctive number.
Class of Share:
Before passing of the company ordinance 1948, a company use to issue three types of
1. Ordinary Share.
2. Preference Share.
3. Deferred Share.
The company’s ordinance now allows the company to issue only one type of shares normally
ordinary shares.
1. Ordinary Share: Are also called Equity Shares. The holders of ordinary or Equity
Shares are the real owners of the company. The ordinary share holders have voting rights in the
meetings of the company, they are entitled and receive dividend and are declared by the board of
directors. The Equity Share capital can not be redeemed during the life of the company.
2. Preference Share: As the name suggest have certain preference on other types of
shares. The preferences are as under.
a. The first preference is for payment of dividend first paid to preference share
b. In case of winding up the company, the preference share holders have prior
right in regard to repayment of capital.
c. A fix rate of dividend is paid on preference share capital.
3. Deferred Share: Is also called Founder’s Share were use to be issued to the promoters
of the claims of all other share holders had been not the deferred share holders.
Definition: The Company’s Ordinance explains debentures in the following words;
“Debentures includes Debenture Stock, bonds, terms, Finance Certificate(T.F.C) and any other
security other then the share of a company with constituting a charge on the assets on the
company or not.
A company may raise part of its capital by obtaining loans in the form of
debentures. Debenture means to owe a debt, “debenture is a security issues or allotted to the
interest under the seal of the company who become creditors of the company”. A debenture may
therefore be defined as a document issued by the company as an evidence of its debts. It contains
a contract of the repayment of the principle sum of the interest at a specified date to the
debenture holder.
Kinds of Debentures:
The debentures can be classified the basis of the terms and condition of their
issue by the company.
1. Ordinary or Naked Debentures: The debentures, which are issued without any
security for repayment, are known as Ordinary or Naked Debentures.
2. Mortgage Debentures: Mortgage Debenture is one, which is secured by a mortgage
on the real property of the company.
3. Redeemable Debentures: The debentures, which are repayable at the state time, are
called Redeemable Debentures.
4. Irredeemable Debenture: A debenture, which is not payable during the life time of
the issuing company, is called Irredeemable Debenture.
5. Registered Debentures: A Registered Debenture id issued in the name of owner of
the debenture.
6. Bearer Debentures: The Bearer Debentures, which does not show the name of
owner the Bond.
7. Equipment Trust Debenture: The debentures, which are issued of raise funds for
the purchase of new equipment of a business is called Equipment Trust Debenture.
8. Convertible Debentures: In certain cases, the company allows the debentures
holders to count their debentures for the share of the company.
1. Share Capital:
The company’s
ordinance defines shares as a share in
capital of the company.
2. Rights: The share holder receives
dividends when the company earns the
profit. They suffer financially when it
suffers losses.
3. Voting: A share holder is entitled to vote
at the company’s general meeting.
4. Owner of the Company: The share
holders except the Preference Share holders
are the owner of the company.
5. Return of the Capital: The share holders
are allowed to sale the share a will to other
person but they are not paid back capital.
6. Management:
The share holder
manages the offers of the company through
the created representatives called Board of
7. Payment at the Winding up: In case the
company is wind up the share holder has a
secondary claim of the return of money on
the purchased shares.
8. Islamic Sprits: The dividend paid to the
share holders depends upon the profit of the
company. There is no fixed rate of return on
the shares of the company. As much they
are Islamic in character.
A debenture is a certificate indebtedness
Issued under the scale of the company.
The right of debenture is to receive money at a
fixed rate of interest. They can earn whit the
profit or loss of company.
The debenture holder has no rights of voting at
any meeting of the company.
The debentures are the creditors of the company
and as such they have no claim on the
ownership of the company.
The company gives an undertaking to payback
the capital along with the interest a stated time
to the debenture.
The debenture holders are not entitled to
interfere in the management and the
administration of the company as they are not
the owner of the company.
On winding up of the company, the first
propriety is to payback the money to the
debenture holder.
The company has to pay fixed rate of interest to
the bond holders whether the company makes
any profit or suffer the loss, which is basically
against the Islam.
Redemption of Debentures means to discharge the liability on account of
debenture. Debentures may be redeemed out of profit, out of capital or out of provision made for
redemption. A company can redeemed its debenture by any of the following method.
1. Redemption in Installment:
A company may redeem its debenture in installment as per the term of the issue of
the debenture. The term may be in any of the following forms.
a. Redemption of fixed sum of debenture:
The term of issued may provide that as a form of particular the company
will be redeeming debenture of a fix amount. The decision about the holders
whose money has to be return on be taking lottery methods or drawing a lot
b. Redemption by purchase of debentures in the open market:
A company may purchase its own debentures in the open market. The
advantage of this method is that the company can redeemed the debenture at its
convenience what debentures are purchased the company have to pay a higher or
low price then the paid up value of its debentures. Any such profit or loss on
redemption will be capital profit or loss. The debentures so purchased may be
cancelled or may be kept as investment is may be utilized for re-issue when
needed after wards.
