Project Planning and Scheduling

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PROJECT PLANNING AND
SCHEDULING
UNIT STANDARDS
243811: Determine the work required to accomplish the objectives
and organise the scope of a simple to moderately
complex project
243823: Develop a preliminary Project scope statement for a
simple to moderately complex project
243820: Develop an optimised work and resource schedule for a
Simple to moderately complex project
© MSC EDUCATION HOLDINGS (PTY) LTD
2013 Volume 1
Project Planning and Scheduling
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Project Planning and Scheduling
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MODULE UNIT STANDARD ALIGNMENT
4
PURPOSE, OUTCOMES AND ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
ALIGNMENT MATRIX
5
11
KEY TO ICONS USED IN THIS MODULE
12
LEARNING UNIT 1: THE PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENT
1.1 OVERVIEW
1.2 PROJECT CHARTER
1.2.1 REASONS AND OUTCOMES
1.3 KEY REQUIREMENTS
1.3.1 PRODUCTS FOR THE PROJECT
1.3.2 MAJOR DELIVERABLES
1.3.4 INCLUSIONS AND EXCLUSIONS
1.3.5 MAJOR PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS
ACTIVITY 1 – REVIEWED, GROUPS - US243823 SO1 AC1-3,
SO2 AC1-6
1.4 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPROACH
1.4.1 PROJECT PHASES, PROCESSES AND APPROACH
1.4.2 PROJECT STRATEGIES
1.4.3 PROJECT CONTROLS
1.4.4 PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND ACCEPTANCE
CRITERIA
1.5 THE PRELIMINARY PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENT
1.5.1 COMPONENTS
1.5.2 CORRECTING DISCREPANCIES
ACTIVITY 2 – REVIEWED, GROUPS, US243823 SO3 AC1-6,
SO4 AC1
13
13
15
15
20
20
21
26
27
LEARNING UNIT 2: VERIFY PROJECT SCOPE AND WORK
2.1 REFINE THE PROJECT SCOPE
2.1.1 REVIEWING THE PROJECT SCOPE
2.1.2 REFINING REQUIREMENTS, ASSUMPTIONS AND
CONSTRAINTS
2.1.3 COMPILING THE PROJECT STATEMENT
2.2 DECOMPOSING PROJECT WORK
2.2.1 AN OVERVIEW OF DECOMPOSITION
2.2.2 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES
2.2.3 COMPONENTS AND DIVISIONS
2.2.4 DECOMPOSITION AND THE WBS
46
46
46
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35
37
38
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39
43
45
49
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2.2.5 THE WBS DICTIONARY
67
ACTIVITY 3 – REVIEWED, GROUPS US243811 SO1 AC1-4, SO2
AC1-2, SO3 AC1-8
75
LEARNING UNIT 3: THE RESOURCE SCHEDULE
76
3.1 SCHEDULING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
76
3.1.1 PURPOSE OF SCHEDULES
76
3.1.3 SCHEDULE TECHNIQUES
81
3.1.3.1 THE GANTT CHART
82
3.1.3.2 MILESTONE CHARTS
84
3.1.3.3 NETWORK DIAGRAM
85
3.1.4 ANALYSING PROJECT SCHEDULES
85
3.1.4.1 CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)
85
3.1.4.2 CRITICAL CHAIN SCHEDULING (CSS)
87
3.1.4.3 PROGRAMME EVALUATION AND REVIEW
TECHNIQUE (PERT)
89
3.1.5 DATE AND RESOURCE ADJUSTMENTS
90
3.2 AN INITIAL WORK SCHEDULE
93
3.2.1 ACTIVITIES AND SCOPE
93
3.2.2 DEFINE DEPENDENCIES
93
3.2.4 MILESTONES AND CRITICAL PATH
95
3.3 RESOURCES
95
3.3.1 RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
95
3.3.2 RESOURCE PLAN, AVAILABILITY AND COSTS
97
3.4 OPTIMISING WORK AND RESOURCES
101
3.4.1 THE IMPACT OF RESOURCE MISALLOCATION
101
3.4.2 RISK ANALYSIS
102
3.4.3 AGREEMENTS
103
3.5 SCHEDULE AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
104
ACTIVITY 4 – REVIEWED, GROUPS - US 243820 SO1 AC1-6,
SO2 AC1-5, SO3 AC1-4, SO4 AC1-5, SO5 AC1-3
113
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MODULE UNIT STANDARD ALIGNMENT
This module is aligned to the following unit standards:
US
Number
243811
243823
243820
Title
Determine the work required to
accomplish the objectives and
organise the scope of a simple to
moderately complex project
Develop a preliminary Project scope
statement for a simple to moderately
complex project
Develop an optimised work and
resource schedule for a simple to
moderately complex project
© MSC EDUCATION HOLDINGS (PTY) LTD
NQF Credits
Level
5
7
5
12
5
12
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PURPOSE, OUTCOMES AND ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
243811: Determine the work required to accomplish the objectives and
organise the scope of a simple to moderately complex project
Purpose: Learners credited with this unit standard will be able to determine the
work required to accomplish the objectives of a simple to moderately complex
project. Learners will be able to compile a project scope statement that provides
for project requirements, assumptions and constraints. Learners will also be able
to determine an appropriate approach to ensure that the work of the project is
decomposed to an appropriate level of detail
Outcome 1
 Refine the project scope statement.
Assessment Criteria
 The preliminary scope statement as well as other relevant inputs are
reviewed and understood in order to develop a more detailed project
scope statement. (Range: Relevant inputs include but are not limited to
the project brief, project charter, stakeholder expectations and
requirements of the project)
 Project requirements, assumptions and constraints are refined using
project management principles to meet project objectives.
 The project scope statement is compiled so that it provides for the project
requirements, assumptions and constraints.
 The project scope statement is documented in the required format and
agreed with relevant stakeholders in required timeframe.
Outcome 2
 Determine the approach for decomposing the work of the project.
Assessment Criteria
 Components into which work needs to be decomposed (horizontal
division) are determined using project management principles to support
the planning and control of the project. (Range: Components include but
are not limited to project phases, disciplines, geographic areas and
products)
 The level of detail to which work is decomposed (vertical division) is
determined using project management principles in order to support the
planning and control of the project.
Outcome 3
 Decompose the work of the project into components to the required level
of detail.
Assessment Criteria
 The work of the project is decomposed into major deliverables or
subprojects to support the planning and control of the project. (Range:
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





Work may be broken down to multiple levels depending on aspects such
as management control and risks)
Each component of work is coded in accordance with required
organisational procedures to enable unique identification.
Completion criteria are determined for each component to support the
planning and control of the project.
The decomposed work is documented in the Work Breakdown Structure
format required by the organisation.
Details of the components are documented in the Work Breakdown
Structure dictionary to explain and communicate the requirements and
completion criteria.
The Work Breakdown Structure is verified and approved in the required
format by relevant stakeholders.
Roles and responsibilities for work components are defined in required
format and in accordance with project requirements.
243823: Develop a preliminary project scope statement for a simple to
moderately complex project
Purpose: Learners credited with this unit standard are able to obtain, analyse
and interpret a project charter or brief and its associated documents. They will be
able to, from the document, define the project assumptions, constraints,
inclusions and exclusions and include these in the development of the preliminary
scope statement
Outcome 1
 Interpret the project charter or brief and associated documents.
Assessment Criteria
 Reasons for undertaking the project are interpreted and described to
reflect the desired outcomes of project.
 Goals and objective of the project are identified and described in line with
project charter
 The way the project integrates with the overall business strategy is
interpreted and described in line with the project charter
Outcome 2
 Determine the key requirements of the project.
Assessment Criteria
 The products of the project required to achieve the objectives of the
project, are identified and described
 The major deliverables required to produce the products of the project, are
identified, described and recorded in the required format
 The major resources groupings required to achieve the major deliverables
are identified and documented in the required format. (Range: Major
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resource groupings include but are not limited to project team members,
contracting groups, equipment and material)
 Inclusions and exclusions from the project are identified and documented
in the required format in support of project scope clarification agreements.
 An initial project schedule is compiled to determine the initial overall
timeline of the project and is documented in the required format. (Range:
Initial project schedule consists of key project milestones e.g. key
milestone chart
 The initial project budget is compiled to determine the feasibility of the
project and is documented in the required format. (Range: Initial project
budget is mostly a top-down approach rather that a bottom-up approach
when a detailed project budget is compiled.
Outcome 3
 Develop the Project Management approach.
Assessment Criteria
 The major project assumptions and constraints are identified and
documented in the required format
 Major project assumptions and constraints are interpreted and the impact
thereof on the project is explained
 Project strategies are identified and described in the context of both its
alignment with project objectives and practicality. (Range: Project
strategies include but are not limited to management strategies for scope,
schedule, cost, quality, risk, communication)
 Project controls required to govern the project are determined and
documented in the required format. (Range: Project controls include but
are not limited to policies, procedures, standards and guidelines required
to govern the project)
 Performance measures and acceptance criteria are identified and
explained in support of project objectives
 The Project Management approach is compiled to best suit the specific
project and the stakeholder requirements. (Range: The project
management approach includes but is not limited to project phases,
project management processes and specific strategies regarding key
project aspects
Outcome 4
 Compile a preliminary project scope statement.
Assessment Criteria
 All components of the preliminary scope statement are gathered,
interrogated and checked for cohesion and balance between them to
ensure alignment between them. (Range: Components include but are not
limited to the products of the project, major deliverables, inclusions and
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



exclusions, initial project schedule and budget, assumptions, project
strategies, controls and performance measures)
Revisions to correct discrepancies between components are agreed with
relevant stakeholders and in the required format
All components are integrated into the preliminary scope statement
document in the required format
The preliminary scope statement document is submitted and presented for
approval by the authorised individuals in the required format and time
frame
The approved preliminary scope statement is communicated to all relevant
stakeholders in the required format and time frame
243820: Develop an optimised work and resource schedule for a simple to
moderately complex project
Purpose: The person credited with this unit standard is able to develop and
optimise a schedule showing work and resources using scheduling tools and
techniques. They will be able to gather or define activity descriptions, schedule
activities, define and allocate resources and produce a schedule that optimises
the timing of the work and the resources allocated
Outcome 1
 Demonstrate an understanding of scheduling tools and techniques.
Assessment Criteria
 The purpose of using schedules on a project is explained with examples of
the benefits derived
 The process and techniques for developing a schedule are explained with
examples appropriate to project type and/or project management needs
 The use of alternative start and finish dates on a schedule is explained
with examples of their impact. (Range: May include but are not limited to
early/late, fixed dates)
 The process and techniques for resource planning are explained with
examples appropriate to project type and/or project management needs.
(Range: May include but is not limited to resource identification, allocation,
loading and levelling)
 The process and techniques to optimise project schedules in order to
complete the work within project constraints, are explained with examples
appropriate to project type and/or project management needs. (Range:
Project constraints may include but are not limited to time, resources,
nature of the activity/deliverable, cash flow)
 Different ways of representing a project schedule is explained with
examples of appropriate use.
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Outcome 2
 Produce an initial work schedule.
Assessment Criteria
 Activities are identified and described in terms of the work required to
address the scope of the project
 Dependencies between activities are defined and activities are sequenced
to reflect the logic relationship of the work
 Durations of activities are estimated, in consultation with experts, and/or in
accordance with procedures
 Time based work schedules are produced in accordance with procedures
and in required format
 Initial critical path is identified and explained in accordance with standard
organisational procedures
Outcome 3
 Identify and estimate resources for each activity.
Assessment Criteria
 Resource requirements are defined by activity in accordance with agreed
procedures and or standards
 Quantities of resources are defined per activity as per initial work schedule
and in accordance with established procedures and or standards
 Resource availability and costs are researched and compared using
agreed procedures and or standards
 Resource plan is developed and agreed with relevant stakeholder in
accordance with procedures and in required format. (Range: Resource
plan may include but is not limited to resource category and/or types,
quantities, availability, capability, resource calendars, activity resource
requirements, resource risk analysis and management actions)
Outcome 4
 Optimise the work and resource schedule.
Assessment Criteria
 Resources are allocated to activities on the schedule according to
resource plan, their availability, standards and procedures
 Potential resource constraints, conflict, under or over utilisation situations
are identified and explained in terms of their impact on the project work
 Risk analysis of work and resources is undertaken and documented
according to agreed procedures
 Resource usage and work/activity timing is adjusted to produce a realistic
schedule. (Range: Realistic schedule recognises project and work
constraints and allocates resources for agreed and acceptable time
frames)
 Optimised work and resource schedule is agreed with responsible parties
in accordance with agreed procedures
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Outcome 5
 Compile the schedule and resource management plans.
Assessment Criteria
 Work and resource schedule is base lined in accordance with standards
and procedures
 Schedule management plan is produced incorporating agreements in
accordance with procedures and standards
 Resource management plan is produced incorporating agreements in
accordance with procedures and standards
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ALIGNMENT MATRIX
The above outcomes can be found in the following learning units:
Unit Std Number
and Name
243811: Determine
the work required
to accomplish the
objectives
and
organise the scope
of a simple to
moderately
complex project
243823: Develop a
preliminary project
scope
statement
for a simple to
moderately
complex project
243820: Develop
an optimised work
and
resource
schedule for a
simple
to
moderately
complex project
Specific Outcomes
Specific Outcome 1
Specific Outcome 2
Specific Outcome 3
Learning Unit
Number and Name
Learning Unit 2: Verify
Project Scope and
Work
Specific Outcome 1
Specific Outcome 2
Specific Outcome 3
Specific Outcome 4
Learning Unit 1: The
Project
Scope
Statement
Specific Outcome 1
Specific Outcome 2
Specific Outcome 3
Specific Outcome 4
Specific Outcome 5
Learning Unit 3: The
Resource Schedule
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KEY TO ICONS USED IN THIS MODULE
Group
work/Brainstorm
Individual activity
Questions
Role-play
Class discussion
Research
Case Study
Notes and
observations
Formative
Assessment
Activity
Summative
Assessment
Preparation
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LEARNING UNIT 1: THE PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENT
Learning outcomes to be achieved:
 Interpret the project charter or brief and associated documents.
 Determine the key requirements of the project.
 Develop the Project Management approach.
 Compile a preliminary project scope statement.
1.1 OVERVIEW
Planning can be defined as making decisions with the objective of
influencing the future. This means determining:
 What tasks will be performed?
 How tasks will be performed?
 In what sequence the tasks will be performed?
 Who will perform the tasks?
Project management has been a
recognised profession since about
the 1950’s, but project management
type of work has been occurring for
as long as people have been doing
complex work. When the Great
Pyramids at Giza in Egypt were built, somebody, somewhere, was
tracking resources, schedules, and specifications in some fashion.
The Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOK) (Project Management Institute, 2004) defines a project
as “a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product
or service.” This means that a project is temporary, with the
duration of possibly just one week or even for years, as long as it
has an end date. Projects are not the same as on-going
operations, although the two have a great deal in common.
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Projects are distinguished from on-going operations by an
expected end date, whereas on-going operations go on indefinitely
e.g. most activities of accounting and human resources
departments. People who run on-going operations might also
manage projects e.g. a manager of a human resources department
for a large organisation might plan a recruitment campaign.
A project is also an endeavour, where resources,
such as people and equipment, need to do
work. The endeavour is undertaken by a team
or an organisation, and therefore projects are
intentional, planned events. Successful projects do not just
happen, because some amount of preparation and planning
comes first.
Every project creates a unique product or service, which is the
deliverable for the project and the reason that the project was
undertaken.
In summary, a project typically:

Is temporary and unique. Designing a car manufacturing
plant is a project because it is a one-time activity. The
manufacturing of the car coming out of the plant, although it
involves numerous linked steps, and is an on-going series of
activities.

