New Connection 3-Unit 12 Trends and Fads

Student’s Book f p. 167
Trends and Fads
Get It Started:
Do you have the newest smartphone? Is your
wardrobe up to date? Keeping up with the latest
technology and fashion can be difficult. How
important are current trends and fads to you?
Student’s Book f p. 168
Task I
Listen to the audio. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the words provided.
The Tren
Trendy Times
Track 092
Fashion & Style
Miss World & the Fashion Factor
Last night’s feature event of the Miss World competition was the stressful
interview. All the contestants gave polished responses, and the q outfits I
saw were stunning. Here are some of my favorites:
Miss w Denmark showed off a few e staple pieces of her country’s
wardrobe, wearing a long loose-fitting sweater and r stylish black
Miss t Brazil, who looked bright and y radiant, represented the
u exotic style of her people. She was wearing a fashionable shirt
and—believe it or not—jeans!
Miss i France, renowned for her o sophisticated fashion sense,
exceeded my expectations. Her clothing was characterized by
a neutral colors. She had also applied the perfect amount of
cosmetics, so her skin appeared flawless.
Overall, the event was a smashing success! Both the clothing and the
answers were extraordinary.
Task II (Sample Answers)
Correct the words in italics by using those in bold as hints.
1. The view from the mountaintop was stunning. Everything looked so unpleasant.
2. Evelyn is the most stylish woman I’ve ever known. She dresses casually
for every single occasion.
3. Shiela appeared radiant after Harris proposed. You could tell she was annoyed!
4. Maria’s exotic dark hair and tanned skin are common among the locals, who
have light hair and skin.
5. The Grand Hotel is renowned in our city for its lovely rooms and first-rate service,
so the place is unknown.
6. The atmosphere at La Crêpe is quite sophisticated, making it a great place to take your
neighbors to.
Teaching Resources
Audio Transcripts for Getting Ready:
Track 092
Carole: I really enjoyed Paris Fashion Week, Dad.
Dad: Me too. Watching designers present their collections was fun.
Carole: Yeah. The French are stylishq, with scarves and complementing handbags. Plus, the
neutralw color schemese of browns and creams add to their sophisticatedr looks.
Dad: I don’t dress anything like them, do I?
Carole: Nope. But other countries are renownedt for fashion too, and their outfitsy are more
Unit 12
Dad: Really?
Carole: For example, Brazilians’ exoticu style includes boldi patterns, focusing on color and
comfort. Jeans are a wardrobeo staple.
Dad: Brazilian women are stunninga.
Carole: They spend 11 times more on makeup than the British, so I bet they are!
Dad: That’s strange because they attempt to achieve a natural look. They wear light
cosmeticss and want to be complimentedd on their radiantf skin.
Carole: Interesting. I have to say though, Denmark is my favorite fashion center. The winter
weather there is chilly, so warmth is essential. Yet, Danes look so trendy!
Dad: I’ve never noticed Danish fashion before.
Carole: Everyone has an extensive scarf and sweater collection. Long tops, leggingsg, and
knee-high boots are common with girls.
Dad: I’ve sure learned a lot from you today!
Key Words:
stylish adj.
Synonyms fashionable, trendy,
chic, hip
neutral adj., n.
s Matt is a stylish dresser. He refuses to wear
anything but the most fashionable brands.
s Beth purchased a neutral-colored purse so that it
would match a variety of clothes. (adj.)
s Ken painted the living room in neutrals. (n.)
color scheme n.
s Peter wasn’t thrilled with the bright color scheme
that Betty chose for decorating the bedroom.
sophisticated adj.
s The sophisticated French restaurant provides
diners with high-quality food and an elegant
Synonyms elegant, classy
renowned adj.
Synonyms famous, well-known,
s Coco Chanel was a renowned fashion designer
whose influence continues today.
Teaching Resources
outfit n., v.
s I intended to buy just a dress for the party, but I
wound up purchasing a whole outfit. (n.)
s My mom thoughtfully outfitted me with brandnew clothes for school. (v.)
exotic adj.
Synonyms foreign, unusual
bold adj.
Antonyms neutral, soft
s It’s illegal to bring any exotic plants into a
country without government approval.
s Artist Henri Matisse is known for his use of bold
wardrobe n.
s Since he’s wealthy, he can afford to buy a new
wardrobe every season.
stunning adj.
s Her dress was stunning. Everyone commented on
how beautiful it was.
Synonym striking
cosmetics n.
s The store is famous for its high-end cosmetics,
especially the nail polish and lipstick.
cosmetic adj.
s Many women use cosmetic lotions to reduce the
appearance of wrinkles.
compliment v., n.
s My professor complimented me on a job well
done. (v.)
s When Jake said, “Your style is so unique,” I
couldn’t tell if it was an insult or a compliment.
radiant adj.
s Mike looked radiant after his son was born.
leggings n. (plural)
s One current fashion is to wear long shirts with
leggings instead of jeans.
Teaching Resources
Types of Styles:
Elegant and sophisticated; always well-coordinated. Usually, clothes are
tailored so they’re not too tight or baggy. Combinations of black and
white are a favorite color scheme.
Resembles the fashions of the past. Clothes are often bought at
secondhand stores since those articles are older and thus, more
authentic. Also known as retro style. Retro is short for retrospective.
Inspired by rock music. Dark colors, like black and red, are commonly
worn. Both males and females wear thick boots and are often covered
from head to toe in clothing.
Very feminine. The term can only apply to female dressers. Pink
clothing or flowery patterns are preferred, and a lot of jewelry is worn.
Athletic / Sporty
Casual and relaxed. Workout clothes, T-shirts, and jeans are wardrobe
staples. You won’t find anything girly in these closets!
Unit 12
Classic / Classy
Usage Note:
Cosmetics vs. Makeup
Cosmetics are products for the entire body—lotion, cream, powder, etc.—while makeup is
only used on one’s face.
Native speakers use specific verbs and adjectives to talk about makeup.
Verbs to Use with Makeup
apply / put on
t.JDIFMMFIJSFEBQSPGFTTJPOBMUPapply her makeup for the wedding.
t.JDIFMMFUPPLHSFBUDBSFJOputting on her makeup for the wedding.
(Both emphasize the action of putting makeup on one’s face.)
t"SFZPVwearing makeup right now?
(This refers to a one-time use of makeup.)