2. Redemption by Conversion:
In some case converting them into new share redeems debenture or debentures
the term of issue may give the option to convert into share or debenture can be issued at
per at premium or at discount. In case the new debentures are issued at premium,
premium account is credited and discount account is debited.
3. Redemption in lump sum after the Expiry of a fixed period:
The company may redeem the debenture in a lump sum after the expiry of a fixed
period. Redemption in a lump sum involves high firms and therefore it will be
appropriate for the company to make adequate provision for the funds of the redemption
right from the very beginning. There are two methods of such provision;
a. Creation of sinking fund or debenture redemption fund:
Under this method every year a fix amount is taken from the profit and loss
appropriation account. This amount is invested out side the business in creation
of good securities are refined and the sale proceed are used for redeeming
debentures usually the interest received on securities of sinking fund is also
reinvested. This company earns compound interest sinking fund table are used for
finding out which, if interest together with the interest in securities earning a
fixed rate of interest will amount to the sum required for the redemption of
debenture after the expiry of fixed period.
b. Insurance Policy Method:
Under this method the company may take an insurance policy for redemption of
debentures in place of purchasing investment. The policy will be required data.
The amount of premium will have to be paid in the beginning of the year. The
question of getting interest does not arise at all and therefore, there will be no
entry for interest.
“Right Issue & Bonus Issue”
Right issue on invitation to the existing share holders so subscribe for further
shares to be issued by accompany. A right simply means an option to buy certain securities at a
certain specified period. A limited company having a share capital may increase its share capital
by issuing new shares.
Share so effected to the existing shareholders are called right shares as the
existing shareholders of a public company have a first right of allotment of further shares. The
offer of such shares to the existing shareholders is known as “Privatized Subscription” or “Right
“Advantages of Right Issue”
Following are the specific advantages of this legal right to the existing share
1. It ensures equitable distribution of share without disturbing the established equilibrium
of shareholders. The contract of the company remains in the hand of the existing
2. There is more certainty of the share being sold to the existing share holder at lower price
then market price.
3. The expenses to be incurred if share is offered to the public are avoided.
4. It prevents the directors to issue new shares to their relatives and friends at lower price,
on the other ensures that should get more controlling rights in the company. It better
images of the company and stimulates response from share holders and the investment
Introduction & Definition:
The term bonus means an extra dividend paid to shareholders in a joint stock
company from surplus profit, when a company has accumulated a large fund out of profit much
be on it needs the directors may divided to distribute a point of it amongst the shareholders in
form of bonus. Bonus can be paid either in cash or in the form of share. Cash bonus is paid by
the company when it has large accumulated profit as well as cash to pay dividend. May a time a
company is not in a position or because it’s adverse effects on the capital of the company. In
such conditions, the free shares are issued, known as Bonus. Shares become permanently put of
its issued share capital.
From Company’s view point:
(a) As no cash is distributed liquidity isn’t imposed.
(b) The profit is permanently detail in the business by capitalizing the facilities
expansion of business by employing such capital profit in the business.
(c) The capital of the company as per its balance sheet will be more realization
then it would be otherwise.
From Shareholders view point:
(a) The shareholders can receive dividend on the increased share holding.
(b) The shareholders receive profit without in any way affecting the company’s
cash position, they can release cash by the sale of these shares in the market if
they so desire.
(c) The shareholders stand to gain, since receipt of bonus share dividend results
in tax advantages them to compare to cash dividend.
Preparation of Final Accounts:
Under section 233 of the company’s ordinance it has been made compulsory to
prepare final account and present it at every annual meeting, section 233 reveals the following
points in this regard.
1. Laying accounts before General Meeting:
Under section 233 (1) of company’s ordinance the Directors of every company
are required to lay before the company in Annual General Meeting a Balance Sheet, Profit and
Loss account or in the case of a company not trading for profit an Income and Expenditure
account for the period. The first account must be presented at some date not later then the
eighteen months after the incorporation of the company, subsequently once at least in every
calendar year.
2. Audit of account:
Under section 233 (3) the Balance Sheet and the Profit and Loss account or
Income and Expenditure account shall be audited. The Auditor of the company and the
Auditor’s Report shall be attached.
3. Circulation of accounts:
Under section 233 (4) every company shall be send a copy of such Balance Sheet
and Profit and Loss account or Income and Expenditure account so audited together with a
copy of the auditor’s report and the Directors’ Report to the registered address of the every
member of the company at last 21 days before the meeting at which such accounts and
reports are to be presented.