Has a beginning and an end. Designing a car
manufacturing plant has an end date, but the manufacturing
of cars is on-going.
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
Consumes resources. Resources, either people or
materials, are finite and need to be managed carefully,
especially if they are shared across projects.

Has a budget. Project managers are typically concerned
with the overall profitability of a project and whether the
activities of the project fall within the costs allocated to it.
You can visualise project work
in many ways, but a favourite
method is what is sometimes
called the project triangle or
triangle of triple constraints.
The basic concept is that
every project has some
element of a time constraint, has some type of budget, and
requires some amount of work to complete (a defined scope.)
Some examples of projects include:

Developing a new product.

Restructuring an organisation.

Constructing a house.

Designing a type of vehicle with low emissions.
1.2 PROJECT CHARTER
1.2.1 Reasons and Outcomes
Project Initiation
Developing the Project Charter is documenting the business
needs, project justification, current understanding of the
requirements, and the new product, service or result that is
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intended to satisfy those requirements. The Project Charter should
address the following information:

Requirements that satisfy the needs, wants, and
expectations of stakeholders.

Business needs, high level project description, or product
requirements that need to be addressed by the project.

The purpose or justification of the project.

The assigned Project Manager and authority level.

A summary milestone schedule.

Influences that stakeholders may have.

Functional organisations and their participation.

Organisational, environmental and external assumptions.

Organisational, environmental and external constraints.

The business case justifying the project, including return on
investment.

A summary budget.
At the beginning of a project, the Project Manager
is assigned, who will work with the Project
Sponsor to identify the necessary resources.
Approval of the Project Charter by the Project
Sponsor authorises the designated project team to begin the initial
planning. The project team members then need to further develop
the key project parameters of the scope, schedule, cost, and
quality. The Project Charter, is based on the Project Proposal, and
includes the initial business case, which is shown below.
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Problem
• What is the problem we are trying to solve and the bsuiness
opportunity?
Solution
• How can we address the problem or take advantage of the
business opportunity?
Approach
• What are the viable options available to implement the
solution?
Risk
Assessment
Value
Analysis
• What are the risks associated with each option and what are
the risks of doing nothing?
• What business value is generated from each option?
The project plan
The initial Project Plan results from project initiation and must be
sufficient to identify and acquire any additional resources needed
to implement the project. It must also include plans for involving
and communicating with all the parties that are affected by the
project, as well as identification of an initial set of foreseeable risks
that can threaten the project. At the conclusion of the Project
Initiation phase and based on the initial
planning documents, the Business
Case is then revised and re-evaluated
and a decision is made to either halt
the project, or proceed to the Project
Planning phase.
The outcomes of the project constitute the actual changes that the
intervention seeks to support. These outcomes comprise a
purpose statement, objectives and targets. The purpose is an
overall statement of why the project is required and links the
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project to the strategic objectives of the broader business
programme.
1.2.2 Goals and Objectives
 Goals describe a project's main purpose and tend to be wide
reaching and related to senior management and client
expectations. A project's success depends on achieving its
goals.
 The objectives are statements of what should be achieved
and by which time e.g. “to (the achievement) by (a certain
time)”.
A clear project objective must be both specific and measurable.
The deliverables must be a tangible and measurable result that
must be produced to complete the project of part thereof. Normally
the project team and stakeholders will agree on the deliverables
before the project begins. A project's objectives may include:

A list of outcomes.

Specific due dates for both the project and milestones.The
milestones are reference points that mark a major event in
the project and which are used to monitor the project’s
progress. Any task with a zero duration is automatically
displayed as a milestone.

Specific quality criteria that the deliverables must meet.

Cost limits that the project must not exceed.
For objectives to be effective all project stakeholders should
officially agree to them and the project manager will create an
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objectives document that becomes a permanent part of the project.
Objectives fall into two broad categories:
 Objectives achieved by undertaking the project work
according to guidelines for planning e.g. a legal
framework guiding the specific industry, policies such as
safety, sustainability and human development, and
organisational strategies.
 Objectives achieved as a consequence of completing
the work, which means creating the deliverables and
transferring them to the customer, thus meeting the
requirements defined and agreed upon in the project's scope
statement.
Objectives are the direct responsibility of
the project manager, who should be
assigned the authority, responsibility and
resources to achieve them. The project
manager must understand the goal of
the project, the objectives to support that goal and the deliverables
needed to fulfil those objectives. A successful delivery hinges on
achieving the specified requirements of time, cost and scope while
satisfying the key stakeholder's requirements and understanding
how these deliverables will contribute to overall goals of the
organisation.
1.2.3 Overall Business Strategy
Most corporations have multiple levels of management. Strategic
management can occur at corporate, business, functional and
operational levels.
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 Corporate strategy answers the questions, "which
businesses should we be in?" and "how does being in these
businesses create synergy and add to the competitive
advantage of the business as a whole?"
 Business strategy is the corporate strategy of a single
business unit in a diversified corporation, which must be
aligned with the overall corporate strategy.
 Functional strategies are specific to functional areas such
as marketing, product development, human resources,
finance, legal, and information technology, where the
emphasis is on implementing short and medium term plans.
Functional strategies are derived from and must comply with
broader corporate strategies.
 Operational strategy deals with operational activities such
as implementing the plans according to schedule in order to
achieve the objectives using the allocated resources.
1.3 KEY REQUIREMENTS
1.3.1 Products for the Project
A product breakdown structure (PBS) is a tool for
analysing, documenting and communicating the
outcomes of a project, and forms part of a productbased planning technique. The PBS provides a
complete, hierarchical tree structure of deliverables that make up
the project in diagram form, with outputs to provide a clear and
unambiguous statement of what must be delivered. The following
PBS shows the structure for a project to create a computer.
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Computer
Main unit
Monitor
Mouse
Housing
Housing
Body
Hard drive
CRT
Electronics
Video card
Electronics
Keyboard
Motherboard
CPU
Memory
The PBS is identical in format to the Work Breakdown Structure
(WBS), but is a separate entity and is used at a different step in the
planning process. It precedes the WBS and focuses on
cataloguing all the desired outcomes needed to achieve the goal of
the project. These desired outcomes are the basis for the creation
of the WBS, which identifies the tasks and activities required to
deliver the outcomes. The PBS
defines where you want to go (the
goal), while the WBS tells you how
to get there (the project).
1.3.2 Major Deliverables
The deliverables are the specific work products that have to be
produced in order to complete the project. Defining the
deliverables is a component of asking “what is the intended
outcome” that helps to clarify what the project means and therefore
how to complete it. It directs your attention to outcomes rather than
activities.
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Activities are not necessarily productive and can often be not
necessary. If you focus on activities to accomplish a project, you
may create a lot of unnecessary work. On the other hand, if you
focus on the deliverables, you are directed to the eventual
outcomes, which will filter out unnecessary activities and assist you
to identify and focus on only the activities that are actually
essential to the project.
1.3.3 Major Resources
Identifying the major resources for a project includes finding the
project team members, contracting groups, equipment and
material required for the project lifecycle. All people who are
connected to the project must be identified, along with their
particular responsibilities.
The project team is responsible for planning and executing the
project by delivering tasks according to the project schedule. The
project manager is responsible for ensuring that the project is
completed. The project manager, together with the project team,
develops the Project Plan. It is also his responsibility to secure
acceptance and approval of deliverables from the Project Sponsor
and stakeholders. He is responsible for communications that
include status reporting, risk management, escalation of issues
that cannot be resolved, and also making sure that the project is
delivered in budget, on schedule and
within scope. On larger projects,
some project team members may
serve as team leaders, providing task
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and technical leadership, and sometimes maintaining a portion of
the project plan.
The executive sponsor is normally a manager with demonstrable
interest in the outcome of the project, and who is ultimately
responsible for securing spending authority and resources for the
project. Ideally, he should be the highest-ranking manager
possible, in proportion to the project size and scope, because he
legitimises the project’s goals and objectives, keeps abreast of
major project activities, and is the ultimate decision-maker. He will
provide support for the project
sponsor or project director and project
manager, and has the final approval
of all scope changes, and signs off on
approvals to proceed to each
succeeding project phase.
The project sponsor or project
director is a manager will participate in or lead the project initiation
and the development of the Project Charter, participate in project
planning and the development of the Project Plan. He is required
to:
 Provide support for the project manager.
 Assist with major issues, problems, and policy conflicts.
 Remove obstacles.
 Be active in planning the scope and approving scope
changes.
 Sign off on major deliverables and on approvals to proceed
to each succeeding project phase.
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The project sponsor generally chairs the steering committee on
large projects, but may elect to delegate any of the above
responsibilities to other personnel on the project team.
The steering committee generally
includes management representatives
from the organisations involved in the
oversight and control of the project,
and any other key stakeholder groups
that have special interest in the
outcomes of the project. This committee acts individually and
collectively to:
 Help resolve issues and policy decisions.
 Be involved in providing resources.
 Assist in securing funding.
 Act as liaisons to executive groups and sponsors.
 Fill other roles as defined by the project.
Customers comprise the business units that identified the need for
the product or service that will be developed by the project.
Customers can be at all levels of an organisation. Since it is
frequently not feasible for all customers to be directly involved in
the project, the following roles will be identified:
 Customer representatives are members of the customer
community who are made available to the project for their
subject matter expertise.
 Customer decision-makers are those members who have
been designated to make project decisions on behalf of
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major business units that will use, or be affected by the
product or service being delivered.
Stakeholders are all those groups, units, individuals, or
organisations that are impacted by and can affect the outcomes of
a project. This includes the project team, sponsors, steering
committee, customers, and co-workers who may be affected by the
change in work practices due to the new product or service,
managers affected by modified workflows or logistics,
correspondents affected by the quantity or quality of newly
available information, vendors
who are contracted to provide
additional products or services
required by the project, and other
similarly affected groups. Key
stakeholders are a subset of
stakeholders who, if their support
were to be withdrawn, would cause the project to fail.
The facilities and resources required by the project may include
office space, special facilities, computer equipment, office
equipment, and support tools. It is necessary to identify
responsible parties who must provide the specific items needed to
support the project environment. After identifying the activities, the
resources to accomplish these activities will have been identified,
and written on a Resource Requirement form, similar to that shown
below.
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1.3.4 Inclusions and Exclusions
Project exclusions, assumptions, and constraints, along with other
information, are included in a project scope statement. They are
also referenced in the project charter and project plan.
 Project exclusions are things that are outside of the project
boundaries and are explicitly stated as not included in the
project.
 Project inclusions are things that should be inside project
boundaries and explicitly stated as being included in the
project.
 Project assumptions are those things that are believed to
be true.
 Project constraints are limitations placed upon the project
team.
A template can be used for the identification of these, similar to
that shown below:
Project Exclusions
Identify what is excluded from the project by explicitly stating what is out of scope in
order to help manage stakeholder expectations
(a)
(b)
(c)
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Project Inclusions
(a)
(b)
(c)
Project Assumptions
(a)
(b)
(c)
Project Constraints
(a)
(b)
(c)
1.3.5 Major Project Assumptions
Few projects begin with absolute certainty. As projects are planned
and executed, some facts and issues are known and others must
be estimated. You cannot just hope you have the
resources you need to do the job, and you cannot
wait until every resource is available to begin. You
have to manage and diminish problems using informed
assumptions and constraints. Assumptions and constraints form
the basis for project planning, filling in the gaps between known
proven facts and total guesswork.
Each assumption is a likely condition or event, presumed known
and true, based on the absence of absolute certainty. It is an
estimate of the existence of a fact derived from other facts. It is
used because if you have to wait for absolute certainty, most
projects would never get off the ground. Although useful in
providing a platform for action and in creating, "what if" scenarios
to simulate different possible situations, assumptions are
dangerous when accepted as reality without thorough examination.
Therefore assumptions require objective examination of underlying
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current beliefs to assess their correctness and legitimacy, and thus
to validate or invalidate the beliefs. It is therefore practical
knowledge based on experience.
Each constraint is a limiting condition
or event, setting boundaries for the
project process and expected results.
Once identified, these assumptions
and constraints shape a project in
specific, but in differing ways, with
assumptions bringing possibilities,
and constraints bringing limits.
Consider this example:
 A defined budget is a fact i.e. R100 000 has been allocated
to complete a given project.
 The belief that the budget is sufficient to complete the project
on time and as required is an assumption. This assumption
should not be a guess, but should be the result of a planned,
verified budget estimate.
 The need to modify deliverables and adapt the schedule to
suit the budget is a constraint.
The following further illustrates these similarities and distinctions:
Assumptions
Characteristics Condition or event
Impact
Allow the project to proceed
Process
Must be analysed and
monitored to ensure validity
and relevance as the project
proceeds
© MSC EDUCATION HOLDINGS (PTY) LTD
Constraints
Condition or event
Restrict and limit project
execution
Must be identified and
incorporated into the project
plan to ensure that the plan is
realistic
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A project management principle is that it requires the balancing of
the three priorities of scope, time and cost, so that when a change
is made to one, there must be a review of the other two to
determine if there is a potential impact. This is the Project Triangle
principle, as explained previously, and is often competing
constraints. Increased scope typically means increased time and
increased costs, while a tight time constraint could mean increased
costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean
increased time and reduced scope.
Project Management is about providing the tools and techniques
that enable the project team and project manager to organise their
work to meet these constraints.
1.3.6 The Initial Project Schedule
An initial project schedule consists of key project milestones. All
the project’s major milestones and deliverables must be listed
along with the planned completion dates for delivery. This list
should reflect products or services delivered to the end-user and
the delivery of key project-related work products.
A template similar to the following can be used:
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1.3.7 The Initial Project Budget
The initial project budget uses mostly a top-down approach, rather
than a bottom-up approach, when a detailed project budget can be
compiled. Budgeting is a vital part of a project, as, without
resources, nothing can be done. In this part of the project plan, the
input variables must be specified i.e. everything you would need to
complete the job. The overall resource requirements are specified
and costed in order to prepare the budget for the project. These
resources, financial, equipment and human,
for each activity must be identified and
estimated. Once this is known you can
address the budget for the project. The
following actions should take place in order
to prepare the budget:
 Identify the detailed activities that need to be performed.
 Identify what resources may be required.
 Obtain realistic estimates of the costs for these activities and
resources.
 Prepare a budget that includes all the related cost estimates,
taking into account other factors such as inflation and the
impact of the exchange rate if goods or services need to be
paid for in foreign currency.
 Separate the capital costs of equipment, vehicles, land and
buildings, from other costs relating to the activities.
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A typical budget tool can be seen in the following example:
Budget Outlay for Training Project
Amount
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
Preparatory Meeting
Venue
Communications – telephone, emails, faxes
Stationery – writing pads, pens, etc.
Logistics – travel arrangements
Amount
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
Participants’ Accommodation and Travel Costs
Air fare
Airport tax
Accommodation
Airport transfers – taxi to and from airport
Per diem to cater for incidental costs
3.00
3.10
3.20
Training Costs
Resources persons – experts and interpreters
Training equipment (hardware)
Data projector
Computer
Photocopy machine
Training equipment
Manuals
Stationery – flip charts, folders, writing materials
Amount
3.30
Amount
4.00
4.10
4.20
4.30
4.40
Production of training materials
Design and typesetting
Printing and proofing
Printing of 500 copies
Postage and courier services
Amount
5.00
SUBTOTAL
Add: Administrative Costs of 10% of Subtotal
GRAND TOTAL
ACTIVITY 1 – REVIEWED, GROUPS US243823 SO1 AC1-3, SO2 AC1-6
Complete this activity in your Portfolio of Evidence Workbook.
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1.4 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPROACH
1.4.1 Project Phases, Processes and Approach
The project management approach includes project phases,
project management processes and specific strategies regarding
key project aspects. Applying various
approaches to the complex task of project
management will enable you to ensure that
you deliver your project on time and on
budget.
The conventional project management approach revolves around
the five basic phases of project management:

