EXAM RG 7 ALTERED STATES

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Tripken
SG7 Consciousness
Consciousness: Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Biological Rhythms: Periodic physiological fluctuations.
Circadian Rhythm: The biological clock. It involves regular body rhythms (ex: temperature & sleep) that occur on a 24hour cycle.
STAGES OF SLEEP
Stage 1: Alpha waves; hypnogogic hallucinations; sleep talking; hypnic jerk; slow down of biological functions (e.g., blood
pressure, heart rate, respiration) & a decrease in temperature.
Stage 2: Waves are slower (see some theta waves); sleep spindles; K-complexes; sleep talking; biological functions
continue to slow.
Stage 3: Transition stage. See first signs of delta waves; biological functions continue to slow.
Stage 4: Deep sleep. All delta waves; bedwetting & sleep walking most likely. Biological functions are at there lowest.
After stage 4, the sleeper moves back to stages 3, stage 2, & then into REM sleep.
REM Sleep: Rapid eye movement; dreaming; erections in males; paralysis. Also called "paradoxical sleep" because
while the person is totally asleep, there biological function and brain waves appear more like a person who is awake.
A full sleep-cycle takes about 90 minutes. As the cycles continue throughout the night, stage 4 sleep gets shorter and
REM sleep gets longer.
SLEEP THEORIES
1. Possibly certain chemicals depleted during the day are restored during sleep.
2. A build-up of "s-factor" during the day causes sleep at night.
3. Pituitary gland more active during deep sleep. So, sleep may be involved in growth process. (Babies and young people
spend more time in deep sleep than older people).
4. Evolutionary view: Sleeping when it was dark kept us safe.
DREAM THEORIES
Freudian Theory: Dreams help disguise unconscious conflicts and motives.
Manifest Content: According to Freud, the remembered storyline of a dream.
Latent Content: According to Freud, the underlying "meaning" of a dream.
Activation-synthesis Theory: Dreams spring from the mind's relentless effort to make sense of random visual bursts of
electrical activity which originate in the brainstem and are given their emotional tone as they pass through the limbic
system.
Memory Consolidation Theory: The parts of the brain active when we learn something are similarly active later when
we sleep and dream.
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Brain-Stimulation Theory: Periodic stimulation during dreaming helps form neural connections. Especially important in
infants.
Regardless, if we don't get enough REM sleep, we will go into
REM Rebound: The tendency for REM sleep to increase following a period of REM deprivation.
SLEEP DISORDERS
Insomnia: Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
Narcolepsy: Disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep at
inopportune time.
Sleep Apnea: Disorder characterized by temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and momentary awakenings
throughout the night.
Night Terror: Disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified. Unlike nightmares, these
occur during stage 4 sleep and are typically not remembered.
HYPNOSIS
Hypnosis: A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another person (the subject) that certain
perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
Posthypnotic Amnesia: Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's
suggestion.
Posthypnotic Suggestion: A suggestion, made during hypnosis, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized;
used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors (e.g., eat less, quit smoking, feel less anxiety, etc.).
Hypnosis does not improve memory. In fact, it is likely to contaminate our memories. It is, however, useful in relieving
PAIN. Possibly due to dissociation or a "split in consciousness". While part of the person is still aware of the pain, the
conscious part of the person is not.
Theories of Hypnosis
1. Divided Consciousness Theory: Suggests that dissociation occurs during hypnosis. A "split" in
consciousness occurs. "Part" of the person is unaware of what is occurring, but another "part" is aware. This
part is called:
The Hidden Observer: Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized person's awareness of experiences, such as
pain, that seem to go unreported during hypnosis.
2. Social Influence Theory: The subject simply becomes caught up in the "role" of being a hypnotized person. It
involves role-playing, conformity, and obedience.
DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS
Psychoactive Drug: A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood.
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Tolerance: The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug; requiring the user to take larger and larger
doses in order to obtain the same effect.
Withdrawal: The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
Physical Dependence:
A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
Psychological Dependence: A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
Psychoactive Drugs
Depressants: Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Barbiturates: drugs that depress the activity of the CNS, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
Opiates: Opium and its derivatives (such as morphine and heroin); they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening
pain and anxiety.
Stimulants: Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excite neural
activity and speed up body functions.
Amphetamines: Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and
mood changes.
Ecstasy (MDMA): A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. It produces short-term euphoria. However, it harms
serotonin-producing neurons causing long-term changes in mood and cognitions.
Hallucinogens: Psychedelic ("mind-altering") drugs, such as LSD and marijuana, that distort perceptions and may evoke
sensory images in the absence of sensory input (i.e., hallucinations).
THC: The major active ingredient in marijuana.
NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES
Near-death Experience: An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as after a cardiac
arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
Monism: The belief that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing (when the body dies, so does the mind.