4. Filing of Accounts:
Under section 233 (5) every listed company shall also dispatch simultaneously
five copies of each account and report to the authority, the Registrar and the Stock Exchange
on which its quoted a non listed public company has however to file three copies of such
accounts along with Auditor’s and Directors’ Report with the Registrar of joint stock
companies only.
5. Directors’ Report:
Under section 236 the Directors’ Report is a point of company’s annual accounts.
This report shall contain the usual information regarding the efforts of the company its
operations etc. However it shall also contain the full information and explanation with
regards to any reservation, observation, qualification or adverse remarks made by the
auditors in their report on the account of the company.
The procedure for the formation of a joint stock company may be divided into
four stages as follows.
1. Promotion Stage:
First of all the idea of forming a company must be conceived either a person or a
group of person who are called “promoters”. A person doing the necessaries floatation work
of a company is called the “promoter”. Promoters are experts in company formation work.
They may detail investigation to find out whether the idea is really profitable. They also to
decide about the total amount of capital required to start and to run the business. They have
to prepare the necessary documents required to gain the incorporation certificate.
2. Incorporate Stage:
A company is incorporated when it gets certificate of incorporation from the
registrar of the companies. For this purpose following documents are to be filled by
promoters of the company (i) Memorandum of Association (ii) Article of Association (iii)
Notice and Address of head office (iv) List of directors (v) Consent of directors in written
(vi) Directors contract of qualification to purchase shares (vii) Statutory declaration of
fulfillment of legal conditions of incorporations.
The documents (iv, v and vi) are not required for private companies. If the
registrar is satisfied in all matters he shall issue the certificate of incorporation. The
certificate is the conduce evidence that all the requirements in respect of registration have
been compiled with, and now private company can start its business.
3. Raising of Share Capital:
After the Incorporation of the public company, the directors will file a copy of
the prospectus with the registrar. It is an invitation to the public for subscription. Investors
can get the prospectus and application form free of charge from the company’s bankers.
They will submit the application along with the companies and directors will, and then
precedes the allotment of the shares to the applications.
4. Trading or Business Commencement Certificate:
A public company through incorporation can not begin its business unless it gets
the Trading certificate. This will be issued by the registrar of the following declarations are
filled by the company with the registrar.
a. Declaration by the company that the minimum subscription amounts as per prospectus
is satisfied.
b. Declaration by the company that all the directors have taken up and paid for their
qualification shares.
c. Declaration by the company those all legal requirements precedent to commencement
of business has taken up and paid for their qualification shares.
Memorandum of Association is the basic document of a joint stock company. It is
known as the “Charter of the Company”. It sets out the limits which outside, which the company
must go. Its main purpose is to enable share holders, creditors and all those who deal with the
company to know what its permitted range of enterprise is. The main clauses of the
Memorandum of Association of a company limited by shares have been described in section 16,
17 and 18 of company’s ordinance as under.
Clauses/ Particulars of Memorandum:
1. Name Clause:
The clauses state the name of the company. A company may adopt any name of
the company but it should not be identical to the name of an ousting company registered at the
registrar of the companies. The company’s ordinance provides that the name of company must
and with the word “limited” only if public company, and “(private) limited” if the private
2. Registered Office Clause:
According to this clause the company must have a registered office at which all
communication and notices are to be addressed. The memorandum will only state the name of
the province where office is situated.
3. Object Clause:
It is the most important clause in the memorandum. It clearly defines the phase of
the company’s activities. Any business activity carried outside the territories specified in the
object clause of memorandum is altering view & view.
4. Liability Clause:
This clause of memorandum contains a declaration that the liability of the share
holders is limited to the extent of the value of shares holding by them.
5. Capital Clause:
This clause is required to specify the amount of share capital with which the
company proposes to be registered and secondly the division of the capital into shares of a fixed
6. Subscription Clause:
This clause contains a declaration by the subscribers that they are desirous of
forming them selves into a company and agree with the number of shares written against their
respective names. The subscriber is required to take at least one share each.
Article of association is a legal document, second importance to memorandum of
association. The Article of association is the regular ions or by laws governs internal
organization and conduct of a company.
The article of association describes the process of the directors the made and
from in which changes in internal regulation of the company make from time to time be made.
The article of association being subordinate to the memorandum of association can not go
beyond the limit set by it.