Initiation, which determines the nature and scope of the
project. All the basic elements like requirements analysis,
feasibility, review of current operations and goals are
determined. It is the most crucial stage, and if not performed
correctly, results in the failure of the whole project.

Planning and design is to plan time, costs and resources
for the development of the project, along with risk planning to
engage uncertainties.

Executing consists of the activities working together with the
project plan to meet the deadlines of different milestones.

Monitoring and controlling phase is the verification and
validation of activities, their sequence and timelines to be in
line with the project plan. The quality of activities is also
important.

Closing is the formal acceptance of the outcomes and the
administrative and other formal activities being performed to
release the product to the client after thorough testing.
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This traditional approach assumes that the project scope and goals
will remain constant until project completion. A project manager
plans and identifies project resources based on this assumption.
Since the approach is inherently rigid, many organisations may
choose a hybrid approach to project management. These could
include:
 Critical chain approach assumes that at
least one constraint is likely to hinder
projects that use complex processes and
a large number of cross-functional teams.
The approach recommends the use of behavioural and
mathematical sciences to predict, analyse and remove
constraints, with the project team using data to remove the
constraints e.g. if productivity is a foreseen concern, then the
project manager must track the actual time spent by team
members on the job. This approach is useful in sending
quality deliverables, on time, by proactively removing
constraints.
 Extreme project approach is suitable for projects that
handle dynamic situations such as changing customer
requirements. It may not be possible to clarify the
requirements prior to commencement, and the project may
be guided by market changes e.g. the mobile phone industry
experiences rapid changes. The project team will plan based
on currently available data, and depending on requirement
changes, modify the plans.
 Event chain project approach where a single constraint
can create a chain of constraints that severely impede a
project e.g. if several departments depend on one another,
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constraints in any one department
can negatively impact the
productivity of other departments.
The project team must use past
data to foresee any negative
events so that they can identify preventive measures.
Reliable data, collected over time, can help track event
chains. The event chain approach is an ideal problem solving
approach for critical projects.
 Best practice approach: Top management is interested in
the development of project management best practices,
because the economy demands that they need to do more
with less. This means reducing timelines to get a product or
service to the market to increase revenue, or smaller
budgets to get projects completed, or reduced project staff
due to layoffs or restructuring. However, best practice means
different things to every organisation, even though it can be
defined as an optimal way currently recognised by
industry to achieve a stated goal or objective.
Organisations who establish best practices to meet their
needs have to ensure that they include the following factors:
o Effective management of project resources.
o Alignment of projects to the strategic goals of the
organisation.
o Improved tracking and reporting on project status.
o Reduction in the time and money spent on ensuring
projects are brought to a successful conclusion.
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In order to ensure the best practice approach, organisations
must also ensure the factors shown in this diagram:
Develop project
management roles
and competencies
Assess staff against
those competencies
Continue to monitor,
assess and improve
Develop strategic
training and
mentoring plans
Develop a knowledge
base and support
portal
1.4.2 Project Strategies
Project strategies must include activities to reach objectives for
scoping, scheduling, costing, quality control, risk management and
communication. Strategy refers to an action designed to achieve a
particular goal. Strategy is distinct from tactics, which concerns the
conduct of an engagement, while strategy is concerned with how
different engagements are linked. How the work is done, is a
matter of tactics, while the terms and conditions of the work, and
whether it should be done at all is a matter of strategy. Strategies
include:
 Operational strategy is the decision-making level of
managers who are responsible for ensuring the achievement
of the objectives and the direction indicated by the corporate
level, within their specific areas. Apart from the formulation of
strategies and objectives for the division or department
concerned, this also involves the implementation, monitoring
and coordination of strategies. This is normally the level of
the project director.
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 Functional level strategy is the lowest level of the decisionmaking hierarchy, where middle-level managers must
develop annual objectives and short-term strategies for their
specific units, usually based on an allocated budget. This
determines actions that need to be taken in order to move
the functional area from its present position to its desired
position in order to maximise resource allocations. Each
functional-area strategy is dependent on the strategies
developed at the corporate and business unit levels and the
resources provided from these levels. Functional
departments develop strategies where all resources and
competencies are pulled
together, which are the level of
the project strategy formulated
by the project manager, such
as the one shown.
The work of the project manager is much more than simply starting
a project, managing staff and organising goods. The most
successful project managers are always excellent strategists,
managers and excellent team leaders, who spend increasing
amounts of time as a leader rather than a manager, making and
implementing decisions. Managing a project means managing a
multiplicity of tasks all at the same time, so it is vital to evaluate at
any given time the task that is the most important for allocating
resources and time.
As a project manager you are responsible for the whole project,
but you cannot do everything yourself. You will be relying on the
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managers and other stakeholders in the project. Whether they are
appointed staff or belong to external consulting agencies that you
need to work with, you must understand their roles and their needs
in order to maximise their contribution to the project.
Once the project is running, you will
spend much time solving problems,
but the best is to anticipate these and
try to prevent them. Your job is to
have the project completed on time
and within budget, so using initiative
and creativity in your approach will
lead to effective attainment of the
project goals.
1.4.3 Project Controls
Project controls are policies, corporate strategies, procedures,
standards and guidelines required to govern a project, which
provides the framework in which project decisions must be made.
Project governance is a critical element of any project, because
accountabilities and responsibilities associated with an
organisation’s activities are set by their governance strategies and
controls. The role of project governance is to provide a decisionmaking framework that is logical, robust and repeatable for all the
organisation’s projects. In this way, an organisation shows a
structured approach to conducting both its business activities and
its projects.
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1.4.4 Performance Measures and Acceptance Criteria
Acceptance criteria are the performance requirements and
essential conditions that must be met before project deliverables
are accepted. They define the specific circumstances under which
the client will accept the final output of the project and are criteria
against which completed work is measured, achieved, and proven
to the client. They represent a specific and defined list of
conditions that must be met before a project has been considered
completed and the project deliverables will be accepted. Normally
the acceptance criteria are outlined in
specific detail before work on the project is
started and a very detailed timeline is set
to make sure that parties are committed
and work is according to the acceptance
criteria.
Acceptance criteria are documented in the requirements document
and the project scope statement. Acceptance criteria are often
considered as an important part of contractual agreements in case
of external projects. The success or failure of s project depends on
the ability of the project manager and project team to meet the
clients documented acceptance criteria. By having a clearly
defined set of acceptance criteria, the client’s expectation level for
the completed product will be satisfied. Inaccurate acceptance
criteria can lead to low customer satisfaction levels, missed
delivery dates and development cost overruns.
In the event that a series of acceptance criteria is not met or is met
only partially, the final set of deliverables can either be refused
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acceptance or it may be assigned conditional acceptance. This
means an acceptance pending modifications or corrections to
better meet the acceptance criteria.
1.5 THE PRELIMINARY PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENT
1.5.1 Components
The Scope Statement is an essential element of
any project. Project managers use it as a written
confirmation of the outcomes the project will
produce and the constraints and assumptions under
which the work will take place. The client, other
stakeholders and the project team should agree to all terms in the
Scope Statement before actual project work begins. The
components of a scope statement include:
 The products of the project.
 Major deliverables.
 Inclusions and exclusions.
 The initial project schedule and budget.
 Assumptions.
 Project strategies.
 Controls and performance measures.
The following is an example of an outline of a preliminary project
scope statement:
PRELIMINARY SCOPE STATEMENT
Project Description: Write an explanation of the project to be undertaken, the
ultimate intended outcomes and how these will be accomplished. This should be
a brief introduction, with a background of how the project got to this point.
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Project Purpose: State the purpose of the project and tie it to the organisation's
strategic goals and objectives. Allow a reader to understand why this project is
being started and what needs are being fulfilled. Identify any specific mandates,
policies or laws that are driving this change.
Project Objectives: Provide clear, actionable and measurable objectives of the
project, so that the project can be measured against the objectives once
completed. The ultimate success of a project is whether the project achieved its
stated objectives. An example of an objective is “The product will cut response
times in half, thus allowing the organisation to process twice as many tickets”.
Project Deliverables: Identify the products and services that the project will
deliver, and not the project management deliverables e.g. “An online store with a
shopping cart and credit card purchasing capability”.
Project Product Requirements: Identify the high-level requirements of the
product or service that will be developed. This must not be a detailed list of
system requirements or specifications, but must be at a level that is sufficient for
performing an alternatives analysis to identify service providers that can meet the
requirements e.g. “The system will provide users with the ability to create and
maintain a login account and profile online”. If there are enough requirements, it
makes sense to group the requirements by category, and to display these in the
product breakdown structure (PBS). There are two types of requirements functional and non-functional. Non-functional requirements are normally broken
into groups like security, usability, quality, scalability, privacy, maintainability, etc.
Project Inclusions and Exclusions: If the product boundary is known, describe
it here e.g. if a system requires access to multiple external systems, then it makes
sense to break the scope into multiple phases so that the scope of the first phase
of development will be to develop the core functionality. A later phase would
integrate the remaining functions. In this scenario, you could have two projects.
Therefore, clearly defining the project boundaries helps set the scope of work that
is to be accomplished. An example of a system boundary concept is “The online
store will integrate with the shopping cart and credit card purchasing modules for
the initial release. The second release will contain social media integration
modules.”
Project Assumptions are conditions at the start of the project that must be
considered e.g. when developing the new software system that is going to take 3
years to fully complete, an assumption could be that the project budget is
approved each year for three years so that the project scope is not impacted.
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Project Constraints are situations that must be considered and accounted for,
over which the project has no control e.g. a constraint may be a hard deadline or
completion date, or resources, tools or hardware. If the project has no budget for
additional resources, then it must find a way to develop the new system using the
hardware already in place.
Project Risks: State the known risks, which are generally at a high level since
not much is known about the details of the project yet. If a Benefit-Cost Analysis
was performed, then risks identified during the Benefit Cost Analysis should be
placed here e.g. if the project were going to span 5 years and touch multiple third
party systems, the integration and technology change would be risks to consider.
Project Approach and Strategy: This is where the Project Manager and his
team takes initiative over the implementation of the project, using the goal,
objectives, requirements, deliverables, boundaries, constraints and assumptions
as a strategic framework. The approach to the desired end state must be clearly
stated and illustrated, with the emphasis on what means will be used to follow the
chosen course of action.
Initial Milestones: Identify the project milestones e.g.
Date
Name
Description
Jan 10 System requirements complete Version 1.0 approved and baseline so
that project can commence with
development
June 1 Development complete
Software development is completed and
ready for integration testing
Dec 1 Deployed for production
System passes integration and client
acceptance, and is deployed for production
Project High Level Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): If you have
decomposed the high-level work that needs to be done, then provide the highlevel work breakdown structure (WBS) here.
Controls and Performance Measures: List the policies, corporate strategies,
procedures, standards and guidelines, which are the project governance
framework. Stipulate the accountabilities and responsibilities for the project.
Authorisation: If approval is required, provide the names of those clients that
must sign the Preliminary Project Scope Statement.
Approved by the Project Sponsor: [Name] [Title] [Organisation or division]
Date:
Signature:
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All of the above must be integrated in the required format or the
organisation, so that the clients and all stakeholders will have
written proof of what is to be undertaken.
An example of a very simple preliminary Scope Statement to build
a house is shown below:
PRELIMINARY SCOPE STATEMENT
PROJECT OBJECTIVE
To construct a high-quality, custom home within five months at cost not to exceed
R850 000.
DELIVERABLES
•
A 2,200m², 2½ bathrooms, 3 bedroom, finished home.
•
A finished garage, insulated.
•
Kitchen appliances to include range, oven, microwave, and dishwasher.
•
High-efficiency gas heater with programmable thermostat.
MILESTONES
1.
Permits approved - March 5.
2.
Foundation poured - March 14.
3.
Framing, sheathing, plumbing, electrical, and mechanical inspections
passed – June 7.
4.
Final inspection - June 21.
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
1. Home must meet local building codes.
2. All windows and doors must pass energy ratings.
3. Exterior walls and insulation must meet requirements.
4. Ceiling insulation to be included.
5. Garage to accommodate two large-size cars.
6. Structure must pass all stability codes.
LIMITS AND EXCLUSIONS
1. The home will be built to the specifications and design of the original
blueprints provided by the clients.
2. Owner responsible for landscaping.
3. Refrigerator is not included among kitchen appliances.
4. Air conditioning is not included but prewiring is included.
5. Contractor reserves the right to subcontract out services.
6. Contractor responsible for subcontracted work.
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7. Site work limited to Monday to Friday 08h00 to 17h00.
CLIENT REVIEW
John and Jean Jones
1.5.2 Correcting Discrepancies
It is essential that you identify all of the stakeholders as early as
possible and establish their needs. It may be difficult to negotiate
consensus early in the project, but involving the stakeholders in the
defining of the scope of the project, parameters, and success
criteria will save a lot of time and ensure that all stakeholders are
satisfied.
The Scope Statement, when viewed together with the other
components of the project plan, is a binding agreement in which:
 The project manager and team commit to producing certain
results.
 The project’s clients commit to considering the project 100%
successful if the stated results are produced.
 All restrictions regarding the approach to the work and the
resources needed to support the work have been identified.
 The project’s clients agree that there are no restrictions other
than the ones that have been identified.
 All assumptions made when setting the terms of the Scope
Statement have been identified.
 The clients agree that, if any of these assumptions prove to
be invalid, the project manager may have to modify some or
all of the project plans.
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A well-written Scope Statement is an important resource for
helping to manage stakeholder
expectations, but predicting the
future is impossible. However, the
Scope Statement represents the
project commitments based on
what is known and expected to be
true in the future.
If situations change, you have to assess the effect of the changes
on all aspects of the project and propose the necessary changes to
the Scope Statement. The clients always have the option of either
accepting the proposed changes and allowing the project to
continue, or cancelling the project.
The scope statement also provides the project team with
guidelines for making decisions about change requests during the
project. It is natural for parts of a large project to change along the
way, so the better the original project scope statement, the better
the project team will be able to manage change.
When documenting a project's scope, stakeholders should be as
specific as possible in order to avoid scope creep. Scope creep is
the increase of product or project requirements beyond those
originally foreseen. Scope creep may be driven by a client's
increased requirements or by the project team, as they see
opportunities for improving the product. This situation results in
one or more parts of a project requiring more work, time, effort and
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costs, and is normally caused through poor planning or
miscommunication.
ACTIVITY 2 – REVIEWED, GROUPS,
US243823 SO3 AC1-6, SO4 AC1
Complete this activity in your Portfolio of Evidence Workbook.
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LEARNING UNIT 2: VERIFY PROJECT SCOPE AND
WORK
Learning Outcomes
 Refine the project scope statement.
 Determine the approach for decomposing the work of the
project.
 Decompose the work of the project into components to the
required level of detail.
2.1 REFINE THE PROJECT SCOPE
The preliminary scope statement needs to be approved by all
stakeholders, so that you can refine it and do the detailed planning
for the project.
2.1.1 Reviewing the Project Scope
Once the preparation for the project initiation has been done, it is
time to review the project scope and clearly define the project
boundaries, in a way that it:
 Identifies the scope dimensions relevant to the project.
 Takes account of the background to the project.
 Explores the variety of objectives and activities that the
project would cover.
 Provides a clear and commonly understood target and
benchmark for the project members and stakeholders.
 Allows for the implementation of the project.
 Allows for an upfront assessment of the quality of the final
product.
This is total scope management, where the key inputs include:
 Project charter.
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 Preliminary scope statement.
 Current project management plan.
 Policies and procedures related to the scope management.
 Historical information for similar previous projects.
 Environmental conditions, such as market conditions and
trends.
Although the preliminary scope statement and the project charter
has been reviewed and approved by the project sponsor and other
stakeholders, the project manager and team must continue to work
together to decide on the more detailed scope statement and WBS
would be prepared. They must also document how they will verify
completion of project deliverables and manage change requests.
At the outset of a project, a precise definition of the purpose and a
preliminary scope statement is established to ensure that the
project brief is adequately covered and that stakeholders and the
project team are clear about the field of
reference. This must address one or more of
the business objectives of the organisation
and identify the overall reason for the project.
It must be remember that the project scope
statement must refer to all the work involved in creating the
products required by the project and the processes that will be
