MGMT 2240 Potential Final Exam Questions From Business Ethics (pages 254-268) 1. Title VII of the _____, passed in 1964, created the prohibited classes of discrimination. A. International Labour Act B. United States Civil Rights Act C. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Act D. Uniform Employment Termination Act 2. ______ is the federal agency that provides explicit guides and resources detailing appropriate behavior in the workplace, as well as offering legal direction and parameters for both employees and employers. A. Title VII of the United States Civil Rights Act of 1964 B. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission C. Occupational Safety and Health Administration D. Portability of Health Coverage 3. Researchers Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Millainathan answered help-wanted ads in Boston and Chicago newspapers and ascertained that discrimination against _______ exists. A. names B. gender C. accents D. residential neighborhoods 4. As of 2016, __% of the workforce is comprised of white men under the age of 45. A. 45 B. 36 C. 25 D. 16 5. _______ refers to the principle of tolerance and inclusion that supports the co-existence of multiple cultures, while encouraging each to retain that which is unique or individual about that particular culture. A. Diversity B. Equality C. Multiculturalism D. Affirmative Action 6. Which of the following is discrimination against those traditionally considered to be in power or the majority? A. Reverse discrimination B. Affirmative action C. Inverse discrimination D. Backward discrimination 7. Which of the following is an example of reverse discrimination in America? A. An African-American interviewer rejects another African-American based on color. B. A female interviewer rejects a male interviewee because of gender. C. A white interviewer rejects an African-American based on color. D. A female interviewer rejects another female interviewee because of gender. 8. ______ refers to a policy or a program that tries to respond to instances of past discrimination by implementing proactive measures to ensure equal opportunity today. A. Reverse discrimination B. Gentrification C. Multiculturalism D. Affirmative action 9. All of the following are ways through which affirmative action can arise at the workplace except: A. Affirmative action may be required by Executive Order 11246. B. Courts may mandate judicial affirmative action. C. Affirmative action plans may be consultant-based. D. Employers may undertake voluntary affirmative action plans. 10. A claim which states that people who “pay” now for past wrongs are unfairly burdened and should not bear the responsibility for the acts of others is opposing _____. A. reverse discrimination B. the principle of amicus curiae C. affirmative action D. multiculturalism From Opportunities and Challenges of Workplace Diversity and class notes 11. Women make up close to half the workforce, but occupy only __% of the executive vice-president (and above) positions at Fortune 500 corporations. African Americans and Latinos represent approximately 25% of the population yet hold fewer than __% of senior management positions. A. 5; 8 B. 8; 5 C. 3; 5 D. 8; 3 12. According to Marilyn Loden, _________ dimensions of diversity represent the core of an individual’s identity and are essentially unchangeable. A. central B. primary C. secondary D. organizational 13. According to Marilyn Loden, all of the following are considered primary dimensions of diversity except A. age. B. sexual orientation. C. gender. D. religion. 14. ______ is a way of thinking that involves ascribing specific behavioral traits to individuals because they belong to a certain group. A. Stereotyping B. Prejudice C. Discrimination D. Tokenism 15. _________ is a way of feeling that involves having preconceived ideas or negative attitudes about others because of their group membership. A. Stereotyping B. Prejudice C. Discrimination D. Tokenism 16. _________ is a way of behaving that involves treating others differently (and usually negatively) because of their group membership. A. Stereotyping B. Prejudice C. Discrimination D. Tokenism 17. In Minnesota, state jobs were rated according to required level of education, training, stress, customer or client contact, and responsibility. Registered nurses and vocational education teachers were each rated the same, but the salary for nurses, who were mostly women, was only $1732 per month, while the salary for vocational education teachers, who were mostly men, was $2260 per month. Because the rating process determined that the jobs are of equivalent value to the state, ________ would seek to make adjustments so that the two positions are compensated equally. A. the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 B. the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Act C. the Equal Pay Act of 1963 D. the principle of comparable worth 18. Which of the following is a legal justification for discriminating on the basis of age, gender, religion or national origin? A. Customer preference B. A BFOQ C. Reverse discrimination D. Local statutes 19. Which of the following is not one of the principles relied upon by Canas and Sondak when defining and discussing diversity? A. Diversity includes more than one’s obvious demographic characteristics, but it has limits. B. Diversity is fluid, continuous, and indefinite. C. Diversity should be understood in terms of similarities as well as differences. D. Diversity is based on the assumption that a set of characteristics makes up the essential nature of all members of a group. 