Content of Article:
The main content of the Article of Association are as under:
1. Amount of share capital issue, transmission of share.
2. Rights of share holders regarding, voting, dividend and return of capital.
3. Rates regarding issuance of shares and debentures.
4. Procedure as well as regulation in respect of marking calls on shares.
5. Manner of transfer of shares.
6. Rates regarding appointment of directors, managing directors, agents, secretaries and
7. Number qualification, remuneration, powers and liabilities of directors.
8. Declaration of dividend.
9. Convincing and conduct of meeting with reference to notice quorum, poll, promo,
resolution etc.
10. Rates regarding the forfeited and surrender of shares.
11. Matters relating to accountant audit.
12. Rates regarding the winding up the company.
Amalgamation refers to the formation of a new company to purchase existing
companies necessitating the winding up of the later. Some times two or more companies case
amalgamation together for the sake of economy in working. A new company is framed to
acquire and carry on business of all companies is called Amalgamation.
When an existing company takes over the business of their existing company it
knows as the absorption. The company bought over goes into liquidation. The absorbed
company will have no further separate existing.
Absorption does not involve the formation of a new company but it does require
the winding up of an existing company whose business is being purchased.
The term Reconstruction is commonly used to describe scheme under which a
company goes into liquidation for the expenses purpose of selling its assets to a new company
for propriety paid shares carrying a further liability usually the liquidation. Company has
exhausted its working capital and by mean such a scheme the company is reconstructed.
There are two companies,
one company sales its assets
company. It either takes
cash or shares of the
existing company any or
both for its existence.
The object is to avoid
connection and exchange
profit by effecting economy
and management.
There are two companies,
both companies loss their
existence by selling their
concerns to a new company
which is found by taking the
assets of both.
absorbed company
either be paid or purchasing
company may take over the
There is only one company. It
loss its existence by reducing
its capital with the amount of
loss shown in the balance
sheet. It is reconstructed either
by a new or by the old
The object share gain is to Its object is to eliminate the
and loss accumulated during the
exchange profits by effecting past year and reconstruct it as a
new company with the earning
company in management.
profit in the nature.
both The creditors of the company
companies may either be may either be paid or
paid or the purchasing
company may take over the converted into debentures on
the new company.
liabilities of both companies.
When a person having an exclusive right of some sort transfers it to another in
exchange for a certain amount calculated with reference to the quantity or sold much on amount
is known as Royalty.
There are some person who posses an exclusive right over a mine in his territory.
A patent holder has the exclusive right to produce things according to the patent. An author
requires a copy right in his book and is alone authorized to print and sell it. This right can be
exercised by its possessors or it can be sold to some person in exchange of definite amount
which is known as royalty.
In these cases, the person who surrender the right is known loser (land lord) and
the person who take it known as lassie.
Minimum Rent or Dead Rent”
It is the minimum amount that must be paid by the lassie to the land lord in any
particular year, whether the mine is worked or not at all. Usually there is a contract between the
loser and lassie that in case of low out put or lower sale. This minimum amount is called
“Minimum or Dead Rent”, it is also known as “Fixed Rent”, “Sleeping Rent” or “Certain Rent”.
The dead rent is helpful rent as, thus to provide the land lord of regular income. It should
however be noted that the question of dead rent arises only if the royalty falls short of dead rent.
“Short working”
When the Royalty is less then the dead rent, the difference is called “Short
Working”. It can easily be defined at the excess of dead rent over the royalty, usually it is only
during the course of a couple of initial years that short working take place.
“Recoupment of Short working”
Generally short working are carried forward and deducted from further surplus.
Short working are usually recoupable within a limited period only i.e. within the life of lose. As
long as short working are recoupable they are on asset should be shown in the balance sheet.
“Interim Dividend”
An interim dividend is a dividend declared before the close of a financial year of
a company either out of accumulated profit brought forward from past years or anticipated profit
of the ear rent year. In other words interim dividend is a dividend declared at any time between
two ordinary general meetings. Interim dividend is only a payment on account of the whole
dividend for the years.
Before dividing on interim dividend the director must be careful to see that the
profit already made sufficient, justify the payment of an interim dividend and interim financial
account should be prepared which all would provision is respect of outstanding liabilities for
expenses, depreciation etc share made although the account may disclose large profits.
It is also a term as amalgamation when to or more companies carrying on similar
business amalgamate their concerns so that the combine capital may result in reducing expenses
or that the combined capital may enable the carrying on the business more profitable or may
help in avoiding disasters result of keen competition for other reasons. In amalgamation two or
more companies carrying on business of a like nature combine together in form of a new
company. The main object of Merger is to unite combined working by reducing establishment
1. Introduction
This topic is also known as Single Entry System of
Accounting. In this chapter we will learn how an
accountant prepares financial statements of those
organizations which are not keeping up proper double
entry book keeping system of accounting.