Dualism: The belief that mind and body are two distinct entities (when the body dies, the mind may continue to exist).
Brainwaves & Sleep
Sleep During the
Lifespan
Sleep Stages During the
Night
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CONSCIOUSNESS
Consciousness is our awareness of the various cognitive processes that operate in our daily lives: making
decisions, remembering, daydreaming, concentrating, reflecting, sleeping, and dreaming, among others.
Psychologists divide consciousness into two broad areas: waking consciousness, which includes the
thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that arise when we are awake and reasonably alert; and altered states
of consciousness (ASC), during which our mental state differs noticeably from normal waking
consciousness.
NATURAL VARIATIONS IN CONSCIOUSNESS
To make sense of our complex environment, we choose what to absorb from the myriad happenings around
us and filter out the rest. This applies to both external stimuli such as sounds, sights, and smells, and
internal sensations such as heat, cold, pressure, and pain. Even our thoughts, memories, emotions, and
needs are subjected to this selective process. We also perform familiar tasks, such as signing our names,
without deliberate attention. Many psychologists believe that important mental processes go on outside of
normal waking consciousness, perhaps as a form of automatic processing.
Daydreaming and Fantasy
Daydreaming occurs without effort, often when we seek to escape the demands of the real world briefly.
Some psychologists see no positive or practical value in daydreaming. Others contend that daydreams and
fantasies allow us to express and deal with hidden desires without guilt or anxiety. Still others believe that
daydreams build cognitive and creative skills that help us survive difficult situations—that they serve as a
useful substitute for reality or a beneficial way of relieving tension. Finally there are those who view
daydreaming as a mechanism for processing the vast array of information we take in during the day,
enabling us to retrieve thoughts put aside for later review and to transform them into new and more useful
forms.
Sleep and Dreaming
Research into sleep patterns shows
that normal sleep consists of several
stages. Following the initial "twilight"
state, which is characterized by
irregular, low-voltage alpha waves
and a state of relaxed wakefulness,
the sleeper enters Stage 1 of sleep.
This stage, which is marked by a
slowing of the pulse, muscle
relaxation, and side-to-side rolling
movements of the eyes, lasts only a
few moments. The sleeper is easily awakened from Stage 1 sleep.
Stages 2 and 3 are characterized by progressively deeper sleep. In these stages, the sleeper is hard to
awaken and does not respond to noise or light. Heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature continue to
drop.
During Stage 4 sleep, when the brain emits very slow delta waves, heart and breathing rates, blood
pressure, and body temperature are as low as they will get during the night. About an hour after first falling
asleep, the sleeper begins to ascend through the stages back to Stage 1—a process that takes about 40
minutes. At this stage in the sleep cycle, heart rate and blood pressure increase, the muscles become more
relaxed than at any other time in the cycle, and the eyes move rapidly under closed eyelids. It is this rapid
eye movement (REM) that gives this stage of sleep its name.
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REM sleep is also called paradoxical (hint – paralyzed) sleep because while brain activity and other
physiological symptoms resemble those recorded during waking consciousness, the sleeper appears to be
deeply asleep and is incapable of moving because of paralysis of the body's voluntary muscles. Non-REM,
or NREM sleep, refers to the non-rapid-eye-movement stages of sleep that alternate with REM stages
during the sleep cycle.
Dreams are visual or auditory experiences
that occur primarily during REM periods of
sleep. Less vivid experiences that resemble
conscious thinking tend to occur during NREM
sleep. One theory to explain why REM dreams
are so vivid cites the level of brain arousal
during REM sleep. The brain's activity closely
resembles that of normal waking
consciousness, but because of its relative
insensitivity to outside sensory input, it draws
on nothing but internal images from memory.
Several theories have been developed to explain the nature and content of dreams. According to Freud,
dreams have two kinds of contents: manifest (the surface content of the dream itself) and latent (the
disguised, unconscious meaning of the dream). One recent hypothesis suggests that dreams arise out of
the mind's reprocessing of information absorbed during the day—information that is important to the
survival of the organism. Thus, dreaming strengthens our memories of important information. At the
neurophysiological level, REM sleep may be related to brain "restoration" and growth. If people are
deprived of REM sleep, they often become anxious, irritable, and testy, and, when they are permitted to
have REM sleep again, the amount of REM they experience almost doubles—an effect referred to as REM
rebound.
Other phenomena associated with sleep and dreaming include sleepwalking, sleeptalking, sleep terrors,
nightmares, and sleep learning. Most episodes of sleeptalking and sleepwalking occur during delta sleep.
Unlike nightmares, sleep terrors, which are more common among children than adults, prove difficult to be
awakened from, and are rarely remembered the next morning. The learning of complex material during
sleep has never been scientifically confirmed. Sleep deprivation is a major problem in the United States.