used to create them. The project scope management includes all
processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not
included in the project. These processes for scope management
must include:
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 Scope planning to decide how the scope will be defined,
verified and controlled.
 Scope definition for reviewing of the project charter and
preliminary scope statement, and adding more information
as requirements are developed and change requests are
approved.
 Creating the WBS by subdividing the major deliverables into
smaller and more manageable components
 Scope verification and formalising the acceptance of the
project scope.
 Scope control measures to control the changes to the
project scope.
The importance of reviewing the preliminary project scope
statement is to improve the accuracy of the time, costs and
resource estimates, define a baseline for performance
measurement and project control and to aid in communicating
clear work responsibilities. It means analysing the requirements of
the products to be produced, identifying alternative approaches to
doing the work and using expert judgements to analyse
stakeholder needs. As time progresses, the scope of the project
will become clearer and more specific.
The final scope statement, when viewed together with the other
components of the project plan, is a binding agreement in which:
 The project manager and team commit to producing certain
results.
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 The project’s clients commit that they will consider the
project 100% successful if these results are produced.
 The project manager and team identify all restrictions
regarding the approach to the work and the support they will
need.
 The project’s sponsors agree that they will provide the
support needed to overcome constraints.
 The project manager and team have
identified all assumptions made when
agreeing to the terms of the scope.
 The client agrees that, if any of these
assumptions prove to be invalid,
some or all of the project plans may be modified.
2.1.2 Refining Requirements, Assumptions and Constraints
A thorough estimate of the key elements of the project must be
made and then used to modify estimates for the project. This
means:
 Determining the detailed project requirements: The
project appraisal was used for the initial decision to commit
the required funding and other resources to delivering the
product. The management of scope and activities to achieve
the desired objectives requires addressing the following:
o Technical criteria, job profiles, technical specifications and
alignment with national standards in the industry.
o Financial criteria, which are an important element of any
project.
o The person or organisation that budgeted for the project.
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o Cost effectiveness, return on investment (ROI),
administrative costs, the market-related of quotations and
the financial system to be used.
 Managing the constraints: Project management gets most
challenging when you must balance the time, cost, and
scope constraints of your projects. The project triangle
illustrates the process of balancing
constraints because the three sides of
the triangle are connected, and
changing one side of a triangle affects
at least one other side. Examples of
constraint balance are:
o If the duration of a project schedule decreases, you may
need to increase budget to hire more resources to do the
same work in less time.
o If you cannot increase the budget, you might need to
reduce the scope, because the resources you have
cannot complete all of the planned work in less time.
o If the budget of the project decreases, you may need
more time, because you cannot pay for as many
resources, but if you cannot increase the time, you may
need to reduce project scope, because fewer resources
cannot complete all of the planned work in the time
remaining.
 Managing assumptions: Initially, some assumptions will
have been made, because of insufficient information and
assuming certain things based on the personal interpretation
of requirements. Uncertainty will always be inherent in any
project, but a project manager’s ability to identify and react to
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uncertainty will influence the outcome of the project. Project
environments rarely remain static, and the planning and
assumptions may change over time. Therefore, to manage
uncertainty means a willingness to revise the plan when the
situation demands.
2.1.3 Compiling the Project Statement
The scope statement is one of the most critical pieces of any
project, because an effectively written scope statement will assist
the project to be implemented and proceed with minimal problems.
It is normally written after the project charter that authorises the
project, provides a high-level overview and identifies the main
stakeholders, and includes everything that the project is intended
to produce. The charter also identifies objectives or goals, and
constraints on resources or time. It is used as a focal point
throughout the life of a project, which
can be especially useful during change
control meetings for minimising scope
creep, where the scope of a project
gradually increases over time.
This formal scope statement must contain:
Inputs:
 Project management plan including:
o Scope baseline.
o Scope management plan.
o Change management plan.
o Configuration management plan.
o Requirement management plan.
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 Work performance information.
 Requirements documentation.
 Requirements traceability matrix.
 Organisational process assets:
o Existing formal and informal scope control policies and
procedures.
o Monitoring and reporting methods, along with data control
and communication channels.
Variance analysis:
 Determining cause and degree of variance versus scope
baseline.
 Corrective and preventive actions planned for.
Outputs:
 Work performance measurements
 Organisational process assets updates for:
o Causes of variances.
o Corrective actions chosen along with reasons for this.
o Lesson learned.
 Change requests
 Project management plan updates, including:
o Scope baseline updates.
o Other baseline updates for costs, schedule and durations.
 Project document updates.
After everything has been reviewed and refined, and the client has
been interviewed, the formal scope statement can be written,
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which must be specific, detailed and thorough, with supplemental
documents and references included. This scope statement must
be titled and dated, and then distributed to all stakeholders,
including the client and the sponsor, for acceptance and
agreement on the final version to deter the temptation to later
increase scope and thereby affect completion date, duration, costs
and outcomes. The scope statement may need updates as the
project progresses, because of changing circumstances and new
information that require adjusting the
statement to a new version. To avoid
confusion, these updates should be labelled
as such, with the date of the revision
included.
2.2 DECOMPOSING PROJECT WORK
2.2.1 An Overview of Decomposition
Before being able to understand the formal lines for decomposing
the project work, it is necessary to understand the terminology
involved.
 A work breakdown structure is a deliverable-oriented
grouping of work that defines the total scope involved in a
project. It the document that provides the basis for planning
and managing project schedules, costs, resources and
changes.
 Decomposition is subdividing the project deliverables into
smaller and more manageable pieces.
 A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS that
the project manager uses to monitor and control the project.
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The following diagram will help you understand the actual chain of
events.
Project
Phases
Deliverables
Output of scope management
Work packages
Output of time management
Activities
Decomposition
Decomposition of project scope generally involves the following
activities:
 Gather information on major project deliverables and analyse
related tasks.
 Start development of work breakdown structure at the
highest level.
 Decompose the upper WBS levels into lower level detailed
components.
 Identify each work package and WBS components with
unique code.
 Verify if the degree of decomposition of the work is
necessary and sufficient.
 The number of levels in the WBS need not be same for all
deliverables.
Excessive decomposition may lead to more work without much
value for the time spent, and can lead to inefficient use of
resources, and decreased work efficiency. Understanding a work
package helps with in deciding on the level of decomposition:
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 A work package is the lowest level of WBS.
 A work package is normally the major work which is
assigned to a single resource as a whole and produces a
verifiable outcome.
 A project’s cost and schedule estimation is done at work
package level.
 The accuracy of these estimations depends on the level of
detail in a work package that is defined.
 The levels to which work packages need to be detailed vary
from project to project.
 For the time management aspect, each work package within
the WBS is decomposed into the activities required to
produce the work package deliverables.
2.2.2 Project Management Principles
When decomposing a project, the project management principles
must be applied. These include:
 The Success Principle has the aim of producing a
successful product to give value to the project costs incurred.
 The Commitment Principle is a mutually acceptable
commitment between a project sponsor and a project team
that must exist before a viable project exists. The project
sponsor represents the client and is responsible for providing
the necessary resources, while the project team is a
knowledgeable and qualified group able and willing to
undertake the work. These parties must agree on the goals
and objectives in terms of the product’s scope, quality grade,
time to completion and final cost.
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 The Tetrad-Trade-off Principle states that the core
variables of the project management process must all be
mutually consistent. This means that scope, quality, time and
cost are interrelated in a four-cornered frame with flexible
joints, so that one corner can be anchored and another
moved, but not without affecting the other two.
 The Unity-of-Command Principle states that a single
channel of communication must exist between the project
sponsor and the project manager for all decisions affecting
the product of the project to ensure an effective and efficient
administration.
 The Cultural Environment Principle is one in which there is
informed management that understands and supports the
project management process, so that the project is clearly
backed by management, and project team members are
enabled to produce their best
work without unnecessary
bureaucratic hindrance. This
principle includes the need for
management to ensure that the
leadership profile and
management style are suited to both the type of project and
its phase in the project life cycle.
 The Process Principle says that effective and efficient
policies and procedures must be in place for the conduct of
the project commitment. Such policies and procedures must
cover clear roles and responsibilities, delegation of authority,
and processes for managing the scope of work, including
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changes, maintenance of quality, and schedule and cost
control.
 The Life-Cycle Principle is a plan first, then do principle.
These two sequential activities form the basis of every
project life cycle and are characterised by milestones that
determine when the project starts, the controls through which
it must pass, and when the project is finished.
2.2.3 Components and Divisions
Decomposition is a technique used in project
management that breaks down the workload and
tasks before the creation of the work breakdown
structure. It takes into account the work
components of project phases, disciplines, geographic areas and
products.
The decomposition of the components results in:
 The hierarchy of objectives in a logical framework involves
both a vertical and horizontal logic.
 The vertical logic answers the why-how questions, also
referred to as objectives-strategy.
 The horizontal logic deals with measures of results and
assumptions, the if-then relationships.
 Planning can begin at any vertical level of the hierarchy and
then proceed in an up-down direction until all levels of the
hierarchy are complete.
 These levels are called policy, strategic, and operational, and
each has corresponding objectives.
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The interests of different levels of management in an organisation
correlate with the hierarchy levels:
 Top management is interested in policies and objectives.
 Lower management wants to know about operational
objectives.
Organisational decomposition takes two perspectives:
 Horizontal decomposition and allocation of organisational
objectives to specific departments. This will clearly define the
roles for each department and help justify projects within a
department. The executive management must decide on
which objectives to allocate to each department. In a
multidisciplinary project, the project manager will use
horizontal decomposition to break down the outcomes into
smaller deliverables after gathering task information, taking a
top-down approach to determining the tasks and subtasks.
The biggest items of deliverables, milestones and major
tasks are then broken into smaller
tasks.
 After being assigned the
organisational disciplines, a
department can further decompose
the objectives within the department, allocating objectives
within a discipline, which is vertical decomposition. The
resulting decomposition may include many different project
activities, sales and marketing activities, operations and
supporting activities, each of which may be assigned to a
different person or team. For a multidisciplinary project, the
project manager, along with the project team, will move from
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the general aspects of the tasks to the more specific and
detailed tasks so that each is broken down into its smallest
components.
The following diagram showing a project to develop a new toy for
5-9 year olds will assist you to understand the divisions for
decomposition.
Horizontal decomposition
1.1 Market
research
1.2 Product
design
1.1.2
Surveys
1.1.3
Analysis
1.1.4
Findings
1.2.1 Design
1.2.1.1
Evaluation
groups
1.2.1.2
Document
1.2.2
Models
1.3 Product
development
1.3.1
Materials
1.4
Production
Planning
1.5
Marketing
1.5.1 Mark
strategy
1.3.2
Prototype
1.4.1 Prod
design
groups
1.4.2 Prod
testing
1.3.3
Testing
1.4.3 Prod
QA design
1.5.3 Mark
collateral
1.3.4 Signoff
1.4.4 Prod
plan sign-off
1.2.3
Selection
1.6 Project
management
1.5.2 Mark
plan
Vertical decomposition
1.1.1 Focus
groups
New toy for 5-9
year olds
1.5.3.1
Brochures
1.5.3.2
Advertising
1.5.3.3
Commercials
As the requirements are decomposed, the structure and
management of the project deliverables can be tackled in various
ways. Some of the most common approaches include:
 Spreading deliverables across project phases, which is
typical for schedule-oriented projects.
 Spreading deliverables across knowledge areas where
project teams are organised by areas of expertise, such as
operations, legal or finance.
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 Spreading deliverables across processes, which is typical
for process-oriented projects.
 Spreading deliverables across sub-projects, which is
most effective in big projects with added complexity, where
deliverables are specific for parts of the project but not for
the project as a whole.
 Organising deliverables hierarchically, from major
deliverables to sub-deliverables, which is best for productoriented projects.
The manner in which the decomposition takes place is entirely
dependent on the type of project and the management control
required, taking the identified risks into consideration. By working
from the bottom-up with estimation, project managers can paint a
more accurate picture of how much their project will require in
terms of resources, duration, and finances. They will also need to
know when to stop dividing work into smaller elements. This will
assist in determining the duration of
activities necessary to produce a
deliverable defined by the WBS.
The following steps must be taken when
decomposing a project deliverables:
 Step One: Confirm the project deliverables or milestones.
These deliverables will be the products that you will
decompose and break down into tasks in order to produce
work packages.
 Step Two: Give each deliverable its own sheet of paper
to create the least amount of frustration. This way, you will
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have enough room to work on your rough draft. Write the
deliverable at the top of the paper.
 Step Three: Deal with each deliverable individually to
eliminate confusion. Take the first deliverable and ask
yourself, “In order to produce this, what is the next smallest
step that must be taken?” e.g. if you are preparing a large
dinner for company, your deliverables would be each dish
being served, the guest list, etc. If your main dish was
lasagne, you would break the steps of this dish into the steps
of the recipe. Note the dependent tasks. After breaking the
recipe down into steps, you could further break it down into
ingredients.
 Step Four: Know when to stop: You know you have
decomposed the deliverable sufficiently when you can
accurately estimate durations and cost, and you know
exactly what must be done in every step. Once you complete
the first deliverable, repeat the process for the second, and
so on, until every deliverable and milestone has been broken
down to sufficiently estimate duration and cost.
 Step Five: Estimate durations and arrange tasks into
work packages: Once you have broken down your
deliverables, your paper might look like a mess of boxes, so
you need to organise the boxes into work packages. The
work package contains related action items that will be
assigned to resources for completion. Before doing this,
estimate the amount of time each task will take, then group
together tasks according to type or resource required.
 Step Six: Estimate costs of each task. This step will allow
the project manager to budget the project accurately. Some
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tasks will have costs dependent upon the time, other tasks
will require particular resources that have a cost involved.
Once this is done, then the decomposed deliverables are
ready to arrange in a work breakdown structure.
2.2.4 Decomposition and the WBS
If tackled properly, decomposition is the prerequisite for an
outstanding work breakdown structure, as all project deliverables
and major tasks will have been decomposed into work packages.
The work breakdown structure should flow quickly, because tasks
have already been broken down in a hierarchical manner.
The framework of the WBS should contain six criteria:
 The work package must be measurable, with the task
adequately defined so that the exact status can be given.
 Events involving the start and end of action items must be
defined in a clear manner.
 All activities must include deliverables, with action items
clearly linked to a product that will be completed once the
activity is completed.
 Duration and cost must be able to be
easily estimated.
 The duration of an activity should
follow the 8/80 rule, which states that no work package
should be less than eight hours or more than 80 hours.
 Work packages are independent of one another, so that
once work has begun, it can continue until complete.
Dependencies are noted, and a task that has begun should
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not stall because it has everything it requires contained
within it.
If all six of these criteria have been met, then decomposition has
produced a successful work breakdown structure. If one of these
criteria has not been met, the project manager and project team
must go back and decompose the deliverables and arrange work
packages until they meet the requirements. Once the WBS is
completed, then the work packages are assigned to resources.
When done properly, decomposition will show the relevance of
each task to the bigger project picture.
When decomposing a project, it must be remembered that a unit of
work should appear in only one place in the WBS. The work
content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it, and
must be the responsibility of only one person, even though many
people may be working on it. The WBS must be consistent with the
way in which work is actually going to be performed, and should
serve the project team first and other purposes only if practical.
Project team members should be involved in developing the WBS
to ensure consistency and commitment. Each WBS item must be
documented in a WBS dictionary to ensure accurate understanding
of the scope of work that is included and not included in that item.
The WBS must be a flexible tool to accommodate inevitable
changes while properly maintaining control of the work content in
the project according to the scope statement.
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The creation of the WBS will also be dependent on the format
required by all stakeholders, but the simplest and most frequently
used format is to list the project objective at the top of the page, as
this is the ultimate desired outcome of all of the work. Underneath
it, link each deliverable and major task. Assign each deliverable a
code of either a letter or a number, with every task item and work
package that is listed underneath it to
contain this code as the first part of its own
code. Each deliverable should appear on a
separate sheet of paper.
When the WBS is completed, it should contain every work package
created during the decomposition phase, with a code reflecting the
hierarchy. Each work package should have its own code, budget,
and estimated duration. It is common for WBS elements to be
numbered sequentially to reveal the hierarchical structure and to
provide a consistent approach to identifying and managing the
WBS across similar systems regardless of vendor or service.
The following is an example for the WBS activity list for the project
to create a new toy for 5-9 year olds.