(This refers to habitual use of makeup.)
Adjectives to Use with Makeup
thick / heavy
tSally’s makeup is so thick / heavy that it takes her an hour to apply it!
Note If someone’s makeup is abnormally thick or not blended enough, you
might say, “Her makeup is caked on!”
light / natural /
tWhen Bryan has acne, he’s not embarrassed to wear some light
tShe barely uses any makeup at all, so her face looks natural.
tHer makeup is subtle but effective—her skin appears to be naturally
Student’s Book f p. 169
A. Listen Up (Sample Answers)
Listen to the audio. Write a description for each popular trend using the suggested words.
Track 093
Photo: Flickr / lululemon athletica
In traditional yoga,
instructors lead the class
through muscle-stretching
poses on wood floors in
studios or gyms.
Flo-yo is an exciting new yoga
sensation that mixes standard yoga
vs. practices with paddle boarding. It
may sound eccentric, but Jennifer
Aniston is a big fan.
(flo-yo, paddle boarding)
For a few hundred years,
the ideal masculine look
has been tough, muscular,
and maybe even a bit
Men’s skin care would have been
considered taboo in the 1800s. But
vs. now, in the world of beauty and
hygiene, it’s popular for men to
take care of their skin and remove
excessive hair.
(taboo, excessive)
In Western countries,
most women have one to
two piercings in each ear.
Men don’t pierce their
ears as often.
While piercing has always been
practiced, earlobe stretching is a new
v trend. Plugs expand the ear’s tissue to
make it bigger.
(earlobe stretching, plugs)
B. Word Focus: Fashion Vocabulary
Finish the chart with these vocabulary words: sensation, fad, vogue, conventional, staple.
PDAs were a passing 1. fad, and smartphones have since taken over the
Going green has come into 2. vogue during the past few years. Everyone
should take an active role in protecting Mother Earth.
Martial arts are a 3. staple element of Asian entertainment. This film
genre appeals to both Eastern and Western audiences.
More and more people are starting to choose alternative therapies
instead of 4. conventional medical practices.
Cupcakes are a 5. sensation now. People are crazy about their sweet
C. Speak Out Loud
Break into small groups and discuss which of the below practices are fads,
trends, or here to stay. Present your decisions to the class.
conventional yoga
male beauty products
body piercings
organic food
Teaching Resources
Audio Transcripts for Listen Up:
Track 093
With benefits for everything from improving postureq to relieving stress, it’s easy to see
why people love yogaw. Jennifer Aniston is a fan of flo-yo. It combines yoga and stand-up
paddlee boarding, so part of the class takes place on water! Another current yoga fadr is
doga. Usually, bringing your dog along to a workout is taboot, but in doga, owners and their
dogs perform stretches together. It may sound eccentricy, but owners claim it strengthens the
bondu between them and their pets.
Unit 12
Male Beauty
In the past, men spent enormous amounts of money on perfumes and cosmetics. After
Alexander the Great defeated the Persian King Darius, he punished him by destroying his
makeup box! Tending toi one’s appearance hasn’t been considered masculineo since the
1800s, but now it’s back in style. There has been a recent increase in focus on men’s skin care.
It’s also in voguea for men to remove excessives body hair.
Body Piercingd
Body piercing has been practiced since ancient times. Ötzi the Iceman is the oldest
preservedf body discovered, and he wore an earring that measured a half inch around!
Earlobe stretching is popular in African tribes, and it has recently reached trend status in
Western culture. People insert plugs into a standard-sized piercing to expand the hole. Plugs
are only a few of the many jewelry pieces Elaine Davidson wears. She holds the Guinness
World Record for most piercings. Reports say she has a total of 6,925!
Key Words:
posture n.
s Erik has horrible posture. He should stand up
yoga n.
s Yoga is a relaxing exercise that includes deep
stretching and breathing.
paddle n., v.
s Janelle dropped her paddle in the lake, so she
couldn’t row to shore. (n.)
s The other team is going to beat us to the finish
line unless you paddle harder! (v.)
fad n.
s The fad wasn’t popular for long before people got
tired of it.
Teaching Resources
taboo adj.
Synonym unacceptable
taboo n.
s Be aware that some things you commonly talk
about here could be taboo topics elsewhere.
s Eating dog meat is a social taboo in Western
s Some are trying to end the taboo of women
working in manual labor jobs, like construction.
eccentric adj., n.
Family word eccentrically adv.
Antonyms ordinary, conventional
bond n., v.
s Shannon has an eccentric sense of style. The
colors of her clothes always clash. (adj.)
s Kris looks like an eccentric with his wild hair and
baggy clothes, but he’s actually pretty cool. (n.)
s The bond between the father and the son is quite
strong. They feel very close to each other. (n.)
s I take my sister out for dinner once a week so that
we can bond together. (v.)
tend to phr.
Synonym look after
masculine adj.
Antonym feminine
vogue n.
Synonym fashion
in vogue phr.
Synonyms in fashion, in style
excessive adj.
Antonym insufficient
piercing n.
s Tending to a vegetable garden is difficult but
rewarding work.
s Why did they name their baby girl George?
That’s such a masculine name.
s High-heeled sandals are the vogue for summer
footwear this season.
s It’s in vogue to wear torn jeans, especially among
s Buying 28 pairs of sunglasses is definitely
s Kim’s Body Art is the best place in town to get
tattooing or body piercing done. (uncountable)
s I went to Kim’s Body Art to get a new piercing in
my eyebrow. (countable)
pierce v.
s It hurts quite a bit when you get your nose
preserved adj.
s The well-preserved artifact was displayed in the
museum for several months.
Teaching Resources
Word Usage:
These words can all be used to talk about what’s in fashion, but their subtle differences can get
fad n.
Family word faddish adj.
craze n.
something that is very popular for a short time
s The new clothing line was only a fad—no one wore the brand
for very long.
something that is very popular for a period of time (can be
short or long)
s Jazz music became a craze in America during the 1920s.
something that is currently popular or in style
Family words
trendsetter n. ; trendy adj.
s Buying eco-friendly products is the latest consumer trend.
sensation n.
something that generates a lot of excitement or interest
Family word
sensational adj.
s The bold lyrics of the star’s new song created a sensation in
the music industry.
vogue n.
Unit 12
trend n.
something that is fashionable at a specific time or location;
often used after in
s Social networking is very much in vogue now among the
younger generations.
