Brucellosis

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Najwan Naji
Brucellosis
Brucellosis
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Brucella. The
bacteria can spread from animals to human and caused by various species
of the genus Brucella.
Brucellosis also called undulant fever , Malta fever , mediterranean fever ,
Enzootic abortion , Contagious abortion , Bang's disease.
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Gram negative
Facultative intracellular
Coccobacillus or short rods
Survive in dust and soil “drying resistant”
In conditions of high humidity
, low temperatures and no sunlight
these organisms can remain viable
for several months in water , aborted fetuses , manure , wool , hay ,
equipment and clothing.
Populations at Risk
• Peoples those working with infected animals or their
tissues.
• Consumers of unpasteurized dairy products.
• Hunters who unknowingly handle infected animals.
• Travelers to areas with enzootic disease who consume
local delicacies such as goat , sheep , or camel milks or
cheeses.
Transmission in Human
•Eat or drink unpasteurized dairy products from cows,
goats, or other animals that are infected with the
bacteria.
•Rarely through eating infected undercooked meat.
•Through a cut or scratch in the skin contact with
infected tissues .
•Inoculation with vaccines .
•Rarely from person to person .
•Animal abortion products “vaginal discharge , aborted
fetuses , placentas”
Incubation period
variable ; 5 days to 21 up to three months .
Symptoms of Brucellosis in Human
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Irregular fever
Flu like illness
Headache
Back pain
Anorexia
Malaise
Fatigue
Night sweats
Poor appetite and weight loss
Coughing
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Meningitis
Endocarditis
Congenital Brucellosis
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Premature delivery
Low birth weight
Splenomegaly
Heptamegaly
Jaundice
Abortion risk unclear
Diagnosis in Human
Isolation of organism , blood ,
bone marrow , other tissue.
Serum agglutination test
Immunofluorescence
PCR
Treatment in Human
• Rarely fatal if treated
• Antibiotics necessary , Death usually
caused by endocarditis , Meningitis.
• About %5 of treated cases relapse
• Failure to complete treatment , infections
requiring surgical intervention .
Brueclla spp.
B.Abortus
•Natural Host ; cattle, bison , buffalo
•Third trimester abortions
•Retention of fetal membranes
•Leathery appearance of placenta
•Endometritis
•Birth of dead or weak calves
•Low milk yield
•Only 5% have residual sterility
•Infection in non pregnant female are usually asymptomatic
B.Melitensis
•Natural host ; goats , sheep
• Late term abortions
•Retained placenta
•Birth of dead or weak lamb /kids
B.ovis
•Natural host ; sheep
•Abortion
•Fertility problems
•Epididymitis
•Inflammation and retention of placenta
B.suis
•Natural host ; swine
•Prolonged bactremia
•Abortion
•Posterior paralysis
•Metritis
•abscesses
B.maris
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Natural host ; marine mammals
Reproductive effects
Abortion
orchitis
Placentitis
Infertility
Diagnosis in Animals
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Isolation of organism
Blood , semen , other tissues
Serology
Brucella card test , ELISA
Fluorescent antibody
Milk ring test
Treatment
• Antibiotic therapy
• Surgical
• High rate of failure
Preveantation and Control
• Do not drink or eat unpasteurized dairy products.
• Wear gloves , masks if you work in the animal
processing industry.
• Education
• There is no effective human vaccine to prevent
brucellosis.
• Animals vaccination is available
THANK YOU
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