20. The business case for diversity includes all of the following components except: A. winning the competition for talent. B. driving business growth. C. being socially responsible. D. cost savings. 21. Which of the following is the broadest and important civil rights legislation ever enacted in this country? A. Equal Pay Act B. Civil Rights Act of 1964 C. Civil Rights Act of 1991 D. Executive Order 11246 22. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 applies to A. employers with 15 or more employees. B. employers with 50 or more employees. C. federal contractors and subcontractors. D. all employers. 23. When Title VII was first proposed, it included protection against discrimination based on only four dimensions of diversity. ______ was added by an opponent of the legislation in an attempt to kill it. A. gender B. religion C. sexual orientation D. skin color 24. _______ discrimination occurs when an employer’s use of a seemingly neutral selection standard, such as a test or a degree requirement, disqualifies members of a protected class at a significantly higher rate than others and is not justified by business necessity or job related duties. A. Disparate treatment B. Disparate impact C. Prima facie D. “Separate but equal” 25. The ADEA prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals A. over the age of 21. B. over the age of 40. C. under the age of 65. D. with disabilities. 26. Which of the following would not provide an employee with a claim for discrimination? A. An impairment that does not limit a major life activity B. A current disability C. Being regarded as having a disability D. A record or history of having a disability 27. The three primary functions of the ADA include all of the following except A. access. B. disability discrimination. C. reasonable accommodation. D. assimilation. 28. According to Canas and Sondak, the most significant component of the integrated approach to diversity management is: A. organizational communication. B. external relations. C. leadership commitment. D. diversity training. 29. Which of the following is not among the strategies offered by Kulik & Roberson for recruiting a more diverse workforce? A. Photos and text used for recruitment advertising that highlights the diversity of the organization’s workforce B. Recruitment through word-of-mouth and/or the organization’s website C. Use of female and racial minority recruiters D. Inclusion of statements that reflect the organization’s EEO policy in recruiting materials 30. According to Canas and Sondak, four significant retention strategies for building and managing diversity in organizations are: A. diversity training, mentoring, flex time and domestic partner benefits B. employee networks, diversity training, mentoring and domestic partner benefits C. employee networks, mentoring, flex time and domestic partner benefits D. fast-track career opportunities for women and minorities, diversity training, mentoring, and flex time 31. The “opt-out revolution” refers to: A. younger women choosing not to enter the workforce. B. younger men choosing not to enter the workforce. C. large numbers of highly qualified women dropping out of mainstream careers. D. large numbers of highly qualified men dropping out of mainstream careers. 32. A recent study of women’s career paths showed which of the following to be true regarding women leaving the workforce? A. The number one reason that women leave the fast lane is to change careers. B. Women are no more likely than men to take a voluntary time out from work. C. In the business sector, the “push” factors identified by women as reasons for taking an off-ramp outweigh “pull” factors. D. All of the above are true. 33. Which of the following is not a reason commonly cited by a significant number of off-ramped women for wanting to return to the workforce? A. A career goal of obtaining a “powerful position” B. Enjoyment and satisfaction C. A desire to give back to society D. Financial reasons 34. A majority of highly qualified women describe their careers as: A. following the same conventional trajectory as successful men. B. following a steep gradient in their 30’s and steady progress thereafter. C. circular. D. non-linear. 35. All of the following are suggested as means of reversing the “Brain Drain” of highly qualified women from the workplace except A. Downsize the ambition of women to more realistic levels. B. Remove the stigma that is often attached to nonstandard work arrangements. C. Provide outlets for altruism and public service. D. Create reduced-hour jobs, even at the level of manager. 36. Pregnancy-related discrimination cases in the United States: A. are dramatically less prevalent in the workplace today than they were a decade ago. B. have virtually disappeared since the passing of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978. C. are prohibited by the Family & Medical Leave Act. D. have increased in number since 1992. 