A neologism lexicology

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A neologism - is a new lexical unit introduced into a language to denote a new object or
phenomenon. Neologisms are often directly attributable [əˈtrɪbjʊtəbl] to a specific person,
publication, period, or event.
New words, as a rule, appear in speech of an individual person who wants to express his idea in
some original way. New lexical units are used by university teachers, newspaper reporters, by
those who are connected with mass media.
Neologisms can develop in three main ways:
1. Semantic neologisms-a lexical unit existing in the language can change its meaning to denote
a new object or phenomenon. In such cases we have semantic neologisms, e.g. the word
«umbrella» developed the meanings: «авиационное прикрытие», »политическое
прикрытие».
2.) Lexical Neologisms-A new lexical unit can develop in the language to denote an object or
phenomenon which already has some lexical unit to denote it. In such cases we have
transnomination, e.g. the word «slum» was first substituted by the word «ghetto» then by the
word-group «inner town».
3.) Nonce words (occasional words)-A new lexical unit can be introduced to denote a new
object or phenomenon. In this case we have «a proper neologism», many of them are cases of
new terminology.
At the present moment English is developing very swiftly and there is so called «neology
blowup.
Ways and Means of Enriching English Vocabulary in the 21st century
Affixation:
Superculture (2012)- high culture
Boysy (2008)-is characteristic for
boys or young men
Conversion:
To skype(2013)- to have a spoken
conversation with someone over the
internet using the skype
The best , n ( 2014) – that which is
the most excellent
Compounding:
Workaround (2014)is a method for overcoming a problem
Last call (2014) -an expression used to inform customers that
closing time is approaching
Shortening:
FLOTUS (2015) first lady of the
United States,
Ship(2015)-relationship
Brexit (2012) – a term for the
potential departure of the UK
from the EU.
Borrowing:
”vuvuzela” means “long horn
blown by fans at soccer
matches in South Africa”,
(2011);
“baon”means “money, food, or
other provisions taken to
school, work, or on a journey”,
( 2015)
We we can point out several semantic groups when we analyze the group of neologisms
connected
with
computerization,
and
here
we
can
mention
words
used:
In the sphere of lingusitics we have such neologisms as: machine translation, interlingual / an
artificial language for machine translation into several languages / and many others.
In the sphere of biometrics we have computerized machines which can recognize
characteristic features of people seeking entrance : finger-print scanner / finger prints/,
biometric
eye-scanner
/
blood-vessel
arrangements
in
eyes/,
voice
verification
In fashion industry:"cool hunter” n.is one who predicts new styles and trends, (2009);
“Selfie” n.is “a photograph that one has taken of oneself”, (2014);
Technological neologisms:“phablet” n.-means a “mobile smartphone with ambitions to be a
tablet computer” (2010);
, super-computer, multi-user, neurocomputer / analogue of a human brain/;
“generation text” n.means “the generation of young people who are growing up in the age of
text messaging”, (2014);
Political neologisms:“Chindia“ n.denotes “China and India considered together in economic
and strategic terms”, (2004);
Internet communication
:“itwitterate” n. denotes the people, who do not know how to use Twitter, (2012);
“Facebookable”adj. means “something that is considered appropriate enough to be viewed publicly on
facebook amongst your friends, family”, (2012);
Food neologisms:
“wine o’clock” n.-means a time of day for starting to drink wine, (2015); “Frankenfood” -is "genetically
modified food”, (2012);
Language is never stationary. New words are constantly being formed; living words are
constantly changing their meanings, expanding, contracting, gaining or losing caste, taking on
mental, moral, or spiritual significance; and old words, though long sanctioned by custom,
sometimes wither and die.
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