Inadequate sleep has been shown to adversely affect attention, memory, reaction time, judgment, and job
performance. Moreover it is implicated as one of the major causes of automobile accidents.
Many people are afflicted by sleep disorders. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or
remaining asleep throughout the night. Apnea is marked by breathing difficulties during the night and
feelings of exhaustion during the day. Narcolepsy is a hereditary sleep disorder characterized by sudden
nodding off during the day and sudden loss of muscle tone following moments of emotional excitement.
DRUG-ALTERED CONSCIOUSNESS
Some ASCs are induced with the help of
psychoactive drugs.
Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence
It is important to distinguish between substance use
and substance abuse. Substance use may be
essential for medical reasons and it may also be
culturally approved and valued. By contrast,
substance abuse is a pattern of drug use that
diminishes the person's ability to fulfill
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responsibilities at home or at work or school, that results in repeated use of a drug in dangerous situations,
or that leads to legal difficulties related to drug use.
Continued abuse over time can lead to substance dependence, a pattern of compulsive drug taking that is
much more serious than substance abuse. It is often marked by tolerance, the need to take higher doses of
a drug to produce its original effects or to prevent withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms are the
unpleasant physical or psychological effects that follow discontinuance of the psychoactive substance.
To study the effects of drugs scientifically, most researchers use the double-blind procedure to eliminate
biases that might arise out of the experimenter's or the participant's prior knowledge or expectations about
a drug.
Consciousness-altering drugs are grouped into three broad categories: depressants, stimulants, and
hallucinogens.
Depressants: Alcohol, Barbiturates, the Opiates
Levels of Alcohol in the Blood
0.05%
0.10%
0.15%
0.20%
0.25%
well
0.30%
0.35%
Behavioral Effects
Feels good; less alert
Slower to react; less cautious
Reaction time much slower
Sensory-motor abilities suppressed
Staggering (motor abilities severely impaired); perception is limited as
Semistupor
Level for anesthesia; death is possible
0.40% Death is likely (usually as a result of respiratory failure)Depressants are chemicals that slow down
behavior or cognitive processes. Alcohol, a depressant, is the intoxicating ingredient in whiskey, beer, wine,
and other fermented or distilled liquors. It is responsible for tens of thousands of deaths each year and
contributes to a great deal of crime and domestic violence. Its dangers notwithstanding, alcohol continues
to be a popular drug because of its short-term effects. As a depressant, it calms down the nervous system
working like a general anesthetic. It is often experienced subjectively as a stimulant because it inhibits
centers in the brain that govern critical judgment and impulsive behavior.
Barbiturates, popularly known as "downers," are potentially deadly depressants. They were first used for
their sedative and anticonvulsant properties, but today their use is limited to the treatment of such
conditions as epilepsy and arthritis. The opiates are highly addictive drugs such as opium, morphine, and
heroin that dull the senses and induce feelings of euphoria, well-being, and relaxation. Morphine and heroin
are derivatives of opium.
Stimulants: Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, and Cocaine
Stimulants are drugs such as caffeine, nicotine,
amphetamines, and cocaine that stimulate the
sympathetic nervous system and produce feelings of
optimism and boundless energy, making the potential for
their abuse significant.
Caffeine occurs naturally in coffee, tea, and cocoa;
nicotine occurs naturally only in tobacco. Caffeine is
considered to be a benign drug, but in large doses it can
cause anxiety, insomnia, and other unpleasant conditions.
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Although nicotine is a stimulant, it acts like a depressant when taken in large doses.
Amphetamines are stimulants that initially produce "rushes" of euphoria often followed by sudden
"crashes" and, sometimes, depression. Cocaine brings on a sense of euphoria by stimulating the
sympathetic nervous system, but is can also cause anxiety, depression, and addictive cravings. Its crystalline
form—crack—is highly addictive.
Hallucinogens and Marijuana
Hallucinogens are any of a number of drugs, such as LSD, phencyclidine (PCP, or "angel dust"), and
mescaline, that distort visual and auditory perception.
Many of the hallucinogens occur naturally in mushrooms or other fungi. In these forms, they share an
ancient history with other consciousness-altering drugs of natural origin. By contrast, lysergic acid
diethylamide (LSD) is an artificial hallucinogen, synthesized in the laboratory, that produces hallucinations
and delusions similar to those that occur in a psychotic state.
Marijuana is a mild hallucinogen that is capable of producing feelings of euphoria, a sense of well-being,
and swings in mood from gaiety to relaxation to paranoia. Currently, marijuana is the fourth most popular
drug among students, following alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. Though similar to hallucinogens in certain
respects, marijuana is far less potent and its effects on consciousness are far less profound.