There are some words related to fashion that can be used as nouns and verbs.
s I have a small tattoo on my arm. (n.)
s I got tattooed when I was on vacation. (v.)
s When you get a wax, it really hurts. (n.)
s Male swimmers sometimes wax their legs! (v.)
s Your hair looks so cute with curls in it. (n.)
s It takes about an hour to curl my hair. (v.)
Student’s Book f p. 170
Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the choices given.
LListen to check your answers. Track 094
Sensational Cosplay
Ben’s birthday is coming up, and Jami wants to celebrate it.
Jami: How do you want to celebrate your
Ben: People had only been taking part
as characters of their own genderu
before, but now it’s common to wear
Ben: What about a cosplay party?
Jami: That seems far out for Americans.
Ben: It’s becoming all the rage! I had
been cosplaying until I had to take a
break because of my heavy school
1. loade, but now I’m back!
Jami: That’s because you’re an eccentric
science fiction freakr.
Ben: Hey!
Jami: I’m just kidding. My friend said
that the participants were mainly
2. inspired by their favorite mangat
and animey characters when this
3. fad first started. Is that true?
Ben: Yes. However, costumes from series
like Star Wars and Harry Potter are
also run of the mill nowadays.
Jami: I want to get all decked out as
Hermione then.
costumes of either sex. So you could
be a 4. male character if you like.
Jami: It’s awesomei that it’s not 5. taboo
anymore! Where can I buy a
Ben: Cosplayers make their own 6. outfits.
Jami: Isn’t making your own clothes rather
out of date?
Ben: No way! A major motivationo
behind cosplay is producing a
unique costume. It’s a fun way to
express your creativity.
Jami: I know what you mean. 7. Visualizing
a costume and then bringing your
fantasys to life would be rewarding.
Ben: Cosplayers often educate themselves
in handicraftsd like sewing and
woodworkingf in order to duplicateg
a costume more accurately.
Jami: Well, I do love crafts!
Chinese Translation
潔咪: 你想要怎麼慶祝你的生日?
班: 來個角色扮演派對如何?
潔咪: 那對美國人來說似乎太怪異。
Unit 12
班: 那個變得很流行!我一直都在玩角色扮演直到因為繁重課業才暫停,不過現在
潔咪: 那是因為你是個古怪的科幻小說怪胎。
班: 嘿!
潔咪: 我只是在開玩笑。我的朋友說當這股風潮開始時,參加者主要是受到他們最愛
班: 是的。不過,像是《星際大戰》和《哈利波特》系列的戲服現在也很常見。
潔咪: 那我要盛裝打扮成「妙麗」。
班: 人們以前只能扮演自己性別的角色,不過現在穿異性的服裝也很常見。所以如
潔咪: 那不再是個禁忌真的很棒!我在哪裡可以買到服裝?
班: 角色扮演迷會製作自己的服裝。
潔咪: 製作自己的衣服不是很過時嗎?
班: 才不會!角色扮演的一大動力就是製作一件特殊的服裝。那是一個表現妳的創
潔咪: 我知道你的意思。想像一件服裝,然後把你的幻想變成現實讓人覺得滿足。
班: 角色扮演迷常會自修像縫紉和木工的手工藝,以便更精確地複製服裝。
潔咪: 嗯,我確實很愛手工藝!
Key Words
q sensational
adj. Synonym amazing
s Fans were thrilled by the team’s sensational victory.
Other Usage of Sensational:
tGossip magazines are full of sensational stories. (adj. intending to arouse
shock or excitement through exaggeration)
w cosplay
n., v.
Note Cosplay means “pretending to be a fictional character” and is short for “costume play.”
s I became interested in cosplay after I attended a comic book convention last year. (n.)
s When I cosplay, I like to dress up as characters from my favorite video games. (v.)
s Candy Keane is a famous cosplayer from the US. She attends many cosplay events.
e load
s All of the employees’ loads / workloads increased the week before the Christmas holiday.
Other Usages of Load:
tCan you load all of those boxes into the truck by yourself? (v. to put into or
onto something)
tThe hunter quickly loaded his gun with bullets. (v. to insert something
necessary into a device or machine)
tThis program takes forever to load! (v. to open or access something on a computer)
tI bet I have enough dirty clothes to do three loads of laundry. (n. the amount
of clothes that fits into a washing machine)
r freak
n. Synonym enthusiast
s Judy is a real fitness freak. She works out for three hours every day.
Other Usages of Freak:
tMen who go into nursing are sometimes regarded as freaks. (n. one who is
considered strange because of his or her behavior or appearance)
tGeorge was harmed in a freak accident at work. (adj. unusual and unexpected)
tIrene’s parents freaked when they found out she was failing her classes. (v. to
become so angry, afraid, or excited that you can’t control your behavior)
t manga
Note Manga is a Japanese genre of cartoons, comic books, and animated films.
s Personally, I prefer manga to American comics.
y anime
Anime is a type of animation that was created in Japan. It is characterized by
colorful images and action-filled plots.
sWatching anime movies is a fun way to improve my Japanese.
Key Words
u gender
n. Synonym sex
s Jeans are a type of clothing that can be worn by both genders.
i awesome
adj. Synonyms cool, great
s Mike’s new car is awesome! I can’t believe his dad bought him the latest model.
o motivation
s Money can be a strong motivation for getting a job.
Other Usage of Motivation:
tI want to achieve great things in life, but I lack motivation. (n. eagerness to
do something)
Unit 12
Usage Note:
Motivation and motive can both describe the reasons behind people’s
behavior. However, motivation usually refers to deep, meaningful reasons,
while motive has a more negative connotation. Compare the following
s Caring for animals is my motivation to become a vet.
s The police are still investigating the suspect’s motive for the crime.
a visualize
v. Synonyms imagine, picture
s Listening to his grandma’s description, Ted was able to visualize exactly how a covered
wagon looked.
s Her visualization of winning the contest helped her feel more confident.
s fantasy
s Vance has a hard time telling the difference between fantasy and reality.
d handicraft
s Many tourist destinations sell locally made handicrafts, like woven rugs or cloth dolls.
f woodworking
s My grandfather loves woodworking—all of my bookshelves were made by him.
g duplicate
v. Synonyms reproduce, replicate
s The singer was never able to duplicate the success of his first album.