From accounting system stand point, business
organizations can be classified into three broad
1.1 Small scale business entities
These consist of very small sized business entities
like; barber shop, mutton shop, washer man, general
store, electrician etc. etc.
1.2 Medium scale business entities
These consist of medium sized business entities like;
drycleaner, motor car dealers, house building
contractors, schools etc. etc.
1.3 Large scale business entities
These consist of large sized business entities like;
importers/exporters, motor car manufactures,
transporters etc. etc.
Here it must be made clear that large scale business
entities have these much resources with them that
these can easily afford a systematic accounts
department where they will be following the double
entry book keeping system. Moreover, most of these
concerns are incorporated bodies and these have to
maintain systematic accounting records in order to
fulfill requirements of the Companies Ordinance 1984
and International Financial Reporting Standards
2. Accounting for Small scale business entities
Small scale business entities are often single owner
organizations (Sole proprietorship). These are very
small in size and cannot afford an accounts
department in their organizations. They have a very
little setup in which a sole trader is acting so many
rolls; he/she is the sales manager, and also the
purchase manager, also responsible for marketing and
accounts matters as well.
A sole proprietor is also concerned about financial
performance (profitability) and financial position of
the organization, which can make him/her able to take
certain future decisions. Certain government
agencies, like taxation department, also required to
know about the require knowing profits of the
But as the sizes of the organizations are very small
and these can hardly afford an accountant therefore a
very simple accounting system is proposed for such
2.1 Accounting Records
These organizations do not have to keep any complex
accounting records, these are directed by their
accounts consultants (Qualified Accountants) to keep
certain information relating to cash receipts
(introduction of fresh capital) and payments
(drawings) and also relating to the period end
balances of assets and liabilities. As size of the
transactions are very small therefore one can
remember very easily what are the year end balances
of loan taken or was there any addition or disposal
of assets during
the year. Finally the consultants prepare a statement
of profit or loss for the period and also a balance
sheet as on the closing date of such period.
2.2 Statement of Profit or Loss
As you have studied in your earlier courses that
profit is an out come of the “Income Statement” that
is prepared in a systematic way with the help of a
trial balance extracted from the ledger. But over
here in the absence of a trial balance, we are not
able to prepare an Income Statement. Here we will see
that where that profit goes within the financial
statements, we finally find that the profit is added
up in the Owner’s Equity, which appears like this:
Owner’s Equity (opening balance)
Fresh capital (introduced during the year)
Net profit (for the year)
Drawings (during the year)
Owner’s Equity (closing balance)
For small scale business entities, which are not
preparing proper books of accounts and cannot extract
a trial balance, the technique to calculate Net
Profit will be to come other way round.
To calculate Net Profit figure from the above
equation one must know all other information that has
to be put into it. Now the above equation will be
reversed and Net Profit figure will be its out come
and this equation is then named as the “Statement of
Profit or Loss”.
Name of the Organization
Statement of Profit or Loss
For the year ended December 31, 20x7
Owner’s Equity (closing balance) ***
Drawings (during the year) ***
Owner’s Equity (opening balance) (**)
Fresh Capital (introduced during the year) (**)
Net profit (for the year) [balancing figure] ***
2.3 Statement of Affairs
From examination stand point, Drawings and Fresh
capital will be given in the questions but often the
students will be required to calculate the opening
and closing balances of Owner’s Equity as these will
not be given in the question as a single amount
If you have not yet forgotten the basic accounting
equation then Statement of Affairs is very simple to
understand. What you learned in the basic accounting
equation was that:
So to calculate the balance of owner’s equity the
equation will be reversed like:
Name of the Organization
Statement of Affairs
As on Opening and Closing Date
Opening Closing
Rs. Rs.
Furniture and fixture (net of depreciations) ***
Stocks *** ***
Debtors (net of provisions) *** ***
Prepaid expenses *** ***
Bank *** ***
Cash *** ***
Loan (**) (**)
Creditors (**) (**)
Accrued expenses (**) (**)
OWNER’S EQUITY (Net Assets) *** ***
The balance of Owner’s Equity can also be termed as
Net Assets as it is the balance of assets after
subtracting all liabilities.
2.4 Difference between Balance Sheet and Statement of
The only difference is that in Balance Sheet we put
RESOURCES (Assets) against the SOURCES (Owner’s
equity and Liabilities). By doing this we come to
know the financial position of the organization,
whereas in Statement of Affairs we simply calculate
the balance of owner’s equity at opening/closing
dates of the accounting period by subtracting
liabilities for the asset. Balance sheet equation
provides help in calculating the balance of owner’s
equity and that’s all.
1 From the following information prepare statement
of profit or loss for the year. Rs.(000)
Opening balance of capital 100
Closing balance of capital 150
Drawings 40
Fresh capital introduced during the year 25
Bilal Anwar started in business on 1 January
2005 with Rs. 10,000 in a bank account.