DRUGS OF ABUSE/Uses and Effects
U.S. Department of Justice
Drug Enforcement Administration
Dependence
Drugs
CSA
Schedules
Trade or Other
Names
Medical Uses
Physical
Psychological
Tolerance
Duration
(Hours)
Usual
Method
Possible
Effects
Effects of
Overdose
Withdrawal
Syndrome
Narcotics
Heroin
Substance I Diamorphine,
Horse, Smack,
Black tar, Chiva,
Negra (black tar)
None in U.S.,
Analgesic,
Antitussive
High
High
Yes
3-4
Injected, Euphoria,
snorted, drowsiness,
smoked respiratory
depression,
constricted
Oral,
injected pupils, nausea
Morphine
Substance MS-Contin,
II
Roxanol,
Oramorph SR,
MSIR
Analgesic
High
High
Yes
3-12
Hydrocodone
Substance Hydrocodone w/ Analgesic,
II, Product Acetaminophen, Antitussive
III, V
Vicodin,
Vicoprofen,
Tussionex, Lortab
High
High
Yes
3-6
Oral
Hydro-morphone Substance Dilaudid
II
Analgesic
High
High
Yes
3-4
Oral,
injected
Oxycodone
Substance Roxicet,
II
Oxycodone w/
Acetaminophen,
OxyContin,
Endocet,
Percocet,
Percodan
Analgesic
High
High
Yes
3-12
Oral
Codeine
Substance Acetaminophen,
II, Products Guaifenesin or
III, V
Promethazine
w/Codeine,
Fiorinal, Fioricet
or Tylenol
w/Codeine
Analgesic,
Antitussive
Moderate Moderate
Yes
3-4
Oral,
injected
Other Narcotics
Substance Fentanyl,
Analgesic,
II, III, IV
Demerol,
Antidiarrheal,
Methadone,
Antitussive
Darvon, Stadol,
Talwin, Paregoric,
Buprenex
High-Low High-Low
Yes
Variable
Oral,
injected,
snorted,
smoked
Depressants
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Slow and
shallow
breathing,
clammy skin,
convulsions,
coma, possible
death
Watery eyes,
runny nose,
yawning, loss of
appetite,
irritability,
tremors, panic,
cramps, nausea,
chills and
sweating
gamma
Hydroxybutyric
Acid
Substance GHB, Liquid
None in U.S.,
I, Product Ecstasy, Liquid X, Anesthetic
III
Sodium Oxybate,
Xyrem®
Benzodiazepines
Other
Depressants
Drugs
Stimulants
Moderate Moderate
Yes
3-6
Oral
Substance Valium, Xanax,
IV
Halcion, Ativan,
Restoril,
Rohypnol
(Roofies, R-2),
Klonopin
Antianxiety,
Moderate Moderate
Sedative, Anticonvulsant,
Hypnotic,
Muscle Relaxant
Yes
1-8
Oral,
injected
Substance Ambien, Sonata,
I, II, III, IV
Meprobamate,
Chloral Hydrate,
Barbiturates,
Methaqualone
(Quaalude)
Antianxiety,
Sedative,
Hypnotic
Yes
2-6
Oral
Tolerance
Duration
(Hours)
CSA
Schedules
Trade or Other
Names
Medical Uses
Moderate Moderate
Physical
Psychological
Usual
Method
Cocaine
Substance Coke, Flake,
II
Snow, Crack,
Coca, Blanca,
Perico, Nieve,
Soda
Local anesthetic Possible
High
Yes
1-2
Amphetamine/
Methamphetamine
Substance Crank, Ice, Cristal,
II
Krystal Meth,
Speed, Adderall,
Dexedrine,
Desoxyn
Attention
deficit/
hyperactivity
disorder,
narcolepsy,
weight control
Possible
High
Yes
2-4
Methylphenidate
Substance Ritalin (Illy's),
Attention
II
Concerta, Focalin, deficit/
Metadate
hyperactivity
disorder
Possible
High
Yes
2-4
Oral,
injected,
snorted,
smoked
Other Stimulants
Substance Adipex P,
VasoIII, IV
Ionamin, Prelu-2, constriction
Didrex, Provigil
Possible
Moderate
Yes
2-4
Oral
Tolerance
Duration
(Hours)
Drugs
Hallucinogens
CSA
Schedules
Trade or Other
Names
Medical Uses
Physical
Psychological
Slurred speech,
disorientation,
drunken
behavior
without odor of
alcohol,
impaired
memory of
events,
interacts with
alcohol
Possible
Effects
Snorted, Increased
smoked, alertness,
injected excitation,
euphoria,
increased pulse
rate & blood
Oral,
injected, pressure,
smoked insomnia, loss
of appetite
Usual
Method
Possible
Effects
Heightened
senses, teeth
grinding and
dehydration
MDMA and
Analogs
Substance I (Ecstasy, XTC,
Adam), MDA
(Love Drug),
MDEA (Eve),
MBDB
None
None
Moderate
Yes
4-6
Oral,
snorted,
smoked
LSD
Substance I Acid, Microdot,
Sunshine,
Boomers
None
None
Unknown
Yes
8-12
Oral
Phencyclidine and Substance PCP, Angel Dust, Anesthetic