Other Usages of Duplicate:
tIt’s a good idea to keep a duplicate copy for your own records. (adj. exactly
the same)
tPat had a duplicate of her key made to give to her new roommate. (n. a copy
or reproduction of something)
Student’s Book f p. 171
A. Understand from the Context
Match the sentence with its meaning.
__b__ 1. That seems far out for Americans.
a. I’d enjoy dressing up like the character.
__d__ 2. It’s becoming all the rage!
b. People from a certain culture may find that
idea too strange.
__c__ 3. That’s because you’re an eccentric
science fiction freak.
__e__ 4. Costumes from series like Star Wars
and Harry Potter are run of the
__a__ 5. I want to get all decked out as
Hermione then.
c. Your enthusiasm makes you seem peculiar.
d. It’s starting to be considered very
e. Those ones have been used a lot and are
pretty typical choices.
B. Complete the Sentences
Fill in the blanks with words from the conversation. Use the hints to help you.
There may be more than one possible answer.
1. Both genders wear skirt-like garments at traditional Scottish events. (sex)
2. Her motivation for changing her hairstyle was that she wanted to look professional. (reason)
3. The coach says that visualizing winning the game is an important part of training. (picture)
4. Elderly people benefit from learning handicrafts / crafts, as it helps to keep them active. (manual
5. The scientists were unable to duplicate their results, so they had to start from scratch. (copy)
C. Multiple Choice
Circle the answers.
1. What is the purpose of the party?
a. Ben is overwhelmed by school and
wants to take a break.
b. Jami is throwing a surprise party for
her sister.
c. It will be Ben’s birthday soon, and he
wants to have a party.
d. Ben and Jami are getting ready for the
cosplay competition.
3. What cosplay trend is Jami excited about?
a. Men can dress up as female characters,
and vice versa.
b. Cosplayers come from countries all
over the world.
c. The popularity of cosplay is growing.
d. Every cosplayer watches Japanese
2. Which statement is TRUE?
a. Cosplayers only dress up as characters
of their own gender.
b. Although cosplay is new in America, it
is starting to catch on.
c. Only Japanese characters are suitable
forms to be copied by cosplayers.
d. Most cosplay costumes are purchased
from specialty shops.
4. How does Jami first feel about making
one’s own costume?
a. She feels inspired to sew her own outfit.
b. She believes that a purchased costume
would be more authentic.
c. She thinks it sounds time-consuming.
d. She feels that the idea is old-fashioned.
Student’s Book f p. 172
A. Talking About Unusual and Common Things
Pair up with a classmate and discuss what you consider unusual and
common about the following topics using the expressions above.
experiments on animals
online shopping
bullying in schools
makeup for men
human cloning
Unit 12
A: Did you hear about that comic book convention downtown?
B: Yeah. Those people who dress up like the characters from the comics are really far out.
B. Discussing Fashions (Sample Answers)
Improve the parts in bold using the expressions above.
A: Did you see Karen’s dress last night? It was stunning! t It was the latest thing!
B: I know. She always wears sensational clothes. t Her outfits are always in vogue.
A: Definitely. Compared to her, I feel like I look unfashionable. t out of date
B: That’s not true! You wear lots of trendy stuff. t Your clothing is all the rage.
C. Getting Dressed Up (Sample Answers)
tQVUPOone’s) Sunday best
tTMJDLVQ(used by men)
tNBLFoneself) presentable
tEPMMVQ(used by women)
Fill in each blank with the appropriate expression.
1. Felix is normally a casual dresser, but for weddings and funerals, he
puts on his Sunday best.
2. My meeting this afternoon is with an important client, so I need to dress to impress.
3. Starla is getting dolled up because she’s going out with Craig to a nightclub tonight.
Student’s Book f p. 173
A. Fill Out the Chart (The answers for “Reason” may vary.)
Listen and indicate Linda’s and Nathan’s opinions of the jobs. Give your reasons.
Lab Technician
Flight Nurse
Underwater Welder
Both think lab work is nothing out of the ordinary.
Linda believes that tending to patients on
flights would be something else.
Nathan says the high pay that these workers
get is far out.
Although she likes tea, Linda says the job
would be run of the mill.
Teahouse Owner
Tea Taster
Track 095
Nathan finds being responsible for the
quality control of tea out in left field.
B. Complete the Ads (Sample Answers)
Listen and explain why the companies’ organic products are better using the words given.
We’re dedicated to selling the best organic cotton products!
Organic cotton is better for the environment because no bleach
or dye is used.
(bleach, dye)
Wearing wool feels even better when you know it’s eco-friendly!
Synthetic materials, like nylon, are damaging to the environment.
Wearing wool jackets that are made out of all-natural fabric can
help to save the planet.
(synthetic, nylon, all-natural)
Track 096
Fur has long been considered fashionable, but at what cost?
Fabulous Fur solves your ethical concerns with fake fur. Its
production doesn’t kill animals or use toxic chemicals.
(ethical, toxic chemicals)
Student’s Book f p. 173
C. Finish the Invitation
Fill in the blanks with words or expressions from the audio.
Track 097
We will be celebrating Rick’s special day on the 12th.
Feel free to 1. publicize the celebration and bring your
friends. Just don’t let Rick find out!
Time: The party is from 8:00 p.m. to midnight, but I
might prolong the fun if everyone is having a good time!
I can’t wait to see all you girls
7. dolled up and all you guys
8. slicked up!
Unit 12
Dress Code: You’re not obligated to 2. put on your
Sunday best, but do not dress too 3. casually. Please try
to 4. get all decked out in cowboy and cowgirl outfits.
5. Accessories like boots will make your costumes look
Location: The party will be in my
backyard. 6. Heed the signs that
instruct you where to park.
Teaching Resources
Audio Transcripts for Expression Practice:
A. Fill Out the Chart
Track 095
Linda: I’ve been thinking about my future career. I’m not sure what job I want,
Nathan, but it can’t be boring!
Nathan: I agree, Linda.
Linda: What about a position in medicine? That could be exciting.
Nathan: Working as a lab technician wouldn’t be anything out of the ordinary.
Linda: True, but being a flight nurse would be out in left field.
Nathan: What does that entail?
Linda: A flight nurse ensures that patients who become ill abroad are comfortable
during their journey home.
Nathan: That doesn’t sound great. How do you feel about manual labor?