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By using a WBS, it allows the project team to plan using the
hierarchical structure, by identifying the elements and sub
elements. A work package includes a series of tasks to be carried
out as part of an element of work. The WBS is interfaced with the
project plan and the coding structure within the WBS, allow
reporting of cost and schedule forecasts to deliver the schedule
and cost reports. The WBS serves as a starting point for control
measures and planning resources.
In the project environment, a clear definition of the roles and
responsibilities that people play will be critical to the success of the
project. Throughout the course of the project, the role played may
change. In addition, a person may play more than one role
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simultaneously. Individuals must
understand the roles they play to know
what responsibilities they have in
making decisions, taking actions,
reporting, and reviewing. Role definition
benefits the project by:
 Bringing order to the project.
 Allowing the team to reach “perform” stage of development
faster.
 Keeping people from performing redundant activities.
 Creating a job description.
 Predetermining decision-making responsibility.
 Identifying personal responsibility for success at the
beginning of the project.
 Reducing confusion about who does what, when.
 Each team member is responsible for understanding the
other roles and responsibilities.
In a deliverables-based project, there are two additional
responsibilities of the primary owner and secondary owner. These
responsibilities are associated with either an object or a process.
 Primary owner has the responsibility of planning,
implementing, and monitoring. In addition, the responsibility
includes assuring that the necessary quality, change, and
risk processes are applied to the object or process.
 Secondary owner has the responsibility of project
processes e.g. the change management process can have a
primary owner who initiated, planned, and implemented the
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process. The responsibility of the secondary owner is
monitoring and controlling. Additional responsibilities include
holding meetings as required by the process, maintaining
logs, and facilitating decisions.
Because the project has active sponsors, a business unit driving
the project, a client and a project team, there are also
responsibilities of reporting, and assigning.
 Reporting: Every project team member has the
responsibility for reporting. A more complete description of
the roles and responsibilities for reporting is provided in the
communications plan. A high-level description of the
responsibility is to have it roll up from team leader to project
manager to sponsor to advisory committee.
 Assigning mostly covers acquiring and allocating resources
to tasks. Although this responsibility belongs to the project
manager, the project team leader and project manager jointly
assign them to ownership of objects and resources to tasks.
2.2.5 The WBS Dictionary
The WBS dictionary is often termed the “work
package description.” Its function is to provide
the person completing the work package with a
description of the work included in the work
package. In addition to the work package description, the
dictionary also should include any types of control, such as signoffs needed, cost and time estimates for the work package, and
the acceptance criteria for the package.
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Most electronic project management tools readily enable both the
WBS and the numbering scheme, making development of the
documents fast and easy.
It may seem like overkill to have a WBS dictionary for small
projects, but even the smallest project can end up with dozens or
even hundreds of work packages. In addition, the information
included in the dictionary adds value to the historical records,
enabling more accurate project estimates for similar projects.
The WBS Dictionary is used to:
 Control the project e.g. is the work being done on a work
package level as described in the WBS dictionary?
 Determine if a requested change is within the scope of the
project.
 Prevent scope creep.
 Increase understanding of what needs to be done.
 Increase commitment to what
needs to be done.
 Send to functional managers or
resource owners to inform them
about what work their people are
doing for the project.
 Report the project manager
provides for outsourced or
contract work.
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In the real world of project management, scope creep and lack of
buy-in are significant problems that can cost the project a huge
amount of time, money. Project management is about preventing
problems rather than dealing with them. The WBS dictionary is a
key tool in the challenge to manage and control projects.
The WBS will continue to provide value throughout the life of the
project. The WBS can be used any time the project manager
needs to re-evaluate the scope of the project, for example:
 When there is a scope change to the project.
 To evaluate any impacts of other changes on scope.
 As a way to control scope creep by reminding everyone what
work is to be done.
 As a communications tool.
 To help new team members see their roles.
 The WBS may be changed and updated throughout the
project, and can be used to help stakeholders understand
how their pieces fit into the whole project. On very small
projects, where a detailed schedule has not been created,
work packages in a WBS could be crossed off to show
progress.
The WBS dictionary should be created by
or with the person responsible for the work
package. This aids in the responsible
person taking ownership of the work
package. Therefore, the project manager’s
work may not take much more time than reviewing and approving
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each work package, looking for added scope or misunderstanding
of scope, and making sure the estimates are reasonable.
It is important to note that the WBS dictionary may be iterated as
new information becomes available. Here are some tips to making
the WBS dictionary work for you.
 When approved, a final copy of each WBS dictionary is
provided to those who will complete the work package work.
As the work is being done, team members use the WBS and
WBS dictionary to confirm the work they are assigned.
 The WBS dictionary can also form the basis for any work
package level reporting e.g. team member status reports can
be formatted to answer the questions of how they are doing
in meeting deliverables, cost and time estimates, and
acceptance criteria.
 It is a good idea to summarise major WBS elements in terms
of a WBS dictionary, describing the WBS element and its
unique identification codes, listing contact information for
who is responsible for the work associated with the WBS,
planned start date, planned completion date, and planned
costs.
Components of the WBS dictionary are:
 Work package name and number.
 Date of update. Work packages can change over time.
Document control and configuration management activities
require the project manager to make sure everyone has the
correct version of any project document. Putting a date on it
can help.
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 Responsible person. In order to have accountability, each
work package should be assigned to one person on the
project team who will own the work. That person might need
to form a small team to complete the work package, but the
project manager would only need to interact with the person
assigned the work package.
 Work package description. This section of the dictionary is
best created with the help of the person assigned the work
package. The project manager is not required to know how
to do all the work on the project, just how to manage it. The
responsible person can provide the details necessary to
complete the activities of the work package. Quality and
commitment to completing the work on time are much
improved when the person who knows how to do the work
completes the description. The work package becomes his
package, rather than the project manager’s work package.
The project manager will get a chance to look for scope
creep in the description of the work package. The description
also helps prevent scope creep
later, as the work package is being
completed.
 Work package product.
Describing the result of the work
package helps the project manager be assured that the
complete scope of the work package will be done. The
product description also helps decrease the possibility of
scope creep.
 Acceptance criteria. The person completing the work
should review his own work to make sure it is acceptable
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before providing it to the project manager. Having measures
of success for the work package determined in advance will
save time and improve quality.
 Assumptions change the entire design of the project.
Therefore, it is wise to document any assumptions made for
each work package so the project manager can review the
assumptions to check validity later on.
 Resources assigned. The project manager might assign
resources to assist the person completing the work package.
These resources can be people, equipment, or supplies, and
should be described in the WBS dictionary.
 Duration: When compiling the WBS dictionary, it is important
to estimate duration and cost at the same time.
 Schedule milestones: The creation of milestones for the
project is another way for the project manager to control the
project and to know how the project is doing while the work is
underway. If a milestone date is met, the project may be on
track. Depending on the project, it might be useful for the
person completing a work package to know to which
milestone the work package belongs.
 Cost estimates need to be captured for comparison to actual
costs. Accurate cost estimates for each project help project
managers, who use historical information, to be increasingly
more accurate in their pricing models.
 Due date: Once the project management plan is completed,
each work package will have a date by which it must be
completed, without delaying the project. Such a date is listed
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in the WBS dictionary in order to keep focus on the date and
prevent delay.
 Interdependencies: It is helpful to know what work comes
before and after the work package. Sometimes knowing this
will prevent the work package from being delayed, because
the effect becomes more widely known by the project team.
 Approved by the project manager: Approval implies
authorisation, and without approval, there can be no control.
The following template is an example of a WBS Dictionary. Please
note that different organisations may have their own preferences
and templates.
<Project Name>
Version <1.0>
<mm/dd/yyyy>
Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary
VERSION HISTORY
[Provide information on how the development and distribution of the Work
Breakdown Structure Dictionary was controlled and tracked. Use the table
below to provide the version number, the author implementing the version, the
date of the version, the name of the person approving the version, the date that
particular version was approved, and a brief description of the reason for creating
the revised version.]
Version
#
Implemented Revision
By
Date
1.0
<Author
name>
Approved
By
<mm/dd/yy <name>
>
Approval
Date
Reason
<mm/dd/yy> <reason>
Template Version: 11/30/20XX
This document is a template of a Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary document
for a project.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 WBS Element Definitions
APPENDIX A: REFERENCES
APPENDIX B: KEY TERMS
WBS Element Definitions
WBS Code WBS Element
[WBS code] [WBS element name]
WBS Element Description
[include a brief definition of the WBS element (function, deliverable, etc.)
associated activities, milestones, and other information such as performance
measurement criteria, statement of work paragraph number, contract line item,
start and end dates, resource requirements, cost estimates, quality requirements,
technical content, contact information, revision history, etc.]
WBS Code WBS Element
[WBS code] [WBS element name]
WBS Element Description
[include a brief definition of the WBS element (function, deliverable, etc.)
associated activities, milestones, and other information such as performance
measurement criteria, statement of work paragraph number, contract line item,
start and end dates, resource requirements, cost estimates, quality requirements,
technical content, contact information, revision history, etc.]
WBS Code WBS Element
[WBS code] [WBS element name]
WBS Element Description
[include a brief definition of the WBS element (function, deliverable, etc.)
associated activities, milestones, and other information such as performance
measurement criteria, statement of work paragraph number, contract line item,
start and end dates, resource requirements, cost estimates, quality requirements,
technical content, contact information, revision history, etc.]
APPENDIX A: REFERENCES
[Insert the name, version number, description, and physical location of any
documents referenced in this document. Add rows to the table as necessary.]
The following table summarizes the documents referenced in this document.
Document
Description
Location
Name
and
Version
<Document
[Provide description of the <URL or Network path where
Name
and document]
document is located>
Version
Number>
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APPENDIX B: KEY TERMS
[Insert terms and definitions used in this document. Add rows to the table as
necessary. Follow the link below to for definitions of project management terms
and acronyms used in this and other documents.
http://www2.cdc.gov/cdcup/library/other/help.htm
The following table provides definitions for terms relevant to this document.
Term
Definition
[Insert Term]
[Provide definition of the term used in this document.]
[Insert Term]
[Provide definition of the term used in this document.]
[Insert Term]
[Provide definition of the term used in this document.]
Approval: Responsibility for approval of a WBS normally occurs with a plan,
process, or decision that affects project scope, methodology, or object creation.
Sponsors have approval responsibility for WBS, project processes, and other
project plans. The Sponsor approves the project manager’s request for acquiring
new project resources.
The project manager assumes responsibility for approving project work plans
and quality control sign-offs
The project track lead approves tasks, resource assignments, and work time
estimates.
ACTIVITY 3 – REVIEWED, GROUPS
US243811 SO1 AC1-4, SO2 AC1-2, SO3
AC1-8
Complete this activity in your Portfolio of Evidence Workbook.
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LEARNING UNIT 3: THE RESOURCE SCHEDULE
Learning Outcomes:
 Demonstrate an understanding of scheduling tools and
techniques.
 Produce an initial work schedule.
 Identify and estimate resources for each activity.
 Optimise the work and resource schedule.
3.1 SCHEDULING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
3.1.1 Purpose of Schedules
Anyone who has ever worked on a project team knows
that there needs to be a project schedule. In project
management, a schedule is a listing of the
milestones, activities, and deliverables,
normally with intended start and finish dates.
These items are often estimated in terms of resource allocation,
budget and duration, linked by dependencies and scheduled
events. Once you have the project schedule created, it is easy to
use for communicating the timeline as part of the project plan to
stakeholders, project team members and anyone else who needs
to be kept informed. The project schedule can be printed out and
distributed in meetings.
A project schedule is one of the primary components in the classic
project management triple constraint of time, cost and scope. Once
the elements in the WBS are defined, creating the schedule and
assigning resources to the project brings the end goal further to
realisation and completion. However, in modern business, there
are many challenges and threats to the project schedule, such as
resource constraints, multiple projects and imperative business
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needs. Addressing project constraints and managing project
schedules is therefore a complex, multifaceted duty for a project
manager.
The schedule serves as:
 A management reporting tool.
 An implementation tool to help get the work done on time,
because it contains activity durations, interdependencies,
and constraints that help to identify conflicts and bottlenecks.
 It produces a realistic and achievable timetable for
executing the work, given the real-world constraints and
limitations.
 It is one of the most important tools in managing changes
on a project. Because the activities in the schedule are tied
together with logical relationships, the schedule allows the
project team to accurately evaluate changes from the plan
and identify the resulting impacts to time and resources
throughout the entire project lifecycle.
 The schedule provides the project team with a tool to
evaluate alternative execution strategies to meet business
objectives such as reducing duration or costs, by adjusting
resources and logic.
 The schedule can be a cost control tool for the project
team, as time is money. The schedule allows the project
team to optimise resources to produce cost savings and is
essential for determining productivity factors using earned
value, allowing the project team to make better cost
forecasts early in the project.
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 A resource loaded schedule allows for accurate forecasting
of cash flow requirements on complex projects.
The project schedule should be
updated regularly based on
conditions that occur during the
project execution, to allow the
project manager to monitor the
progress throughout the entire
project life cycle e.g. when the project schedule is initially approved
and signed-off by the project sponsor, the baseline is then
recorded for future comparison. By measuring the current schedule
against the baseline, the performance of the schedule can be
tracked for both time and costs against the original plan.
By establishing dependencies between tasks in the project
schedule, it will be easy to see how delays cause future tasks to be
delayed. Without a project schedule, it is difficult or impossible to
know how delays on individual tasks will ultimately affect other
related tasks in later stages of the project.
3.1.2 Developing a Schedule
When you create a project schedule, you take the list of tasks and
add information that is a lot more valuable and organised. The
project schedule represents the tasks with:
 Start and finish dates.
 Duration of each task.
 Dependencies between tasks (predecessors and successors).
 A hierarchy of tasks, using the WBS.
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 A graphical chart or network diagram showing the date ranges
of the tasks.
Developing a project schedule requires the combination of
activities, resources, and activity-performance sequences that
gives you the greatest chance of meeting your client’s expectations
with the least amount of risk. You need several types of inputs to
create a project schedule, such as:
 Personal and project calendars so that you can
understand working days, shifts, and resource availability
that is critical to completing a project schedule.
 Description of project scope so that you can determine
key start and end dates, major assumptions behind the plan,
and key constraints and restrictions. You can also include
stakeholder expectations, which will often determine project
milestones.
 Project risks so that you can understand them to make sure
there is enough extra time to deal with identified and
unidentified risks.
 Lists of activities and resource requirements, because
you need to determine if there are other constraints to
consider when developing the schedule. Understanding the
resource capabilities and experience you have available, as
well as public holidays and staff holidays, will affect the
schedule.
A project manager should be aware of deadlines and resource
availability issues that may make the schedule less flexible. After
you specify your project’s activities in the WBS, take the following
steps to develop an initial project schedule:
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 Identify immediate predecessors for all activities, as these
define the structure for a network diagram.
 Determine the personnel and other resources required
for all activities. The type, amount, and availability of
resources affect how long you need to perform each activity.
 Estimate durations for all activities by considering past
experiences, expert opinions and other available sources of
information to clarify the components for the activity.
 Identify all intermediate and final dates that must be met.
These dates define the criteria that your schedule must
meet.
 Identify all activities or milestones outside your project
that affect your project’s activities, as these allow you to set
up the appropriate dependencies between them and your
project’s activities and milestones.
 Draw your network diagram to determine what schedules
your project can achieve.
 Identify all critical paths and their lengths by analysing
the network diagram to identify the slack times of non-critical
paths. This information helps
you choose which project
activities to monitor and how
often to monitor them. It also
suggests strategies for getting
back on track if you encounter
unexpected schedule delays.
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3.1.3 Schedule Techniques
Scheduling is not an exact process, because it is part estimation,
part prediction, and part educated guessing. Because of the
uncertainty involved, the schedule must be reviewed regularly and
revised, even while the project is in progress. It should continue to
develop as the project progresses,
changes arise, risks are overcome
and new risks are identified. The
schedule essentially transforms the
project from a vision to a time-based
plan. The main objectives of project scheduling are to:
 Complete the project as early as possible by determining the
earliest start and finish of each activity.
 Calculate the likelihood a project will be completed within a
certain time period.
 Find the minimum cost schedule needed to complete the
project by a certain date.
 Investigate the results of possible delays in activity’s
completion time.
 Progress control.
 Smooth out resource allocation over the duration of the