Analogs
I, II, III
Hog, Loveboat,
(Ketamine)
Ketamine
(Special K), PCE,
PCPy, TCP
Possible
High
Yes
1-12
Illusions and
hallucinations,
altered
Smoked, perception of
time and
oral,
injected, distance
snorted
Other
Hallucinogens
None
None
Possible
4-8
Oral
Tolerance
Duration
(Hours)
Drugs
Cannibis
Substance I Psilocybe
None
mushrooms,
Mescaline,
Peyote Cactus,
Ayahausca, DMT,
Dextromethorphan*
(DXM)
CSA
Schedules
Trade or Other
Names
Medical Uses
Physical
Psychological
Usual
Method
Marijuana
Substance I Pot, Grass,
Sinsemilla,
Blunts, Mota,
Yerba, Grifa
None
Unknown
Moderate
Yes
2-4
Tetrahydrocannabinol
Substance THC, Marinol
I, Product
III
Antinauseant,
Appetite
stimulant
Yes
Moderate
Yes
2-4
Hashish and
Hashish Oil
Substance I Hash, Hash oil
None
Unknown
Moderate
Yes
2-4
Smoked,
oral
Testosterone
Substance Depo
III
Testosterone,
Sustanon, Sten,
Cypt
Hypogonadism
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
14-28
days
Injected
Other Anabolic
Steroids
Substance Parabolan,
III
Winstrol,
Equipose,
Anemia, Breast
cancer
Unknown
Yes
Unknown
Variable
Oral,
injected
Possible
Effects
Smoked, Euphoria,
oral
relaxed
inhibitions,
increased
Smoked, appetite,
disorientation
oral
Shallow
respiration,
clammy skin,
dilated pupils,
weak and rapid
pulse, coma,
possible death
Effects of
Overdose
Agitation,
increased body
temperature,
hallucinations,
convulsions,
possible death
Effects of
Overdose
Anxiety,
insomnia,
tremors,
delirium,
convulsions,
possible death
Withdrawal
Syndrome
Apathy, long
periods of sleep,
irritability,
depression,
disorientation
Withdrawal
Syndrome
Increased body
temperature,
electrolyte
imbalance,
cardiac arrest
Muscle aches,
drowsiness,
depression,
acne
(LSD) Longer,
more intense
"trip" episodes
None
Unable to direct Drug seeking
movement, feel behavior
pain, or
*Not regulated
remember
Effects of
Overdose
Fatigue,
paranoia,
possible
psychosis
Withdrawal
Syndrome
Occasional
reports of
insomnia,
hyperactivity,
decreased
appetite
Anabolic Steroids
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Virilization,
Unknown
edema,
testicular
atrophy,
gyneco-mastia,
acne,
aggressive
Possible
depression
Anadrol,
Dianabol,
Primabolin-Depo,
D-Ball
behavior
Inhalants
Amyl and Butyl
Nitrite
Pearls,
Angina (Amyl) Unknown Unknown No
Poppers, Rush,
Locker Room
1
Inhaled Flushing,
Methemohypotension, globinemia
headache
Agitation
Nitrous Oxide
Laughing gas,
balloons,
Whippets
Anesthetic
Unknown Low
No
0.5
Other Inhalants
Adhesives,
spray paint,
hair spray, dry
cleaning fluid,
spot remover,
lighter fluid
None
Unknown High
No
0.5-2
Trembling,
anxiety,
insomnia,
vitamin
deficiency,
confusion,
hallucinations,
convulsions
None
High
Yes
1-3
Inhaled Impaired
memory,
slurred
Inhaled speech,
drunken
behavior,
slow onset
vitamin
deficiency,
organ
damage
Oral
Alcohol
Beer, wine,
liquor
High
Vomiting,
respiratory
depression,
loss of
consciousness,
possible death
MEDITATION AND HYPNOSIS
Meditation - Meditation refers to any of several methods of concentration, reflection, or focusing of
thoughts intended to suppress the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Meditation not only lowers
the rate of metabolism but also reduces heart and respiratory rates. Brain activity during meditation
resembles that experienced during relaxed wakefulness, and the accompanying decrease in blood lactate
reduces stress.
Hypnosis is a trancelike state in which the person responds readily to suggestions. People's susceptibility to
hypnosis depends on how suggestible they are. Hypnosis has several practical applications; for instance, it
eases the pain of certain medical conditions and can help people stop smoking and break other habits.
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___ 1.