Unfortunately he did not keep proper books of
account. He is forced to submit a calculation
of profit for the year ended 31 December 2005
he had stock valued at cost Rs. 3,950, a van
which had cost Rs 2,800 during the year and
which had depreciated by Rs. 550, debtors of
Rs. 4,970, expenses prepaid of Rs. 170, bank
balance Rs. 2,564, cash balance Rs. 55, trade
creditors Rs. 1,030, and expenses owing Rs.
470. His drawings were: cash Rs. 100 per week
for 50 weeks, Cheque payments Rs. 673. Draw up
statements to show the profit or loss for the
3 Jehan Zeb is a dealer who has not kept proper books
of account. At 31 August 2006 his state of affairs
was as follows:
Bank Balance
Van (at valuation)
Following question illustrates how adjustments are
incorporated in the closing statement of affairs and
what is the difference in a Balance Sheet and a
Statement of Affairs.
By solving this question students will learn that the
Statement of Profit or loss consists of four items
i.e., opening balance of owners’ equity, closing
balance of owners’ equity, fresh capital and
drawings. The result after adjusting these items
accordingly will be Net profit for the year. Remember
one thing the adjustments like depreciations,
provision for doubtful debts, accruals etc are not
accounted for in the statement of profit or loss.
Ali and Bilal are partners in a firm sharing profits
and losses in the proportion of 3:2. They keep their
books on the single entry system. On 31 December,
2006, the following Statement of Affairs was
extracted from their books:
Plant & Machinery
Sundry Debtors
Cash at Bank
Loan- Bilal
On 31 December, 2007, their assets and liabilities
were: Sundry Debtors Rs 40,000; Sundry Creditors Rs
25,000 Plant & Machinery Rs 50,000; Stock Rs 30,000;
Bills Receivable Rs 5,000; Cash at Bank Rs 25,000;
Loan- Bilal Rs 25,000.
You are required to prepare a Profit and Loss
Statement for the year ended 31 December, 2007 and a
Statement of Affairs as at that date after taking
into consideration the following:
a) Plant and machinery is to be depreciated by 10%
b) Stock is to be reduced to Rs 25,000.
c) A provision for bad debts to be raised at 5% on
Sundry Debtors
d) Interest on loan is to be allowed at 6% p.a.
e) During the period Ali and Bilal draw Rs 5,000
and Rs 3,000 respectively
1.1 Accounting Records
Accountants of these entities are directed to
maintain following set of information, which although
does not constitute a complete accounting system but
can work:
a) Cash Book
i. Cash Account
ii. Bank Account
b) Debtors (Accounts Receivables) Ledger
c) Creditors (Accounts Payables) Ledger
d) Statement of Affairs (Opening)
e) Year-end adjustments
i. Closing stock
ii. Depreciation of fixed assets
iii. Provision for doubtful debts
iv. Accruals and prepayments
v. Disposal of Assets
1.2 Preparation of Financial Statements
Now let’s see how Income Statement
can be prepared with the help of a
records. For this, we will analyze
Income Statement and Balance Sheet
the following pages.
and Balance Sheet
set of incomplete
the contents of
item by item in
Name of the Organization
Income Statement
For the year ended December 31 20x7
Source of Information Rs.
Cash Sales Cash Book receipts side
Credit Sales Debtors account Dr side
Cost of Goods Sold
Opening Stock Statement of Affairs
Cash Purchases Cash Book payment side
Credit Purchases Creditors account Cr side
Closing Stock Year-end Adjustments
Gross Profit
Operating Expenses
Cash based expenses Cash Book payment side
Adjusted with:
Accrued Expenses S O A-opening/Year-end Adjustments
Prepaid Expenses S O A-opening/Year-end Adjustments
Expenses against receivables
Bad Debts/Discounts Debtors account Cr side
Provision for doubtful debts S O A-opening/Year-end
Expenses against fixed assets
Depreciation Year-end Adjustments
Loss on disposal S O A-opening/Cash Book receipts
Profit from operations
Other Income
Cash based income Cash Book receipts side
Adjusted with:
Accrued incomes S O A-opening/Year-end Adjustments
Unearned incomes S O A-opening/Year-end Adjustments
Incomes against payables
Discounts Creditors accounts Dr side
Incomes against fixed assets
Gain on disposal S O A-opening/Cash Book receipts
Net profit Result
Name of the Organization
Balance Sheet
As on December 31 20x7
Source of Information Rs.