Linda: Construction and manufacturing jobs are pretty run of the mill.
Nathan: Yes, but underwater welders earn high salaries because they need to have both
diving and welding skills. It’s something else!
Linda: Hmm. I think I’d prefer something indoors.
Nathan: You enjoy drinking tea, so why not run a teahouse?
Linda: Teahouses are a dime a dozen.
Nathan: Well, tea testers determine if the taste of tea meets a certain standard. That
responsibility would be far out. Maybe that’s what I’ll do then.
Teaching Resources
B. Complete the Ads
Track 096
Cozy Cotton
Cozy Cotton has all your organic cotton needs! Regular cotton is behind the times due to its
damage to the environment. Over 16 percent of the world’s pesticides are sprayed on cotton
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C. Finish the Invitation
Track 097
Allie: Hey, Chelsea. This is Allie.
Chelsea: Oh, hi! What’s going on?
Allie: Would you like to come to the surprise birthday bash I’m throwing for Rick next
Chelsea: Sure! I love partying.
Allie: He’s been really stressed over his schoolwork, so I’m hoping the celebration will
divert his attention. Can you publicize the party at school?
Chelsea: Definitely! What’s the theme?
Allie: It’s going to be Western style. You know how much Rick adores all those old
cowboy movies.
Chelsea: Wow. So I’m guessing the guests should get all decked out?
Allie: Yes. No one needs to go to the trouble of putting on their Sunday best, but it
would be preferable if everyone would wear Western gear and accessories, like
cowboy boots and hats.
Chelsea: So the guys should get slicked up, and the girls need to doll up in stylish
costumes, right?
Allie: That would be terrific.
Chelsea: All right. Are you inviting my roommate Erin?
Allie: Of course.
Chelsea: She dresses casually and never heeds dress codes though.
Allie: I know. But try to persuade her to make herself presentable, just this once.
A. Complete the Score Card
Rewrite the parts in bold with the expressions you’ve learned on page 172 of the Student’s
Book. There may be more than one possible answer.
Judge: William T. Culler
Contestant #7
Contestant #7 is attractive, but her look 1. is common. If she 2. dressed more
impressively, it would really help her stand out. Personally, I found the outfit
Unit 12
she chose to wear 3. very old-fashioned, and it was a bad choice for this contest.
A beauty pageant queen must be up-to-date on what types of clothing 4. are
fashionable and dress accordingly. Even if she had worn something 5. unusual,
it certainly would have been an improvement over her dull shirt and skirt. My
score reflects the fact that she didn’t bother to 6. dress well for this celebration of
Score: 5/10
1. _________________________________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________________________________
4. _________________________________________________________________________________
5. _________________________________________________________________________________
6. _________________________________________________________________________________
This page may be photocopied and distributed to the class.
B. Give Compliments
Read each scenario and give an appropriate compliment containing one of the expressions
provided. There may be more than one possible answer.
the latest thing
far out
get all decked out
a dime a dozen
1. It is Halloween, and your friend Rita dresses up for school. No one else is in costume,
so she feels embarrassed. What can you say to make her be at ease?
Response: ______________________________________________________________________
2. You and some friends are shopping. Clancy tries on a formal suit but feels awkward in
it. What can you say so that he knows it looks good?
Response: ______________________________________________________________________
3. Kendra is wearing an unusual-looking dress. Fashion magazines say it’s in style, but
she feels like everyone is staring. What can you say to raise her confidence?
Response: ______________________________________________________________________
4. Your dad asks you which necktie he should wear. One is plain, but the other has a
colorful pattern. What can you say to make it clear the brighter one is better?
Response: ______________________________________________________________________
C. Complete the Dialogue
Fill in the blanks with the expressions in the box. Change the forms of the words if
out of date
slick up
put on (one’s) Sunday best
make (oneself) presentable
be nothing out of the ordinary
in vogue
Amy: Would you like to attend my band’s performance next weekend?
Vince: Absolutely! Do I need to get 1. ______________________________ for it?
Amy: Well, you don’t need to 2. ______________________________, but since the show is
being held at a classy nightclub, it would be ideal to wear something that is
3. ______________________________.
Vince: True. My everyday style 4. ______________________________; however, I know it’s
important to 5. ______________________________ when going out in public.
Amy: Yeah. You don’t want to look 6. ______________________________. If you do, no
one will dance with you.
Vince: Ha-ha. Very funny.
This page may be photocopied and distributed to the class.
Student’s Book f p. 174
Past Perfect Continuous
The past perfect continuous tense is used to talk about events that took place in the past for a long
time before other past events occurred.
A. Usage
To show that something was
in progress until another time
in the past
t*had been cosplaying until I had to take a break because
of my heavy school load.
To talk about causes in the
recent past
needing one since the previous winter.
To report something said in
the past
t-J[TBJEIFSIVTCBOEhad been verbally abusing her for a
long time.
To form third conditional
t*GZPVhadn’t been sending text messages on your phone,
we wouldn’t have gotten into this accident.
t1FPQMFhad only been taking part as characters of their
own gender before, but now it’s common to wear costumes
of either sex.
Unit 12
B. Tense Comparisons
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Used for events that began in the past and
continue in the present
Used for events that began in the past and
ended just recently
making films since the 1960s.
making films since the 1960s retired this
(He’s still making films.)
(He made films until recently.)
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Used for non-continuous events that occurred
before another past event
Used for events that lasted for a while before
another past event
t+BNFThad failed to gain admission to
the university three times before he was
t5IFHJSMhad been groaning in pain for
30 minutes before she was taken to the
Past Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Used for events that lasted for a while in the
Used for past events that lasted for a while
and caused something to happen
t)Fwas practicing for his presentation all
presentation was because he had been
practicing every night.
Teaching Resources
More on Past Perfect Continuous
Non-continuous verbs are not
normally used in the past perfect
continuous. These verbs include:
believe, belong, depend, hate, know,
like, mean, need, prefer, realize,
suppose, want, understand.
s He realized [had been realizing] that his
guests were thirsty and hungry, so he offered
them refreshments.
For sentences that do not contain
durations of time, the past
continuous can be used instead of
the past perfect continuous.
s Engineers at the nuclear power plant had
been planning / were planning to shut down
operations before the earthquake occurred.