project
Most project managers use network scheduling to depict the
sequence of activities necessary to complete a project. The
segments of the project are represented by lines connected
together to show the interrelationship of operations and resources.
When a duration is associated with each segment, the model will
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show the time distribution of the total project and its operations,
which is then used to coordinate the application of resources.
There are some very well-known techniques for network
scheduling, such as:
 Gantt charts.
 Milestone charts.
 Network diagram.
3.1.3.1 The Gantt Chart
When you set up a Gantt chart, you need to know all the tasks
involved in your project, who will be responsible for each task, how
long each will take, and what problems the project team may
encounter, so that you can have alternatives for potential problems
before you start. Gantt charts can assist with the practical aspects
of time and precedents and dependents. A Gantt chart can also be
used to identify critical path, which is the sequence of tasks that
must individually be completed on time if the whole project is to
deliver on time. The following example is a Gantt chart showing a
recruitment process.
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A variety of software programmes can be used to create a Gantt
chart, including Microsoft Projects and Microsoft Excel. To create a
Gantt chart, follow these steps:
 Step 1: Identify essential tasks from the WBS and note the
earliest start date and estimated duration. Example: An
organisation has decided to create a new software product
for management purposes. You will list the activities that
must be done and estimate how long each task should take
to complete.
 Step 2: Identify task relationships. Some tasks will need to
be completed before you can start the next one, and others
cannot end until preceding ones have ended e.g. if you are
creating a brochure, you need to finish the design before you
can send it to print. Dependent activities are called linear
tasks, while those that can be done at the same time are
parallel tasks. Tasks can be sequential and parallel at the
same time e.g. tasks B and D may be dependent on task A,
and may be completed at the same time. Task B is
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sequential in that it follows on from A, and it is parallel, with
respect to D. In Gantt charts, there are three main
relationships between sequential tasks:
o Finish to Start (FS) tasks cannot start before a previous
and related task is finished, but they can start later.
o Start to Start (SS) tasks cannot start until a preceding
task starts, but they can start later.
o Finish to Finish (FF) tasks cannot end before a
preceding task ends, but can end later.
o Start to Finish (SF) is very rare.
 Step 3: Input activities into software. There are many
software programmes and templates that can be used.
 Step 4: Chart progress as the project moves along, and
update the Gantt chart to reflect changes as soon as they
occur. This will help you to keep your plans, the team, and
the sponsors up to date.
3.1.3.2 Milestone Charts
A milestone chart portrays key milestones on a project time line.
The milestones are associated with some major element of project
risk, such as passing a test or gaining approval from a regulatory
body. Each milestone is represented by a diamond or triangle on
the time line and will be major reporting points to senior
management. Large complex projects may have hundreds or even
thousands of tasks, which give
an opportunity for senior
management to receive
interim reports.
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3.1.3.3 Network Diagram
The Network Diagram is essentially a flowchart of the project tasks
and is created by determining predecessor and successor
relationships and connecting the tasks based upon those
relationships. When task durations are uncertain, the network
diagram is often a better technique to use than the Gantt chart,
because it shifts the focus for
uncertain tasks from arbitrary
start and end dates to
completion of the work and a
handoff to the next task.
3.1.4 Analysing Project Schedules
Critical Path Method (CPM) of analysis and Program Evaluation
and Review Technique (PERT) are powerful tools that help a
project manager to analyse simple schedules and manage
complex projects. They can be used as the basis both for
preparation of a schedule and of resource planning. During
management of a project, they allow you to monitor achievement
of project goals and help you to see where remedial action needs
to be taken to get a project back on course.
3.1.4.1 Critical Path Method (CPM)
The Critical Path method is used to determine the shortest time to
complete the entire project or an activity. It is used to analyse all
possible sequences of tasks based on a network diagram, to
determine the durations of sequences. The critical path sets the
minimum time in which the project can be completed and shows
the sequential activities from start to end of the project. Although
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many projects have only one critical path, some projects may have
more than one, depending on the flow logic used in the project. It
offers a visual representation of the project activities and presents
the time to complete the tasks, enabling you to track critical
activities, assuming that all resources required are available.
Once the durations and relationships have been drawn on a
network diagram, you will need to firstly calculate the earliest
possible start date and finish date for each task. Then, using the
calculated project finish date, determine the latest possible start
and finish date for each task that still supports the calculated
earliest date. This set of calculations is normally done using project
management software.
The following parameters for each activity on the network diagram
must be determined:
 Earliest start time (ES) is the earliest time an activity can
start once the previous dependent activities are over.
 Earliest finish time (EF) is the ES plus the activity duration.
 Latest finish time (LF) is the latest time an activity can
finish without delaying the project.
 Latest start time (LS) minus the LF gives the activity
duration.
 Float time is the time between the ES and the LS or
between the EF and LF. During the float time, an activity can
be delayed without delaying the project finish date.
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 Slack time is difference between the LF of each activity and
the EF, based on all predecessor activities, which will not
delay the completion of the overall project.
The critical path is the longest path of the network diagram. The
activities on the critical path have an effect on the deadline of the
project, because if an activity of this path is delayed, the project will
be delayed. In case if the project management needs to accelerate
the project, the times for critical path activities should be reduced.
3.1.4.2 Critical Chain Scheduling (CSS)
Where the critical path goes from start of a project to the end, the
critical chain ends at the start of a buffer assigned to the project.
With the critical path, activity sequencing is performed, but with
critical chain, critical chain scheduling is performed. The critical
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chain is the dependent tasks that define the lower limit of possible
lead time, so dependent tasks are scheduled in the most effective
and beneficial way.
Dependencies are used to determine the critical chain. There are
two types of dependencies used:
 Hands-off dependency simply means that output of one
task is the input for another, so the second task cannot be
started until the first task is completed.
 Resource dependency means that one task is using a
resource, so the other task cannot be started until the first
task is completed and the resource is free.
Critical chain scheduling complements the impact of variance with
a buffer, which are constructed and applied to a project in order to
ensure success. The buffer protects the due delivery dates from
variations to the critical chain.
With a "feeding buffer", dependent tasks in the critical chain that
are dependent on the output of non-critical chain tasks have a
great opportunity to start as soon as its predecessor task is
finished, and do not have to wait for non-critical chain tasks to be
completed. This makes sure that the critical chain moves faster
towards the project completion.
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3.1.4.3 Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
A PERT analysis starts with a network diagram, where all task
durations are estimated three times:
 A worst case schedule is developed using only worst case
estimates.
 A best case schedule is developed using only best case
estimates.
 The most likely case is an estimated likely time for a task,
given constraints on resources.
Using these estimates, calculate the time to use for each project
stage using the following formula:
Shortest time + 4 x likely time + longest time
6
This helps to remove bias in time estimates away from the
unrealistically short time-scales normally assumed. A PERT chart
or diagram can be used to display the results. The following
example will show a PERT diagram with the necessary
explanation.
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In the above diagram, there are four tasks in the project. Task A
takes one day to complete. Task B takes 4 days to complete and
can be executed in parallel with Task C, which takes 11 days to
complete. When tasks B and C are completed, task D can be
executed, which will take 3 days to complete.
3.1.5 Date and Resource Adjustments
Schedule acceleration techniques are used to shorten the overall
length of the project, but they do so by increasing risk in some
other aspect of the project. They need to be used carefully, along
with an update to the project risk management plan. There are five
schedule acceleration techniques and selecting the one to use
depends on the characteristics of the activities in the project.
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 Buffer management reduces the buffer inherent in the
estimates of activities. Project managers tend to allow for the
uncertainty by using a conservative estimate, and buffer
management removes this buffer from the estimate and
creates an aggressive estimate, often resulting in reduced
duration. However, the risk is that there is a much higher
probability that the activity will finish late, compared to the
planned completion date.
 Crashing accelerates an activity by adding additional
resources. Some activity durations are limited by resource
availability and more resources would
allow a faster completion. While this is
not true for all activities, it is true for
some. However, this will often increase
the overall cost of the project, as the
additional resources are often added at a premium rate.
 Fast-tracking accelerates the project by starting activities
prior to the completion of all the predecessor activities. This
can only be done when there is a preliminary result for the
predecessor activities e.g. a preliminary bill of materials may
be developed during a design process and raw materials for
production may be ordered based upon this. If the bill of
material does not change during the final design review and
baseline process, the project is accelerated, but if it does
change, the material ordered may need to be reworked or
scrapped, increasing the effort and cost to the project.
 The Split-to-Phases technique is used when the project has
multiple, separable objectives and the scope is divided into
phases based on the activities that are unique to an
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objective. This allows a focus of resources on the activities
supporting one objective at the expense of the activities
supporting a different objective. This will result in an early
completion of a portion of the project, but usually causes a
delay in another portion of the project, and often causes an
increase in cost because activities must be repeated for each
phase. This acceleration technique is appropriate only when
the completion of the first phase is able to immediately start
producing some business benefit, without the completion of
the succeeding phases.
These methods can be used individually or in combinations, but
will all result in increased risks which may fail to deliver the
potential benefit.
Resource levelling is a technique used to smooth out the peaks
and valleys in the required project resources and usually results in
changes to the project schedule. Through the use of levelling, the
best allocation of resources assigned to the project can be
determined and can be applied when the project has been planned
with a high degree of parallelism. Usually, many of the different
parallel paths will have float, unless they are a critical path, which
can be used to reposition tasks so that
the resources required to conduct that
task are not needed at the same time on
another task.
To do resource levelling, first the network diagram is developed
and the task durations and resources requirements for each task
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are determined so that the critical path can be calculated.
Resources are then assigned to critical path tasks first, before
assigned to the other tasks, using float to reposition tasks between
their earliest start and latest finish time and when resources are
unallocated. If, after this, there are still insufficient resources at
some time in the project, then tasks are stretched or delayed past
their latest finish time until the resources are available. This will
extend the end date of the project.
3.2 AN INITIAL WORK SCHEDULE
3.2.1 Activities and Scope
The first step to produce a work schedule is to envision the total
project and decompose it into tasks that
can easily be executed to reach the
required milestones. The tasks and
milestones must be scheduled, cost
estimated, and the WBS created.
3.2.2 Define Dependencies
Next, establish task dependencies to facilitate execution of work in
the proper sequence. These often involve physical limitations,
discretionary priorities based on experience and other external
factors. They are links between project activities that are used to
sequence tasks in time, in a logical order and are also used to
create relationships. When you use dependencies to create an
activity sequence and schedule for your project, you create a
project that is not bound by specific dates, and can easily
accommodate changes in the schedule.
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Dependency creation is a two-step process:
 Create the dependency relationships.
 Resolve the dependencies to adjust the schedule dates.
3.2.3 Estimating Durations
Work estimation requires calculating the number of hours or days
needed to complete a scheduled task and are critical as any time
overruns may over-allocate the resource levelling and adversely
affect the project.
With task durations, the team knows what to expect and what is
expected from them. Task duration is normally
overestimated, but is frequently underestimated,
and inaccurate estimates can result in an
increase in the frenzy level of the project with
sponsors scrambling for more money, and
technical staff attempting to complete the project in an unrealistic
timeframe.
The estimation process is complex, because it is affected by
numerous variables that must be dealt with concurrently, such as
staff availability, the skills level of a person assigned to the task,
unexpected events, inefficiency and mistakes and lack of proper
understandings during the development of the project.
The most common technique for task duration estimation is based
on the historical experience of a similar scope of work by the
project manager, which will support both the duration and the cost
estimation. If historical data does not exist, seek the advice of
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experts and others who completed similar tasks. When historical
data is available, get estimates from multiple sources, compare the
results and estimate based on these inputs.
3.2.4 Milestones and Critical Path
The completion of key actions is important in all projects, and is
represented by precise and measurable milestones with no
duration. Deliverables are presented as milestones, while the effort
to produce the deliverable is referred to as a task. Once these
have been set, identify the critical path that has a direct impact on
the completion date of the project.
3.3 RESOURCES
3.3.1 Resource Requirements
A successful project manager must
simultaneously manage the four basic
elements of resources, time, money, and
scope, which are interrelated in projects.
Each must be managed effectively, and
all must be managed together, if the
project and the project manager are to be
a success. The resource breakdowns include:
 Resources of people, equipment and materials.
 Time with task durations, dependencies and the critical path.
 Money includes costs, contingencies and profit.
 Scope includes project size, goals and requirements.
Before attempting resource levelling, the project manager must
assign resources to each of the tasks to aid timely execution.
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Resource levelling calls for good judgment as resources have to
be used optimally throughout the project. It has to be ensured that
resources are neither over-allocated nor under-allocated.
The following process can help you identify the types and
quantities of resources that you need to implement a project:
 Review the project scope and task list to ascertain the
project's requirements.
 Use historical resources and duration information. Check
especially for information about the types and numbers of
resources that were used, as well as the actual duration of
tasks.
 Consider how the resource numbers will affect the durations.
In most cases, particularly for production tasks, two
resources can complete a task in half the time it takes a
single resource to do it, but in other instances, adding
resources does not guarantee that the duration will
decrease.
 Consider how the capability and quality of the resources will
affect durations. These can significantly influence the
duration of the task e.g. a team member with five years’
experience can be expected to complete a task in less time
than one with very little experience.
 Review and refine the duration estimates using the
information collected. The accuracy of the resource
requirement estimate depends on the accuracy of the
estimate for task durations.
 Identify the resource types and quantities needed and
identify any specifics, assumptions or constraints that you
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may have e.g. "The scope of the project will not change,” or
"Identified resources and approved funding will be available
upon request," or "The project team must create all of the
physical deliverables within the allocated budget."
 Have an expert or a knowledgeable team member review
your resource requirements estimates.
3.3.2 Resource Plan, Availability and Costs
Resource planning is a key aspect of project management as the
success of a project is directly dependent of how the resources are
allocated and how optimally they are used.
Project activities have fixed durations and
may require the use of multiple renewable
resources in constant amounts throughout
their duration. Various assumptions may be
made about the type of precedence
relations, ready times, due dates, and task
interruption. The objective is to determine
the resource availability levels in order to minimise the costs over
all resource types.
Two important things must be given attention in a project resource
plan.
 Human and non-human resources must be accounted for in
separate sections.
 The resource requirements should be analysed individually
for each phase of the project.
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The resource plan may include resource category or types,
quantities, availability, capability, calendars, task requirements, risk
analysis and management actions. This will help to identify all the
resources required to complete the project successfully.
Using this resource plan, you will then create a resource schedule
to enable you to plan the use and depletion of each type of
resource, so that you know that you will have enough to complete
the project. The resource plan will allow you to:
 Plan the dates for use of the resources.
 Identify the amount of resources required per project activity.
 Create a detailed resource utilisation schedule.
A good resource plan consists of a schedule that is as detailed as
possible for the information known, and the types of resources
needed for each task. It will have a single task owner on each task
and will help you identify the:
 Types of labour required for the project.
 Roles and key responsibilities for each labour type.
 Number of people required to fill each role.
 Items of equipment to be used and their purposes.
 Types and quantities of equipment needed.
 Total amount of materials needed.
The following is an example of a resource plan.
Project Resource Plan
Project Name:
Process:
Focus Area:
Prepared By:
Prepared On:
xyz
Website Development
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Authorised By:
Phase-1
From Date
To Date
Phase-2
From Date
To Date
Phase-3
From Date
To Date
Phase-4
From Date
To Date
Project Skill Requirements
Resource
Hours
Task/Deliverable
Type
Source Skill Level Quantity Required Controller
Macromedia
Project
Site Layout Design Designer
Internal Flash
2
50 Manager
Project
Java Scripts
Programmer Internal Java
1
30 Manager
PR
Content
Writer
ABC Co APA style
2
30 Manager
DE
Business
PR
Images
Photographer Photo photos
1
10 Manager
Site Integrating
Placing
Advertisements
Site Testing
SEO
Internet Marketing
Task/Deliverable
Non-Human Resources
Resource
Cost
Hours
Type
Source Estimate Quantity Required Controller
Phase-1
From Date
To Date
Phase-2
From Date
To Date
Phase-3
From Date
To Date
Phase-4
From Date
To Date
Resource Assumption
Resource Risks and Mitigation Strategies
Source Name
Detailed List of Sources
Address
Contact Person
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A resource plan can either be made for the entire project, if it is a
small project, or for some process which is a part of a larger
project.
The human resource and skill requirements will vary
considerably during each phase of the project. The resource
details include the following:

Task or deliverables is either the name of the task or a
short description of it.

Resource type refers to what type of a professional is
needed to execute the said task.

Source is meant for listing the source from which the desired
professionals must be made available for accomplishing the
tasks. If the professional is from within the organisation you
can simply write ‘Internal’ under the source.

Skill level, if there are any specific requirements these can
be detailed in this section.

Quantity is simply the number of professionals needed for
completing the task.

Hours required is an estimate of the
total number of hours that will be
needed for completion of the task.

Controller is the name of the person
or team at whose deposal the
resource will be and who will have full
authority over allocation of the
resource.
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The non-human resource requirements must also be classified
along the different phases and for different tasks or deliverables.
The cost estimate is the cost of purchasing a particular resource or
the rent amount if a resource is needed on a temporary basis.
Resource assumptions are found in every aspect of a project, so
whatever assumptions have been made at the time of resource
planning can be detailed e.g. the assumption may be an estimated
figure for equipment rental, but a deal is not yet final.
Resource risk and mitigation strategies are details of all the
risks associated with the project resources, and the strategies that
will be used to nullify these if they occur during the execution of the
project.
Detailed list of sources is a list from which resources will be
procured. It can either be included in the resource plan or it can be
attached as an annexure to a resource plan. This must contain
some basic details about the source such as the name of the
source, the physical location of the source, the name of the contact
person there and the contact details.
3.4 OPTIMISING WORK AND RESOURCES
3.4.1 The Impact of Resource Misallocation
If the project manager runs into trouble by over-allocating or underallocating resources then resource levelling must be done by:

Delaying or rescheduling certain tasks.

Allocating alternate resources.

Reworking task dependencies.

Eliminating redundant tasks, if feasible.
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If resources have been
misallocated, the financial viability
of the project may be impacted in
such a manner that the entire
project must be stopped. The
situation may not be able to be
resolved by reallocating the resources, without making other tasks
have a longer duration and not meet deadlines, and productivity
will be hindered while additional resources are transferred from
one task to another. The spiralling costs that this misallocation will
encounter will be huge, with the project not viable or cost-effective.
The project manager has to constantly monitor the schedule and if
the critical path drags the finish date, then he must adopt
techniques to remedy the situation such as:

Fast tracking.

Performing tasks in parallel instead of in sequence.