Fixed Assets S O A-opening
Addition Cash Book payment side
Disposal Year-end Adjustments
Depreciation Year-end Adjustments
Investments S O A-opening
Addition Cash Book payment side
Disposal Year-end Adjustments
Current Assets
Stocks Year-end Adjustments
Debtors Debtors Account
Prepaid expenses Year-end Adjustments
Accrue incomes Year-end Adjustments
Bank Cash Book (Bank Account)
Cash Cash Book (Cash Account)
Total Result
Owner’s Equity
Opening balance S O A-opening
Fresh capital Cash Book receipts side
Net profit Income Statement
Drawings Cash Book payment side
Further loan taken Cash Book receipts side
Repayment of loan Cash Book payment side
Current liabilities
Creditors Creditors Account
Accrued expenses Year-end Adjustments
Unearned incomes Year-end Adjustments
Bank overdraft Cash Book
Total Result
Opening balance
All receipts either
relating to capital or
revenue receipts
All payments either
relating to capital or
revenue payments
Closing balance
Cash Book
Statement of Affairs as on opening date
Opening Assets xxx
Opening Liabilities (xxx)
Owner’s Equity xxx
Debit (Dr.) and Credit (Cr.) Rules:
Debit (Dr.) group
Assets Increase Dr.
Expenses Decrease Cr.
Credit (Cr.) group
Owner’s equity Increase Cr.
Income Decrease Dr.
Company Name Income Statement For the year ended -----Sales xxx
Less: Cost of goods sold
Opening Stock xxx
Add Purchases xxx
Less Closing Stock xxx
CGS xxx
Gross profit xxx
Less Operating expenses xxx
Less Other expenses xxx
Add Other Income xxx
Net Profit xxx
Operating Expenses:
1. Cash based expenses
2. Expenses relating to receivables
3. Expenses relating to fixed assets
a). Depreciation
b). Loss on disposal of an assets
Cash Based Expenses:
Expenses paid in cash during the year xxx
Less Opening balance of Accrued expenses xxx
Add Closing balance of Accrued expenses xxx
Add Opening balance of prepaid expenses xxx
Less Closing balance of prepaid expenses xxx
Provision for Doubtful Debts
1. When there is an increase in Provision it will
be charged as an expense.
2. When there is a decrease in Provision it will be
credited to the expense.
Incomes Based on Cash
Cash received during the year xxx
Less Opening balance of Accrued income xxx
Add Closing balance of Accrued income xxx
Add Opening balance of advance income xxx
Less Closing balance of advance income xxx
Solved Questions
From the following given information you are required
to prepare Income Statement and Balance Sheet for the
year 2007.
Cash Book
Opening balance
Cash sales
Received from
Salaries and wages
Rent and rates
Electricity bill
Paid to creditors
Closing balance
Loan from brother
Debtors Account
balance b/f
Cash received
from debtors
Credit sales
Bad debts
balance c/f
Year end adjustments
Closing stock Rs. 3,200; rent prepaid Rs. 200;
salaries owing Rs. 500; and furniture is to be
depreciated @ 10%.
As we have already learned that a medium sized entity
will not be preparing its books of accounts based on
double entry book keeping system rather it will be
maintaining following set of records in order to
prepare its financial statements:
a) Cash Book
i. Cash Account
ii. Bank Account
b) Debtors (Accounts Receivables) Ledger
c) Creditors (Accounts Payables) Ledger
d) Statement of Affairs (Opening)
e) Year-end adjustments
i. Closing stock
ii. Depreciation of fixed assets
iii. Provision for doubtful debts
iv. Accruals and prepayments
v. Disposal of Assets
Above information provides sufficient data which is
required to prepare Income Statement and Balance
Sheet of the entity.
For students the question becomes more complex when
the above set of records is not completely prepared
and some information is missing from these records.
In this case the students have to put expertise in
searching out the missing information firstly and
then to prepare financial statements.
Possible missing information and the procedure to
ascertain that information is being discussed
Sales may be of two types (i) Credit Sales, and (ii)
Cash Sales. Credit Sales will be ascertained by
preparing Debtors Account while Cash Sales will be
found out from the Cash Book.
From the following information, find out the credit
Opening balance of Debtors 12,000
Returns Inward 5,000
Cash received from debtors 45,000
Discount allowed 3,000
Bad Debts 1,500
Closing balance of Debtors 10,000
From the following cash transactions ascertain the
amount of cash sales:
Opening Cash balance 5,000
Opening Bank balance 10,000
Cash collected from Debtors 20,000
Commission received 5,000
Payment to Creditors 10,000
Cash purchases 20,000
Closing Cash balance 10,000
Closing Bank balance 15,000
From the following information, find out the Credit
Opening Creditors 7,600
Cash paid to Creditors 20,000
Discount received 500
Returns outward 2,400
Closing Creditors 9,500
From the following information, calculate opening
Purchases 20,000
Sales 30,000
Closing Stocks 10,000
Gross profit 20% of Sales
Cost Structure
Cost structure stands for the percentage structure of
Sales Revenue, Cost of Goods Sold and Gross profit.