When describing a permanent
state or condition in the past, use
the past perfect simple instead of
the past perfect continuous.
s We found the house where the famous author
had lived [had been living] throughout his
Use the past perfect continuous
for events that went on for a long
time or happened frequently. Use
the past perfect simple for short
and single incidents.
s The mother was worried because the toddler
had been eating dog food.
s The mother was worried because the toddler
had eaten all the dog food.
Student’s Book f p. 175
A. Match
Fill in the correct tenses and match the sentence parts.
1. I had been playing (play) the saxophone for years
2. As he hadn’t taught (teach) his children good manners,
3. The soccer team has been practicing (practice) intensely
all week a
4. Louis had been trying (try) to contact his client all day
b. before the riot police
cleared the area.
c. until he finally reached
d. before I thought about
joining a band.
e. they embarrassed him
in front of his friends.
Unit 12
5. The protesters had been demonstrating (demonstrate) for
two days b
a. in preparation for the
tournament today.
B. Correct the Mistakes
Fix the errors in the sentences.
1. Thomas had wait all week for the package to come in the mail.
t Thomas had been waiting all week for the package to come in the mail.
2. He invests in a wide variety of stocks until the economy is declining.
t He had been investing in a wide variety of stocks until the economy declined.
3. In addition to being a nursing specialist, Amy also be train to become an engineer since April.
t In addition to being a nursing specialist, Amy has also been training to become an engineer
since April.
4. Last year, Chris hope to make it home for Christmas, but bad weather preventing him.
t Last year, Chris had hoped to make it home for Christmas, but bad weather prevented him.
5. The actor has considered the role of Romeo in a new stage play prior to his injury.
t The actor had been considering the role of Romeo in a new stage play prior to his injury.
C. Circle the Answers
Choose the correct tenses.
The city officials 1. are suggesting / had been suggesting building a subway line for the
previous few months. While some people 2. were / being opposed to the development of the
area because of its archaeological importance, others 3. are agreeing / had been agreeing
with the idea. Then came the find of the century. One section of the line 4. hidden /
had been hiding an ancient burial ground. Several large tombs 5. lie / had been lying
underground for ages. The archaeologists 6. have urged / had been urging the government
to cancel the project only days before the discovery, and now it seems
that their plan to construct a museum may not have been wishful
thinking. Many developers, however, 7. have been voicing / were
voicing complaints that a line built elsewhere would be too costly. An
agreement still 8. hasn’t been / isn’t reached.
A. Fill in the Blanks
Complete the sentences with the past perfect or past perfect continuous forms of the verbs
1. My cousin ____________________ (consider) transferring to a more affordable
university before he was informed that he ____________________ (be) awarded a
2. When my graduation date finally arrived, I ____________________ (try) to grow a
mustache for three weeks.
3. Although she ____________________ (tour) the castle before, she still had to listen to
the introduction given by the staff.
4. She ____________________ (teach) at the school for 20 years when she was named
5. By the time the swimmer retired, he ____________________ (clinch) seven gold medals.
6. I could tell that Connie ____________________ (sob) for hours, but I didn’t know why.
B. Multiple Choice
Circle the answers.
1. When I went to the bathroom, I
______ cigarettes. Someone ______ in
can smell, had been smoking
could smell, had been smoking
could smell, smoke
smelling, was smoking
3. Sharon ______ in detention last week
because she ______ with another girl
at school.
has been, fought
was, has been fighting
was, had been fighting
has been, had been fighting
5. Neal ______ all weekend, so I’m
not sure how much of Monday’s
homework he ______.
was partying, was able to complete
had been partying, is completing
has been partying, did complete
is partying, completed
This page may be photocopied and distributed to the class.
2. The little boys ______ in the back seat
over a toy since we left the zoo.
have been quarreling
had been quarreling
had quarreled
4. If Charles ______ on her, she ______
with him.
a. wasn’t cheating, wouldn’t have
broken up
b. hadn’t cheated, wouldn’t break up
c. hadn’t been cheating, wouldn’t
have broken up
d. didn’t cheat, couldn’t be breaking
6. The physical trainer said she ______
fitness classes for 17 years.
was teaching
is teaching
was being taught
had been teaching
Student’s Book f p. 176
Track 098
Scan the reading and match the people with the dangerous beauty practices they are
known for.
Beauty Practice
1. Egyptians: __c__
a. White lead powder on the face
2. Greeks and Romans: _a__
b. Drops of nightshade in the eyes
3. Queen Elizabeth: __b__
c. Black lead liner around the eyes
4. Lady Gaga: __d__
d. Special contact lenses
Unit 12
to Be Beautiful
The ancient Egyptians were the first to embracew cosmetics as
a way of life. When looking at paintings of them, the first thing
one will notice is their dark eyelinere. They applied it because
they believed it could ward offr evil spirits. Unfortunately, the
substance they used was made from leadt, which not only resulted
iny eye infectionsu but also mental diseases. Ancient Greeks and
Romans took the use of lead even further by grindingi it into a
hen one hears about plastic surgery nightmares and eating disorders, it’s easy
to assume that obsessionq with beauty is only a modern-day phenomenon.
The truth is that numerous beauty practices had been damaging health long before the
present time.
Student’s Book f p. 177
white powder and covering their faces with it. Since they used so much more, they
suffered harsher consequenceso, such as insanity a and paralysiss.
Thanks to Queen Elizabeth, in the 1500s it was routine to enlarge one’s pupils with
the toxic nightshade plant. It makes the eyes look brighter, but constant use can prove
fatal. Furthermore, it wasn’t just cosmetics that had been presenting problems. It was
during this century that corsets became popular. The tight underwear was worn to
shrinkd the size of the wearer’s waist, but it could lead to breathing difficulty and even
defectsf of the spineg.
Today, famous people are still used as fashion barometersh. Lady Gaga’s style is
one that is frequently copied. In one of her music videos, the pop star wore special
contact lenses that made her eyes look bigger. Impressed by the look, teenagers began
purchasing similar contacts. However, while the items hadn’t been harming the singer,
others have complained of side effects ranging from irritation to blindnessj. In terms
of footweark, high-heeled shoes have long been known to contribute to knee and
foot issues, but this hasn’t decreased their popularity. The current passion for skinnyl
jeans is also harmful. When the jeans are too tight, they can cause nerve damage and
numbness ; in the legs.
