IMRaD Introduction–Method–Results–and–Discussion. What is IMRaD? • It is a way of structuring a scientific article. • It is often used in health care and the natural sciences. • It does not include a separate theory chapter. • There is no place in this type of writing for personal views and fanciful language. HISTORY • 1665- origin • 1940s- began to be used in journals • 1970s- it reached 80 %, adopted as a majority • 1980s- the only pattern adopted in original papers HISTORY • Early journals published descriptive papers (still used in case reports, geological surveys etc..) • By the second half of the 19th century, reproducibility of experiments became a fundamental principle of the philosophy of science. • The methods section became all important since Louis Pasteur confirmed the germ theory of disease • IMRAD organization of a scientific paper started to develop • IMRAD format slowly progressed in the latter half of the 19th century Benefits The IMRAD structure has proved successful because it facilitates literature review, allowing readers to navigate articles more quickly to locate material relevant to their purpose. But the neat order of IMRAD rarely corresponds to the actual sequence of events or ideas of the research presented; the IMRAD structure effectively supports a reordering that eliminates unnecessary detail, and allows the reader to assess a well-ordered and noise-free presentation of the relevant and significant information. It allows the most relevant information to be presented clearly and logically to the readership, by summarizing the research process in an ideal sequence and without unnecessary detail. INTRODUCTION • It shows that you are knowledgeable about your field of study and existing research. • Your introduction should contain: A summary of existing research on the subject Your thesis statement, hypothesis or research question Theory (if relevant) An introduction to the field, the current situation or to prevailing practice Everything you write here must relate to your research question. METHOD • It shows that you arrived at your results by applying valid and reliable methods. • It explains what you did; your research, treatment or professional intervention, and how you did it. Your method chapter shows how you arrived at your results RESULTS • A relatively large part of your paper/thesis should be devoted to your results (findings, data, empirical evidence). • In this section you should: Present the findings Organize, classify, analyze and (if relevant) categorize Explain and interpret (e.g., differences between various studies) Assess and evaluate . Your results = the essence of your paper DISCUSSION • In this chapter you discuss the results of your study/project. Is it possible to generalize? Make comparisons with other studies Are there alternative explanations? What are the strong and weak aspects of your paper? What are the practical implications? Is more research needed? Make recommendations (to be applied in practice).