Through cost structure percentage of gross profit is
determined over the cost of goods sold and over the
sales revenue. It can be expressed in equation like
Sales Revenue Sales
Less Cost of Goods Sold or COGS
Gross profit
Markup rate
Markup rate is the rate of gross profit over the cost
of goods sold, it is expressed in %age and it is
formulated like this:
G P x100 = %
In calculating markup rate, the cost of goods sold is
kept equal to 100%. Suppose the markup rate is 25%
then the cost structure in markup will be like this:
Sales 125%
COGS 100%
G P 25%
Margin rate
Margin rate is the rate of gross profit over the
sales revenue, it is expressed in %age and it is
formulated like this:
G P x100 = %
In calculating margin rate, the sales revenue is kept
equal to 100%. Suppose the margin rate is 25% then
the cost structure in markup will be like this:
Sales 100%
COGS 75%
G P 25%
These markup/margin rates are used in calculating
gross profit or cost of goods sold or even sales, it
will all depend upon the scenario. For example:
Sales Rs. 80,000
Purchases (to be found)
Opening Stock Rs. 6,000
Closing Stock Rs. 2,000
Whereas goods are sold at a markup of 25%
Solution Scenario I
The cost structure is like this:
Sales 125%
COGS 100%
G P 25%
Gross Profit = 80,000 x 25 = 16,000
Cost of goods sold = Sales – Gross profit
= 80,000 – 16,000
= 64,000
Direct calculation of Cost of goods sold
= 80,000 x 100 = 64,000
Opening Stock (given) =
Purchases (balancing figure) = 60,000
Cost available for sale = 66,000
Closing Stock (given) = 2,000
Cost of goods sold (calculated) = 64,000
Scenario II
Sales (to be found)
Purchases Rs. 155,000
Opening Stock Rs. 10,000
Closing Stock Rs. 15,000
Whereas goods are sold at a margin of 25%
Solution Scenario II
The cost structure is like this:
Sales 100%
COGS 75%
G P 25%
Cost of goods sold = Opening stock 10,000
Purchases 155,000
Closing stock 15,000
Gross Profit = 150,000 x 25 = 50,000
Sales = Cost of goods sold + Gross profit
= 150,000 + 50,000
= 200,000
Direct calculation of Sales
=150,000 x 100 = 200,000
Financial Ratio Analysis
Financial ratio analysis involves calculating certain standardized relationship between figures
appearing in the financial statements and then using those relationships called ratios to
analyze the business' financial position and financial performance.
Due to varying size of businesses different comparison of two businesses is not possible.
Certain techniques have to be applied in simplifying the financial statements and making
them comparable. These include financial ratio analysis and common-size financial
Ratios are divided into different categories such as liquidity ratios, profitability ratios, etc.
Categories of Financial Ratios
Liquidity Ratios
Liquidity is the ability of a business to pay its current liabilities using its current assets.
Information about liquidity of a company is relevant to its creditors, employees, banks, etc.
current ratio, quick ratio, cash ratio and cash conversion cycle are key measures of liquidity.
Solvency Ratios
Solvency is a measure of the long-term financial viability of a business which means its
ability to pay off its long-term obligations such as bank loans, bonds payable, etc..
Information about solvency is critical for banks, employees, owners, bond holders,
institutional investors, government, etc.. Key solvency ratios are debt to equity ratio, debt to
capital ratio, debt to assets ratio, times interest earned ratio, fixed charge coverage ratio, etc.
Profitability Ratios
Profitability is the ability of a business to earn profit for its owners. While liquidity ratios and
solvency ratios are relationships that explain the financial position of a business profitability
ratios are relationships that explain the financial performance of a business. Key profitability
ratios include net profit margin, gross profit margin, operating profit margin, return on assets,
return on capital, return on equity, etc.
Activity ratios
Activity ratios explain the level of efficiency of a business. Key activity ratios include
inventory turnover, days sales in inventory, accounts receivable turnover, days sales in
receivables, etc.
Performance ratios include cash flows to revenue ratio, cash flows per share ratio, cash return
on assets, etc. and they aim at determining the quality of earnings.
Coverage Ratios
Coverage ratios are supplementary to solvency and liquidity ratios and measure the risk
inherent in lending to the business in long-term. They include debt coverage ratio, interest
coverage ratio (also known as times interest earned), reinvestment ratio, etc.
NOTE: Practices questions are prepared from the
given books of author