By observing the trends in recent years, it can be hard to imagine a time in the future
when people will no longer be suffering in the name of beauty. Will people ever stop
this dangerous search for the perfect look?
For Your Reference
* insanity: the state of having a mental illness
* nightshade: a type of plant that has a
poisonous juice
* corset: a clothing item that makes one’s waist
appear smaller
* numbness: lack of feeling in parts of the body
Nowadays, permanent cosmetics are gaining popularity. Tattoos are used to resemble
makeup that people normally apply every day, from eyeliner to lipstick. Although the
technique is time-saving, it does have numerous risks, such as scars and infections. Do you
think the effort is worthwhile? Would you ever consider having the procedure done?
Chinese Translation
Unit 12
Key Words
q obsession
n. Antonyms indifference, disregard
s Robert’s obsession with the local baseball team is so great that he has been to every one
of their games this season.
s Louisa obsesses over her nails—she paints them a different color almost every day!
s Rick’s dad is obsessive about germs, so we always take our shoes off at the front door.
w embrace
v. Synonym accept
s Many schools are embracing the use of technology in the classroom.
Other Usages of Embrace:
s After a long day at work, Martin enjoys going home and being embraced by
his children. (v. to hug)
s At the airport, the couple shared a long embrace before they parted. (n. the
act of hugging)
e eyeliner
s Wendy wore so much eyeliner that she looked like a panda!
r ward off
phr. Synonym repel
s Although the product is guaranteed to ward off ants, I still found them crawling around
the house.
t lead
s Lead, a soft, blue-gray metal, is quite harmful when it is absorbed by the body.
y result in
phr. Synonyms cause, lead to, contribute to, be responsible for
s Committing a violent crime can result in a long prison sentence.
u infection
s Since she didn’t keep her wound properly cleaned, she developed an infection.
s Cover your mouth when you cough, or else you’ll infect others with your virus!
s There are a number of vaccines available that prevent one from catching infectious diseases.
Usage Note:
The words infectious and contagious are easy to confuse. Infectious diseases
are caused by bacteria or viruses that get into the body. Contagious illnesses
are passed from one person to another. Thus, all contagious diseases are also
infectious, but not all infectious diseases are contagious.
Infectious and contagious: the flu Only infectious: malaria
Key Words
i grind
v. (grind-ground-ground)
s Traditional Chinese medicine doctors often grind herbs to make medicine.
Other Usages of Grind:
s Whenever he got nervous, Mark would grind his teeth. (v. to rub two things
against each other producing a harsh sound)
sThe knife had been ground so perfectly that it could cut through even
animal bones with ease. (v. to sharpen something by rubbing it against a
hard surface)
o consequence
n. Synonyms effect, result
s One of the consequences of failing a class is that you’ll eventually have to retake it.
Unit 12
Other Usage of Consequence:
s His opinion is of little consequence since he wasn’t involved in the initial
meeting. (n. importance or significance)
a insanity
n. Synonym madness
s The ruler’s unusual laws were probably a result of his insanity.
s After her son died, Maria went insane.
s paralysis
s Due to his paralysis, US President Franklin Roosevelt had to use a wheelchair.
s Luke’s accident paralyzed him from the waist down.
d shrink
v. (shrink-shrank-shrunk) Synonym decrease
s It was almost three weeks before the bruise finally shrank to an unnoticeable size.
Other Usage of Shrink:
s Molly shrank from the neighbor’s aggressive dog. (v. to move away from
something frightening)
f defect
n. Synonym flaw
s The girl was born with a heart defect, so she’s been taking medication all her life.
Other Usage of Defect:
s The politician’s campaign dreams were shattered when his top advisor
defected. (v. to leave a country or organization and join an opposing one)
adj. Synonym faulty
s The thermometer is defective, so its readings aren’t reliable.
Key Words
g spine
n. Synonym backbone
s Darren’s spine was damaged in the accident, and it is unlikely that he will ever walk
h barometer
sThe number of newly established businesses is a good barometer of the state of the
j blindness
s His blindness was caused by a childhood disease.
k footwear
s You shouldn’t go hiking without the right footwear.
l skinny
adj. Synonym tight
s Doctors have warned that skinny jeans can hamper blood circulation.
Other Usage of Skinny:
s That girl is so skinny. I bet she doesn’t weigh 45 kilograms! (adj. very thin)
; numbness
s The numbness in his fingers made it impossible to hold a pen.
s The left half of her face was numb. She couldn’t feel anything.
Student’s Book f p. 178
A. Complete the Passage
Fill in the blanks with words from the article.
Although people associate acne with today’s stress and poor eating habits, it is known that
people in ancient times suffered from this skin issue as well. An excellent 1. barometer
of the importance of eliminating acne is how many things that have been used over the years
to treat it. The ancient Egyptians tried to use spells to 2. ward off the
problem. They considered the disease to be a 3. consequence of telling too
many lies. In ancient Greece and Rome, it was believed that it was due to a
4. defect of the skin. They 5. embraced soaking in sulfur as the best solution
to the condition. Unlike many treatments of the time, which had serious side
effects, this one wasn’t 6. toxic. In fact, sulfur remained a common way to
Unit 12
7. shrink outbreaks of acne until the modern era.
B. Identify the Main Idea
Write the paragraph number next to the matching main idea.
Main Idea
Modern beauty practices are the source of several medical problems.
The world’s first cosmetics were made from substances that caused severe
In this era, people made use of both fatal cosmetics and tight clothing.
It is unlikely that harmful approaches for obtaining perfection will ever die out.
Throughout history, people have taken risks in their quest to look more
C. True or False
Select if the statements are true or false.
1. T „ F „ The ancient Egyptians wore makeup to defend themselves against illnesses.
2. T „ F „ Queen Elizabeth was responsible for many trends; her citizens worked hard to
copy her stylish ideas.
3. T „ F „ Corsets were a type of clothing that were worn to stretch a person’s abdomen.
4. T „ F „ Unusual contact lenses became more popular with teenagers due to their
appearance on Lady Gaga.
5. T „ F „ In previous generations, high-heeled shoes were not as destructive to one’s health.
6. T „ F „ People who wear skinny jeans have reported some loss of feeling in the legs.
Student’s Book f p. 179
The Opinion Essay
In an opinion essay, explain your viewpoint on a topic by including:
Reasons why you feel the way you do
Facts, observations, and examples to support your perspective
Strongly state your opinion without being rude. Which phrases below are appropriate?