37. Based on the research of Harvard Business School professor David Thomas, which of the following statements is false regarding race and career advancement? A. White professionals who eventually became executives entered a fast track into middle management in Stage 1 of their careers. B. Stage 3 is a period of catching up and breaking out for minority executives. C. For minority executives, Stage 1 was a time to develop competence, confidence and credibility. D. Minority executives had many more developmental relationships with influential others (mentors) than did white executives, especially early in their careers. 38. In cross-race mentoring relationships, all of the following potential obstacles must be overcome except: A. identification and role modeling. B. holding favorable stereotypes. C. public scrutiny. D. peer resentment. 39. In 1967, Congress passed the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, which protected individuals who are _____ from discrimination in employment. A. between 40 and 65 years of age B. between 40 and 70 years of age C. over the age of 40 D. under the age of 70 40. Baby boomers are individuals who were born between A. 1920 and 1945 B. 1946 and 1964 C. 1965 and 1980 D. 1981 and 1995 41. Between 2000 and 2010, only one age group in the workforce had a negative growth rate. Which of the following age segments declined by 10% in this decade? A. 16-24 year olds B. 25-34 year olds C. 35-44 year olds D. 45-54 year olds 42. Which of the following is not one of the strategies suggested to attract and retain older workers? A. Create ads emphasizing “knowledge” and “expertise” instead of “energy” and “fresh thinking”. B. Make employees feel that it is not a sign of weakness to ask for training; create an expectation that employees at all levels will continue to learn and grow. C. Establish the traditional 9-to-5, forty-hour work week to which most older workers are accustomed. D. Create flexible retirement programs, which allows “retirees” to continue to contribute to the company. 43. ___% of baby boomers plan to work at least part-time during their retirement. A. 16 B. 45 C. 65 D. 80 44. Which of the following is false regarding generations? A. As they grow older, they significantly change the way they view the world. B. They share a common set of formative events and trends. C. Each generation has a unique perspective on leadership and communication. D. They consist of people who were programmed at the same time in history. 45. Which is the fastest growing cohort in the workplace? A. WW II Generation B. Baby Boomers C. Generation X D. Millennials 46. Which of the following is a principle for managing generations successfully? A. Be consistent in your management style. B. Get employees to talk about their judgments about generational differences. C. Encourage people who are different to blend in with the rest of the team. D. Choose people with similar backgrounds to work on project teams. 47. Faith-based employee-resource groups A. are dramatically more prevalent in the workplace today than they were a decade ago. B. have become significantly less popular in the workplace over the past decade. C. are prohibited by Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. D. discriminate against atheists and agnostics. 48. Which of the following statements is true regarding US adults and religion? A. Younger people are more religious than older people. B. Older people are more religious than younger people. C. People are equally religious across all age groups. D. The most religious individuals are those between the ages of 35 and 49. 49. The largest Christian faith in the United States is: A. Lutheran B. Baptist C. Mormon D. Catholic 50. Of the non-Christian faiths in the United States, the largest is: A. Islam B. Judaism C. Buddhism D. Sikhism 51. According to the American Religious Identification Survey, ____ are the most religious group in the United States. A. Asians B. Blacks C. Latinos D. Whites 52. The largest group of Muslims in the United States are: A. Asians B. Blacks C. Latinos D. Whites 53. The vast majority of Evangelicals in the United States are: A. Asians B. Blacks C. Latinos D. Whites 54. Since 2001, the EEOC reports that workplace discrimination complaints against _____ have increased. A. Muslims B. Jews C. Sikhs D. all of the above 55. “Acceptable” expressions of spirituality in the workplace might include all of the following except: A. wearing a crucifix B. covering one’s hair C. proselytizing D. meditation during breaks 56. Which of the following is not a strategy for organizations to benefit from workplace expressions of spirituality? A. Clear policies about religious proselytizing B. Honoring requests for accommodation for religious activities C. Mandatory prayer groups D. Equitable religious holiday policies 57. Which of the following is not an example of a religious issue that employers are required by law to accommodate in the workplace unless doing so would create an undue hardship? A. the wearing of yarmulke or hijab B. Bible study groups C. time off for a religious holiday D. providing a place for a prayer break 58. In addition to the District of Columbia, how many states prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation? A. 8 B. 17 C. 22 D. 29 59. What percentage of the Fortune 500 prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity? A. 85% B. 75% C. 57% D. 35% 60. True or False: Major metropolitan areas with few gay couples tend to have slow (if any) tech-based business growth. A. True B. False 61. All of the following are strategies for inclusion of individuals of diverse sexual orientations and gender identities in the workplace except A. endorsing non-discrimination policies. B. mentoring programs. C. implementing domestic partner benefits. D. faith-based employee-resource networks. 