The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of consciousness during the first
half of the last century was:
A) psychoanalysis.
D) structuralism.
B) behaviorism.
E) Gestalt psychology.
C) functionalism.
___ 2. Consciousness is:
A) the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember.
B) the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
C) the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information.
D) effortless encoding of incidental information into memory.
E) our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
___ 3. By 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists' renewed interest in:
A) behavior genetics.
D) mental processes.
B) emotion.
E) mental health.
C) socialization.
___ 4. Unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to:
A) occur slowly.
B) be limited in its capacity.
C) contribute to effective problem solving.
D) occur simultaneously on several parallel dimensions.
E) relate to childhood events.
___ 5. Consciousness is to unconsciousness as ________ is to ________.
A) monism; dualism
D) latent content; manifest content
B) serial processing; parallel processing
E) delta wave; alpha wave
C) narcolepsy; sleep apnea
___ 6. Those who emphasize that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder
are highlighting the importance of:
A) neuroadaptation
D) narcolepsy.
B) animal magnetism.
E) REM sleep.
C) biological rhythms.
___ 7. When light strikes the retina, it signals the suprachiasmatic nucleus to alter ________
production by the pineal gland.
A) melatonin B) serotonin C) acetylcholine D) dopamine E) endorphin
___ 8. Our inability to fall asleep early as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:
A) dissociation.
D) night terrors.
B) narcolepsy.
E) sleep apnea.
C) the circadian rhythm.
___ 9. Sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus are called:
A) night terrors.
D) hallucinations.
B) neuroadaptations.
E) stressors.
C) dissociations.
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___ 10. Alpha waves are associated with:
A) REM sleep.
B) Stage 2 sleep.
C) Stage 3 sleep.
D) Stage 4 sleep.
E) a relaxed but awake state.
___ 11. Sleeptalking may occur during:
A) Stage 1 sleep.
B) Stage 2 sleep.
C) REM sleep.
D) Stage 4 sleep.
E) any stage of sleep.
___ 12. The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep are called:
A) alpha waves.
D) theta waves
B) beta waves.
E) sleep spindles.
C) delta waves.
___ 13. Paradoxical sleep is to slow-wave sleep as ________ sleep is to ________ sleep.
A) REM; Stage 1
D) Stage 2; REM
B) Stage 1; REM
E) REM; Stage 4
C) REM; Stage 2
___ 14. After Carlos had been asleep for about an hour and a half, his heart began to beat faster, his
breathing became fast and irregular, and his closed eyes began to dart back and forth. Carlos
was most likely experiencing:
A) Stage 4 sleep.
D) night terrors.
B) REM sleep.
E) sleep apnea.
C) narcolepsy.
___ 15. When people are experiencing vivid dreams:
A) their bodies often move in accordance with what they dream.
B) their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids.
C) they are more likely to sleepwalk than during any other stage of sleep.
D) their slow brainwave patterns indicate that they are deeply asleep.
E) they intermittently stop breathing.
___ 16. At 3 o'clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues,
we can expect an increasing occurrence of:
A) sleeptalking.
D) REM sleep.
B) hypnagogic sensations.
E) Stage 4 sleep.
C) muscle tension.
___ 17. After sleeping for about an hour and a half, José enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is
likely to:
A) be easily awakened.
D) talk in his sleep.
B) have slower, more regular breathing.
E) have very relaxed muscles.
C) have slower brain waves.
___ 18. Three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna's heart rate increases, her breathing becomes
more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her closed lids. Research suggests that
Shoshanna is:
A) dreaming.
D) exhibiting a sleep spindle.
B) entering the third stage of sleep.
E) experiencing a night terror.
C) ready to sleepwalk.
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___ 19. Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably:
A) experiences very little REM sleep.
B) would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.
C) dreams during Stage 4 rather than during REM sleep.
D) experiences more Stage 4 sleep than most people.
E) passes through the sleep cycle much more rapidly than most people.
___ 20. Terry has not had a decent night of sleep in over a week. If this sleep deprivation continues, he
will become increasingly susceptible to:
A) viral infections.
D) night terrors.
B) sleep apnea.
E) dissociation.
C) insomnia.
___ 21. Deep sleep appears to play an important role in:
A) narcolepsy.
D) posthypnotic amnesia.
B) sleep apnea.
E) physical growth.
C) paradoxical sleep.
___ 22. Which of the following is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia?
A) Relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime.
B) Eat a big dinner late in the evening so you'll feel drowsy at bedtime.
C) Relax with a drink of your favorite alcoholic beverage just before bedtime.
D) Engage in some form of vigorous physical exercise shortly before bedtime.
E) Be sure to sleep later than usual once you do get to sleep.
___ 23. Which of the following is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia?
A) Awaken at the same time every day even if you have had a restless night.