Crashing or assigning additional resources.
3.4.2 Risk Analysis
Documentation of the assumptions made in developing the project
schedule is critical to the success of the project. Without clear
documentation of these assumptions, late changes are very
difficult and risky. If, for example, a schedule was short and
because it was assumed that a highly
skilled person would be performing the
work, that assumption should be
documented so that if a less skilled person
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is actually assigned to perform the task, the project manager can
recognise this and can make necessary changes and decisions.
Without documentation of the assumptions, the entire schedule
and project could be delayed.
There are risks inherently involved in having limited resources, but
good scheduling makes allowance for preventing risks. These
include:

Where a significant scheduling risk is identified, add an
additional WBS task as a risk reduction. Financial reserves
can be set aside to deal with potentially delayed schedules,
and additional time can be allocated to those task risks.

Add extra time to the schedule for particular team members,
particularly if new technology is being used or if the estimate
is too optimistic. Technical staff often underestimate the time
required to do any particular task.
3.4.3 Agreements
The development of the schedule requires input from more than
one person. No one possesses all the knowledge or understands
all the factors that affect schedules in a project. The acceptance of
the schedule by the project team members is critical to
success and participation in scheduling gives them a
stake in the outcome of the project. Job descriptions
and task allocations must be reviewed with all involved in
the work, to ascertain whether they are complete and
accurate and to ensure a common understanding of what is to be
done.
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The final schedule and resource plan must also be agreed with the
project sponsor and the client, to ensure that the required
resources are sufficient and will be available when required.
3.5 SCHEDULE AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
3.5.1 Baseline
A baseline is a set of stored values. Usually these will be:
 Original scheduled start and finish dates.
 Planned effort, normally expressed in hours.
 Planned or budgeted cost.
 Planned or budgeted revenue.
The main benefits of having a project baseline are:
 The ability to assess performance.
 To be able to calculate Earned Value.
 To improve future estimating accuracy.
By taking the original plan and comparing it with the actual
progress of the project, you will be able
to make a judgement on whether the
project is on track or not. This will
provide you with any variance
information, which can be useful for
future estimating.
With Earned Value, the planned hours and costs of the tasks are
compared with the actual hours and costs, taking into account the
progress on each task and the project as a whole. It often includes
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the calculation of a performance indicator. This will allow you to
see trends in performance, and therefore be able to predict any
potential overruns. At an individual task level, this is a good
indicator of how much time and cost should have been spent so
far, compared with how much time and cost has actually been
spent.
However, it is advisable not to place too much reliance on such
forecasts, especially in the early stages of the project's lifecycle, as
few tasks have been started or completed, but as time moves
forward, the accuracy of your predictions increases, although you
are still reliant on peoples' assessments of progress. When a task
is completed, the Earned Value figures will be equal to the planned
figures, so this measure cannot be used to enhance estimating
accuracy.
When you create your plan, you estimate
how long each task will take, and how
much effort will be required to complete it.
You may also work out the likely costs
and, if you are charging for work done,
what the revenue will be. The tool most
commonly used for this is previous experience. You can improve
the accuracy of your estimating if you have a record of previous
estimates compared with the actual outcome, to give you a margin
of error that you can build into all future estimates.
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3.5.2 Creating the Schedule Management Plan
Over the course of a given project, often it is up to the project
management team and or the team leader to make a determination
that the previously determined and derived schedule may need to
be modified and or tweaked in one way or another in order to
accommodate one of more schedule events. This may be because
a particular event is running behind schedule or in other cases
because a succeeding event’s timing has to be changed one way
or another. However, when the project management team and or
project management team leader seeks to initiate changes, it is
important that they adhere to the previously determined schedule
management plan.
The schedule management plan is the document that determines
the criteria for developing and maintaining the actual project
schedule, and represents a subsidiary of the project management
plan as a whole. This schedule management plan may be a highly
formalised document, or it could be very informal in some cases as
well.
The following example will indicate everything that should appear
in a Schedule Management Plan.
PROJECT SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT PLAN TEMPLATE
SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT PLAN
<PROJECT NAME>
COMPANY NAME
STREET ADDRESS
POSTAL CODE
DATE
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT APPROACH
SCHEDULE CONTROL SCHEDULE CHANGES AND THRESHOLDS
SCOPE CHANGE
INTRODUCTION
This section highlights the purpose and importance of the schedule management plan
and provides a general description of what should be included. These items will be
described in more detail later in the plan under each corresponding section.
The project schedule is the roadmap for how the project will be executed. Schedules
are an important part of any project as they provide the project team, sponsor, and
stakeholders with a clear picture of the project’s status at any given time. The purpose
of the schedule management plan is to define the approach the project team will use in
creating the project schedule. This plan also includes how the team will monitor the
project schedule and manage changes after the baseline schedule has been approved.
This includes identifying, analysing, documenting, prioritising, approving or rejecting,
and publishing all schedule-related changes.
SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT APPROACH
This section provides a general framework for the approach which will be taken to
create the project schedule. This includes the scheduling tool and format, schedule
milestones, and schedule development roles and responsibilities.
Project schedules will be created using, for example, MS Project 2010 starting with the
deliverables identified in the project’s Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Activity
definition will identify the specific work packages that must be performed to complete
each deliverable. Activity sequencing will be used to determine the order of work
packages and assign relationships between project activities. Activity duration
estimating will be used to calculate the number of work periods required to complete
work packages. Resource estimating will be used to assign resources to work
packages, in order to complete schedule development.
Once a preliminary schedule has been developed, it will be reviewed by the project
team and along with any resources tentatively assigned to project tasks. The project
team must agree to the proposed work package assignments, durations, and schedule.
Once this is achieved the project sponsor will review and approve the schedule and it
will then be base lined.
The following will be designated as milestones for the project schedule:
 Completion of scope statement and WBS/WBS Dictionary.
 Base lined project schedule.
 Approval of final project budget.
 Project kick-off.
 Approval of roles and responsibilities.
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



Requirements definition approval.
Completion of data mapping and inventory.
Project implementation.
Acceptance of final deliverables.
Roles and responsibilities for schedule development are as follows:
 The project manager will be responsible for facilitating work package definition,
sequencing, and estimating duration and resources with the project team. The
project manager will also create the project schedule and validate the schedule with
the project team, stakeholders, and the project sponsor. The project manager will
obtain schedule approval from the project sponsor and baseline the schedule.
 The project team is responsible for participating in work package definition,
sequencing, and duration and resource estimating. The project team will also review
and validate the proposed schedule and perform assigned activities once the
schedule is approved.
 The project sponsor will participate in reviews of the proposed schedule and
approve the final schedule before it is base lined.
 The project stakeholders will participate in reviews of the proposed schedule and
assist in its validation.
SCHEDULE CONTROL
This section defines how the project’s schedule will be controlled throughout the life of
the project. This includes the frequency of updates and schedule reviews as well as
communicating the schedule and progress. This section also defines roles and
responsibilities as they relate specifically to project schedule control.
The project schedule will be reviewed and updated as necessary on a bi-weekly basis
with actual start, actual finish, and completion percentages which will be provided by
task owners. The project manager is responsible for:
 Holding bi-weekly schedule updates and reviews.
 Determining impacts of schedule variances.
 Submitting schedule change requests.
 Reporting schedule status in accordance with the project’s communications plan.
The project team is responsible for:
 Participating in bi-weekly schedule updates and reviews.
 Communicating any changes to actual start and finish dates to the project manager.
 Participating in schedule variance resolution activities as needed.
The project sponsor will maintain awareness of the project schedule status and review
and approve any schedule change requests submitted by the project manager.
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SCHEDULE CHANGES AND THRESHOLDS
As the project schedule is created it is important that boundary conditions are set by the
project sponsor to establish the schedule parameters within which the project is
expected to operate. Any event which may potentially cause a schedule change that
exceeds these boundary conditions must have a schedule change request submitted
and approved by the sponsor before the schedule change is made.
If any member of the project team determines that a change to the schedule is
necessary, the project manager and team will meet to review and evaluate the change.
The project manager and project team must determine which tasks will be impacted,
variance as a result of the potential change, and any alternatives or variance resolution
activities they may employ to see how they would affect the scope, schedule, and
resources. If, after this evaluation is complete, the project manager determines that any
change will exceed the established boundary conditions, then a schedule change
request must be submitted.
Submittal of a schedule change request to the project sponsor for approval is required if
either of the two following conditions is true:
 The proposed change is estimated to reduce the duration of an individual work
package by 10% or more, or increase the duration of an individual work package by
10% or more.
 The change is estimated to reduce the duration of the overall baseline schedule by
10% or more, or increase the duration of the overall baseline schedule by 10% or
more.
Any change requests that do not meet these thresholds may be submitted to the project
manager for approval. Once the change request has been reviewed and approved, the
project manager is responsible for adjusting the schedule and communicating all
changes and impacts to the project team, project sponsor, and stakeholders. The
project manager must also ensure that all change requests are archived in the project
records repository.
SCOPE CHANGE
Occasionally, approved changes to the project’s scope may result in the schedule
needing to be re-base lined. These scope changes may include new deliverables or
requirements that were not previously considered as part of the original schedule’s
development. In these situations the project manager and team must consider the
current status of the project schedule and how the scope change will affect the schedule
and its resources as the project moves forward.
Any changes in the project scope, which have been approved by the project sponsor,
will require the project team to evaluate the effect of the scope change on the current
schedule. If the project manager determines that the scope change will significantly
affect the current project schedule, he/she may request that the schedule be re-base
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lined in consideration of any changes which need to be made as part of the new project
scope. The project sponsor must review and approve this request before the schedule
can be re-base lined.
SPONSOR ACCEPTANCE
Approved by the Project Sponsor:
__________________________________________ Date: ___________________
<Project Sponsor>
__________________________________________
<Project Sponsor Title>
3.5.3 Creating the Resource Management Plan
There should be a commitment by all of the people involved to
seek financial, programme, and staffing resources necessary to
implement the proposed management actions for any project. This
cooperative relationship should be established through a
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) or Memorandum of
Understanding (MOU) or some other formal contract.
Successful implementation and
monitoring of an Resource
Management Plan will rely on the
cooperation of all people involved,
and, in some instances, it may be
appropriate for project beneficiaries
to share in the cost of implementation and monitoring. Cost-share
arrangements should be governed by contract language, laws,
regulations, standards and policies.
The following template can be modified and used based on the
specific project.
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PROJECT RESOURCE PLAN
Project Name:
Prepared by:
Date (MM/DD/YYYY):
1. Resource Profiles
List below the major resources that will be needed in order to proceed with the execution of
the project. These resources may include: Roles (People), Money, Equipment, Facilities,
Materials and Supplies, and Information Services/Systems.
2. Project Resource Information
For each of the resources needed on the project determine the following: (1.) Cost estimates
for each resource, (2.) Availability of each resource, and (3.) Estimated quality and (4.) output
of people and equipment resources. (Insert rows as needed.)
Resource
Cost Estimate
Availability
Quality
Output
3. Resource Staffing Plan
After establishing the human resources required for the project, develop a staffing plan that
shows the number of personnel, by type, that will be required on the project on a monthly
basis. (In place of Month, insert name of month as appropriate. Insert additional rows as
needed.)
Personnel
Month
Month
Month
Month
Month
Month
Category
4. Project Resource Plan / Signatures
Project Name:
Project Manager
Name
Role
Signature
Date
(MM/DD/YYYY)
The signatures above indicate an understanding of the purpose and content of this document
by those signing it. By signing this document, they agree to this as the formal Project Resource
Plan document.
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Appendix - Roles and Stakeholders
Roles
Role
Project Sponsor
Project Manager
Tech Lead
Business Lead
Client
Stakeholder
Analyst
Role Definitions Being Applied to the Resources Assigned to This
Project
Provides executive team approval and sponsorship for the project. Has
budget ownership for the project and is the major stakeholder and
recipient for the project deliverables.
Provides overall management to the project. Accountable for
establishing a Project Charter, developing and managing the work plan,
securing appropriate resources, delegating the work and insuring
successful completion of the project. All Project Team members report
to the Project Manager. Handles all project administrative duties,
interfaces with project sponsors and owners and has overall
accountability for the project.
The Tech Lead is the recognised domain expert in the area of
technology central to the project. The team may refer technical
questions to the Tech Lead, who will either answer them directly or find
an expert source that can do so.
The Business Lead is the recognised domain expert in the business
area central to the project. The team may refer business questions to
the Business Lead, who will either answer them directly or find an
expert source that can do so.
Key provider of requirements and recipient of project deliverable and
associated benefits. Deliverable will directly enhance the Client’s
business processes and environment. Majority of Clients for this project
will be department directors.
Key provider of requirements and recipient of project deliverable and
associated benefits. Deliverable will directly enhance the stakeholders’
business processes and environment. Majority of stakeholders for this
project will be agency heads, and project management representatives.
Working Project Team member, who analyses, designs and ultimately
improves or replaces the business processes. This includes
collaborating with teams to develop high level process designs and
models, understanding best practices for business processes and
partnering with team members to identify appropriate opportunities,
challenging the old rules of the business and stimulating creating
thinking, and identifying organizational impact areas.
Stakeholders
List below all individuals with a significant interest in the project. Include their individual role in
the project. (Insert rows as needed.)
Stakeholder
Individual Role in this Project
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Before the project can be implemented, make sure the following
implementation criteria are in place:
 The project is cost effective.
 The organisation agrees and knows how to conduct and
support the project.
 A budget holder is responsible for the maintenance and
operational costs of all aspects of the project.
 The project is funded and equipped with the necessary
resources.
 The organisation can sustain the project activities.
 The impact of the project on the work environment is
considered.
 In order to manage their time effectively, project leaders
need to know how to:
o Plan ahead.
o Make a realistic estimate of how long specific tasks will
take.
o Prioritise tasks.
o Get started.
o Work to deadlines.
o Minimise distractions.
ACTIVITY 4 – REVIEWED, GROUPS - US
243820 SO1 AC1-6, SO2 AC1-5, SO3
AC1-4, SO4 AC1-5, SO5 AC1-3
Complete this activity in your Portfolio of Evidence Workbook.
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Developed for
MSC EDUCATION HOLDINGS (PTY) LTD
26 Bonza Bay Road,
Beacon Bay,
East London
Phone: (043) 7485778
Fax: (043) 7483610
E-mail: [email protected]
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