62. Which of the following is true about ENDA? A. ENDA would prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity at the federal level. B. ENDA is an acronym for Employee Networking and Diversity Alliance. C. ENDA is a Congressional Act that would supplement legal protections provided by the ADA. D. ENDA is a proposed law that would ban discrimination on the basis of age for any individual 21 years of age or older. 63. All of the following are techniques for becoming a better manager with regard to LGBT employees except: A. Display items in your workspace such as magnets and posters that demonstrate your awareness of inclusiveness. B. Maintain your sense of humor when you hear antigay jokes. C. Do not assume that everyone you work with is heterosexual. D. Share whatever you have learned about human sexuality and homophobia that would encourage others to adopt productive behaviors. 64. “The assumption that everyone is heterosexual” is a definition of: A. homophobia B. heterosexism C. homosexism D. sexual orientation discrimination 65. As defined by the ADA, which of the following is considered a “major life activity”? A. Lifting B. Hearing C. Sleeping D. All of the above 66. Which of the following is among the benefits of employing people with disabilities? A. Having a workforce that reflects the community it serves B. Tax benefits C. A larger labor pool to draw from D. All of the above 67. Which of the following statements is false? A. One large barrier to employment of people with disabilities is a perception problem. B. Two-thirds of unemployed people with disabilities would prefer not to work. C. The employment gap between people with and without disabilities is getting wider. D. The employment rate of people with disabilities is half that of people without disabilities. 68. The employment rate for people with disabilities: A. has risen steadily since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. B. has remained constant despite the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. C. has declined over the last decade. D. has consistently been about two-thirds of the employment rate of people without disabilities. 69. In which race in the United States is there the greatest prevalence of disabilities? A. Asians B. Blacks C. Native Americans D. Whites 70. Although there are few hard and fast rules of disability etiquette, all of the following are among suggested guidelines except: A. When interacting with a person in a wheelchair for more than a few moments, sit, kneel or crouch facing the person. B. When interacting with a person with a hearing impairment, speak directly to her/his interpreter if s/he has one. C. When interacting with a person with a developmental disability, be prepared to ask politely that they repeat what you have said. D. When interacting with a person with a learning disability, be prepared to communicate in multiple formats (e.g. notes, tape recordings, verbal directions) 71. The video “A Class Divided” documented Jane Elliott’s “blue-eyed/brown-eyed” exercise. The purpose of the exercise was to allow participants to experience: A. racism B. discrimination on the basis of physical disability C. discrimination on the basis of religion D. sexual orientation discrimination 72. At a company party, employees are called up individually to receive year-end bonuses. Susan was shocked to discover that while men in her department received cash, she and her female co-workers were given flowers. This is an example of A. quid pro quo sexual harassment. B. hostile environment sexual harassment. C. gender discrimination. D. none of the above 73. Adam and Bob are looking at a sexually explicit website in Adam’s office. Carl walks in and sees the website. He is offended and reports the incident to Adam’s supervisor, who never tells Adam about the complaint. Carl has to go into Adam’s office four more times over the next couple of weeks and each time sees sexually explicit material on Adam’s screen. Carl never mentions to Adam that he is offended. This is, most likely, an example of A. quid pro quo sexual harassment. B. hostile environment sexual harassment. C. nothing – a man can’t be charged with sexually harassing another man. D. nothing – Carl never told Adam he was offended. 74. In which of the following cases is the employer most likely to be permitted by law to discriminate on the basis of a BFOQ? A. Domino’s Pizza told a newly-hired Sikh that he would have to shave his beard. In the Sikh religion, cutting hair on any part of the body is forbidden. B. In 2001, Alamo Rent A Car told a Muslim employee that she could not wear her headscarf as required during the holy month of Ramadan. She had been permitted to wear the headscarf during Ramadan in 1999 and 2000. She offered to wear an Alamo scarf but was fired nonetheless. C. A Jewish University that offers “professional rabbinic training” will only hire Orthodox Jews for its faculty and administration. D. A Red Robin restaurant chain employee (a waiter) practiced Kemetecism, an ancient Egyptian religion. In preparation for joining the priesthood, he had 2 thin tattoos encircling his wrists, written in Coptic with religious sayings. Red Robin insisted that he wear long sleeves, despite the fact that covering the tattoos is considered a sin.