B) Drink a glass of milk 15 minutes before bedtime.
C) Avoid taking short naps during the day.
D) Drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime.
E) Don't engage in strenuous physical exercise just before bedtime.
___ 24. Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to ________.
A) REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep
D) Stage 4 sleep; Stage 1 sleep
B) narcolepsy; sleep apnea
E) Stage 1 sleep; REM sleep
C) delta waves; alpha waves
___ 25. Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commercial bus
driver?
A) night terrors
D) narcolepsy
B) insomnia
E) sleep apnea
C) sleepwalking
___ 26. Sleep apnea is a disorder involving:
A) the cessation of breathing during sleep.
B) periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.
C) hypnagogic sensations of falling or floating weightlessly.
D) the excessive use of sleeping pills or other sleep-inducing drugs.
E) screams and panic during deep sleep.
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___ 27. Mr. Dayton occasionally stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to snort air for a few
seconds before falling back to sleep. Mrs. Dayton complains that her husband snores. Clearly,
Mr. Dayton suffers from:
A) sleep apnea. B) narcolepsy. C) insomnia. D) night terrors. E) aphasia.
___ 28. About three hours after he falls asleep, Bobby often sits up in bed screaming incoherently. His
mother tries to awaken him, but with no success. His pulse races and he gasps for breath. The
next morning, he remembers nothing. It appears that Bobby suffers from:
A) night terrors.
D) sleep apnea.
B) narcolepsy.
E) insomnia.
C) sleep spindles.
___ 29. It has been found that night terrors:
A) are usually recalled vividly for days following their occurrence.
B) are typically accompanied by a state of temporary muscular immobility or paralysis.
C) jolt the sleeper to a sudden state of full waking alertness.
D) typically occur during Stage 4 sleep.
E) involve the temporary inability to breathe.
___ 30. Research on dreaming indicates that:
A) some people are able to test their state of consciousness while dreaming.
B) dreams cannot be confused with reality.
C) about half the dreams reported by young men have sexual overtones.
D) most dreams are unrelated to actual daily events.
E) it is impossible to perceive color in dream images.
___ 31. Freud called the remembered story line of a dream its ________ content.
A) manifest B) latent C) dissociated D) paradoxical E) delusional
___ 32. Shane, a straight-A student, remembers dreaming that he failed an important chemistry test.
According to Freud, Shane's account represents the ________ content of his dream.
A) paradoxical B) manifest C) delusional D) latent E) dissociated
___ 33. As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark gentleman when suddenly the
music shifted to loud rock and the man disappeared. According to Freud, Inge's account
represents the ________ content of her dream.
A) paradoxical B) manifest C) latent D) hypnagogic E) hallucinatory
___ 34. One theory suggests that the brain activity associated with ________ is helpful for developing
and preserving neural pathways in the brain.
A) night terrors
D) dreaming
B) near-death experiences
E) Stage 4 sleep
C) sleep apnea
___ 35. The activation-synthesis theory best helps to explain why:
A) most dreams are realistic portrayals of pleasant life events.
B) dreams are accompanied by eye movements.
C) dreams typically express unacceptable feelings in a symbolically disguised form.
D) individuals with sleep apnea are unable to recall any of their dreams.
E) people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep.
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___ 36. Hypnosis has been associated with quackery, thanks to the false claims made by:
A) Sigmund Freud.
D) William Dement.
B) Ernst Hilgard.
E) Anton Mesmer.
C) Martin Orne.
___ 37. Under hypnosis, Mrs. Mohammed is encouraged by her therapist to vividly experience and
describe the details of an argument she had with her father when she was a child. The
therapist is employing a technique called:
A) age regression.
D) dissociation.
B) posthypnotic suggestion.
E) posthypnotic amnesia.
C) paradoxical sleep.
___ 38. Research indicates that memories retrieved during hypnosis are:
A) forgotten again as soon as the person awakens from the hypnotic state.
B) accurate recollections of information previously learned.
C) experienced as being inaccurate even when they are true.
D) often a combination of fact and fiction.
E) often accurate indicators of childhood sexual abuse.
___ 39. Twenty-eight-year-old Theodore has an irrational fear of dogs. His therapist hypnotizes him
and asks him to mentally relive his earliest childhood experience with a dog. The therapist is
making use of:
A) hypnagogic sensations.
D) temporal dissociation.
B) age regression.
E) the hidden observer.
C) REM rebound.
___ 40. Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next
few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua's therapist was
attempting to make use of:
A) age regression.
D) REM rebound.
B) posthypnotic suggestion.
E) a hidden observer.
C) hypnagogic sensations.
___ 41. While Bev was hypnotized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she
would have a strong desire to eat well-balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making
use of:
A) age regression.
D) posthypnotic amnesia.
B) posthypnotic suggestion.