I guess
my personal view is
it’s ridiculous to think
I’m convinced
I suppose
in my opinion
I would argue
a popular belief is
I firmly believe
Task I (Sample Answers)
Rewrite each sentence below to make it more appropriate for an opinion essay. Is there
an opinion? Is the language informal?
1. Yoga supporters say that side effects, such as muscle tears and joint damage, can be
avoided, but that is unlikely.
t Yoga supporters say that side effects, such as muscle tears and joint damage, can
be avoided, but I would argue that is unlikely.
2. Well, if you ask me, pop stars like Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez are way too young
to be getting so much attention from the media.
t My personal view is that pop stars like Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez are too
young to know how to appropriately cope with media attention.
Task II
Rewrite the author’s opinion in your own words. List the support given.
In the foreseeable future, making purchases will no longer necessitate
paper money. The use of cash has been diminishing since the advent of
credit cards. Now, Google and MasterCard are collaborating to create a
computerized payment system that uses mobile phones. Obviously, paying
with these everyday items is infinitely more convenient because they are easier to tuck
into a pocket or purse. Not to mention, most people already habitually carry their cell
phones. Plus, users can easily cancel a stolen card or misplaced phone to protect their
financial accounts. And, as trees are necessary to print bills, these systems have the
additional benefit of being eco-friendly. Hopefully, companies will be able to implement
these measures soon.
Writer’s Opinion
Credit cards and mobile phones are more convenient payment
methods than using cash.
Supporting Details
s Cards and phones are easier to carry than a wad of cash.
s Lost or stolen cards or phones can be canceled.
s Printing cash kills trees.
Student’s Book f p. 180
BEFORE YOU WRITE (Sample Answers)
Interview three classmates about the topics below. Note their opinions in addition to your own.
Remember to include support.
Fast Facts
Organic Cosmeticss
tThe Environmental Working
Group (EWG) discovered that
28 percent of non-organic lipstick
products contained substances
associated with cancer risk.
only 11 percent of regular beauty products’
ingredients have been tested for safety.
Fast Facts
Angry Birds
tOver 12 million copies of the
game have been bought,
making it one of the most
purchased apps.
tWhen playing the game,
gamers reported feeling addicted:
Should children be allowed to play Angry Birds?
Makeup is often made from harmful
chemicals, so I’m convinced that switching
to organic cosmetics is the only way to
go. The President’s Cancer Panel revealed
that merely 11 percent of these products’
ingredients have been tested for safety,
which is appalling. Every time you apply it,
you’re taking a risk.
Angry Birds is addictive and should be
withheld from younger students. Over 12
million copies of the game have been bought
from Apple’s App Store, making it one of the
most purchased ever. Labeling the game a
taboo for kids may sound excessively strict,
but they’re too young to resist!
Unit 12
Are cosmetics damaging to your skin?
Student’s Book f p. 180
WRITE IT UP (Sample Essay)
Write a 150-word opinion essay about one of the above topics. Use the past perfect continuous if possible.
Keep Chemicals off Your Skin!
Title: ________________________
(Be creative.)
Include opinion
words in your
thesis statement.
Support your
with facts and
examples. Use
strong language
to communicate
your opinion.
Makeup is often made from harmful chemicals. Repeat applications
can even poison your body. I’m convinced that switching to organic
cosmetics is the only way to go!
I had been applying makeup to my face and exposing my delicate
body to toxins for years before I found out about its negative effects!
The Environmental Working Group (EWG) discovered that 28 percent
of non-organic lipstick products contained substances associated with
cancer risk. Perhaps more appalling, the President’s Cancer Panel
recently revealed that merely 11 percent of these products’ ingredients
have been tested for safety!
Skin absorbs many things, like vitamins from the sun. Once your
skin soaks something up, it transfers it into your bloodstream. This
is why using conventional makeup is so hazardous—the chemicals
end up in your blood, jeopardizing your entire body! There have been
incidences of users suffering from severe allergic reactions because of
the unnatural substances.
Organic cosmetics, on the other hand, are beneficial rather than
contaminating. For one, they enhance the health of your skin. The
natural components don’t block your pores with aluminum-based
elements. In fact, some ingredients can make you livelier. For example,
many organic products use herbs, which stimulate your senses and
energize your body.
Restate your
Based on research results, I firmly believe that consumers will be
better off using organic cosmetics. This is one trend that everyone
should embrace for their own safety and health.
Teaching Resources
More on Writing Skills
A. Structure of an Opinion Essay
The opinion should be outlined clearly. Readers should be able to
determine exactly where the writer stands by reading the thesis statement.
While personal thoughts, beliefs, and experiences are allowed, these
should be balanced with well-researched facts. Remember, remaining
unbiased in this type of writing is unnecessary. The essay should be
either completely pro / for or completely con / against, not a neutral
mixture of both.
Just as in other essays, the thesis should be restated, and the argument
should be briefly summarized.
Unit 12
B. Things to Avoid
Don’t use extremely strong wording that could offend readers. (e.g. It’s absurd . . .,
It’s just plain stupid . . .)
Don’t go off topic, as it will be difficult for readers to understand the message.
Don’t be too emotional; instead, focus on being logical so readers will be swayed to
your point of view. (e.g. It makes me cry when . . ., (Something) makes me furious!)
C. Extra Before You Write Exercise
Activity Idea
The sentences below are too strong or emotional to be used in a formal opinion essay.
Have students rewrite the statements to be more appropriate.
1. Anyone who thinks that Thailand has the best beaches is insane. They’re terrible!
t _________________________________________________________________________________
2. I hate people who drive cars. They alone are responsible for devastating the environment.
t _________________________________________________________________________________
3. I have no respect for those who eat fast food. Don’t they realize how unhealthy it is?
t _________________________________________________________________________________
4. I’m disgusted with the irresponsible people who think it’s OK to litter anywhere.
t _________________________________________________________________________________
Teaching Resources
(Sample Answers)
1. Most Thailand beaches are crowded with tourists. In my opinion, Indonesia is a better
destination for a relaxing beach vacation.
2. I would argue that car exhaust is the leading factor of pollution and global warming.
3. Since eating fast food is so unhealthy, I’m convinced that healthier but convenient
restaurant options should be provided to the public.
4. I am a firm believer that those who litter should be fined $50 for each offense.
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