E) paradoxical sleep.
C) a hidden observer.
___ 42. Advocates of the social influence theory of hypnosis are likely to argue that:
A) hypnosis is a unique state of consciousness.
B) hypnotized people are simply enacting the role of good hypnotic subjects.
C) the process of dissociation best explains hypnotic phenomena.
D) most hypnotized people are consciously faking hypnosis.
E) hypnotic susceptibility is positively correlated with introversion.
___ 43. The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis states that hypnosis involves:
A) role playing.
D) motivational conflict.
B) dissociation.
E) obedience to authority.
C) age regression.
Page 14
___ 44. The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an
indication of:
A) withdrawal.
D) tolerance.
B) dissociation.
E) narcolepsy.
C) resistance.
___ 45. The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certain drugs is called:
A) intolerance.
D) REM rebound.
B) narcolepsy.
E) dissociation.
C) withdrawal.
___ 46. Unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are indicative of:
A) narcolepsy.
D) physical dependence.
B) psychological reactance.
E) REM rebound.
C) dissociation.
___ 47. Drug tolerance refers to the:
A) absence of pain or anxiety following the use of a drug.
B) loss of social inhibitions following drug use.
C) discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of a drug.
D) reduced effect of a drug resulting from its regular usage.
E) belief that drug use should be legalized.
___ 48. Which of the following provides the clearest indication of a drug addiction?
A) physical dependence
D) alpha waves
B) hallucinations
E) REM rebound
C) narcolepsy
___ 49. Which of the following is true of alcohol?
A) In large doses, it is a depressant; in small doses, it is a stimulant.
B) In large doses, it is a stimulant; in small doses, it is a depressant.
C) In large doses, it is a hallucinogen; in small doses, it is a depressant.
D) In large doses, it is a stimulant; in small doses, it is a stimulant.
E) In large doses, it is a depressant; in small doses, it is a depressant.
___ 50. Alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more:
A) fearful.
D) sexually daring.
B) aggressive.
E) self-disclosing.
C) self-conscious.
___ 51. After drinking three cans of beer, Akiva felt less guilty about the way he mistreated his wife and
children. Akiva's reduced guilt most likely resulted from the fact that his alcohol consumption
has:
A) reduced his sexual desire.
B) destroyed some of his brain cells.
C) reduced his self-awareness.
D) directed his attention to the future.
E) increased his level of sympathetic nervous system arousal.
___ 52. Which of the following drugs is classified as a stimulant?
A) marijuana B) morphine C) alcohol D) nicotine E) LSD
Page 15
___ 53. A brief 15- to 30-minute rush of euphoria followed by a crash of agitated depression is most
closely associated with the use of:
A) marijuana. B) cocaine. C) LSD. D) barbiturates. E) morphine.
___ 54. Which of the following is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen?
A) marijuana B) Nembutal C) Ecstasy D) heroin E) LSD
___ 55. One of the immediate effects of Ecstasy is:
A) increased appetite.
B) dehydration.
C) lethargy.
D) pupil constriction.
E) decreased blood pressure.
___ 56. Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?
A) LSD B) cocaine C) heroin D) caffeine E) nicotine
___ 57. LSD is most likely to produce:
A) narcolepsy.
B) hallucinations.
C) dissociation.
D) night terrors.
E) age regression.
___ 58. An altered state of consciousness in which people experience fantastic images and often feel
separated from their bodies is most closely associated with the use of:
A) heroin. B) cocaine. C) barbiturates. D) marijuana. E) LSD.
___ 59. Studies of marijuana's effects indicate that:
A) daily use of the drug is currently higher than it has ever been among high school seniors.
B) regular users may achieve a high with less of the drug than occasional users.
C) regular usage has no serious negative effects on physical health.
D) usage consistently reduces feelings of anxiety and depression.
E) marijuana is the most commonly used psychoactive drug in North America.
___ 60. THC, the active ingredient in ________, is classified as a ________.
A) marijuana; hallucinogen
D) cocaine; hallucinogen
B) marijuana; stimulant
E) heroin; depressant
C) cocaine; stimulant
___ 61. The belief that death involves the liberation of the soul from a bodily prison illustrates:
A) REM rebound. B) monism. C) dissociation. D) narcolepsy. E) dualism.
___ 62. Plato's belief that death involves the separation of the mind from the body is known as:
A) the circadian rhythm.
D) dualism.
B) age regression.
E) hypnagogic state.
C) dissociation.
Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B
E
D
D
B
C
A
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
C
D
E
E
C
E
B
B
D
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
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E
A
B
A
E
A
D
A
D
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
A
A
A
D
A
A
B
B
D
E
E
A
D
B
B
B
B
B
D
C
D
D
A
E
C
C
D
B
C
B
A
B
E
B
A
61. E
62. D
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