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“COSMOS” is another word for UNIVERSE
COSMOLOGY is the study of the Universe
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STOIC UNIVERSE – Stoic
Philosophers of Ancient Greece (3rd
Century BC and after)
- Finite island surrounded by
infinite void
- Universe is a giant body = all is
connected
HELIOCENTRIC UNIVERSE –
Aristarchus of Samos (3rd Century
BC)
- Sun I s center
- NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1800
years later)
PTOLEMAIC UNIVERSE – Claudius
Ptolemaeus (2nd Century AD)
- Earth is venter
- Epicycles
BIG BANG THEORY - Georges
Lemaître (1972)
- Small singularity -> expanded
over the next 13.8 Billion years
- Echo of expansion = cosmic
microwave background
OSCILLATING UNIVERSE – Alexander
Friedman
- Oscillating means forward and
backward
- Big Bang -> Big Crunch
STEADY STATE THEORY – Albert
Einstein
- Alternative of the big bang
model
- Universe expanded but did not
change density
MULTIVERSE – Andrei Linde
- Hugh Everett III and Bryce
Dewitt (many world formulation
1960s and 1970s)
- The universe is one of many
bubbles
TIDAL THEORY – Sir James H. Jeans
(1877-1946)
- Star to the sun = tidal waves
NEBULAR THEORY – Immanuel Kant
(1755)
- From CLOUDS
- Solar system formed 4.6 Billion
years ago and others are still
forming in the nebulae
INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE – Alan
Guth (1980)
- Extremely rapid expansion of the
universe
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS OF THE EARTH
are naturally occurring materials found on
Earth
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1.
2.
3.
4.
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- These are vital resources
4 MAIN RESOURCES
Minerals
Rocks
Soil
Water
ROCK CYCLES – transitions through
geologic time among rocks
1. IGNEOUS ROCKS – from the cooling
and crystallization of lava/ magma
 INTRUSIVE – molten rocks cool
underground
 EXTRUSIVE – reaches earth’s surface
and cools quickly
a. MAFIC – rich in iron and
magnesium = dark
b. FELSIC – rich in elements that
form feldspar and quartz
IDENTIFIED AS:
-
Bubbly, frothy, glassy
Fine grained, uniform, hard
Lined with minerals
Ex. Obsidian Granite, Pumice, Diorite
2. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS – cementation
of sediments into layers of rock
- Pieces of rocks settle
- Minerals plant from plants,
animals, chemical processes
 CLASTIC
- fragments of rocks are cemented
together
- not simply made up of crystals,
but rather fragments of
materials.
 CHEMICAL
- Made of crystals
- Same texture as igneous and
metamorphic rocks
 BIOCHEMICAL
- Remains of organisms (tae
ganon parang ako)
IDENTIFIED AS:
-
Obvious bands of diff substances
Soft
Made up of diff particles
- Contains fossils
3. METAMORPHIC – formed by heat
and pressure
 FOLIATED – layered appearance
 NON-FOLIATED – no layered/banded
appearance
MINERAL
3.
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Naturally formed
Solid
w/ definite chemical
composition
- characteristic crystalline
appearance
SILICATE
- Silicon and oxygen
- Make up 90% of Earth’s crust
NON-SILICATE
- Carbonates, Sulfates, Oxides,
Sulfides, Phosphates, Halides,
Native Elements
2.
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PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ROCKS
1. COLOR – caused by wavelengths of
light
2. STEAK – color displayed by a mineral
when turned to fine powder
3. DENSITY – mass per unit volume
(d=m/v)
4. LUSTER – opacity and transparency
5. HARDNESS – level of difficulty to be
scratched
6. CLEAVAGE – split along smooth
plane (sana all meron)
7. FRACTURE – doesn’t form
perfect/distinct cleavage
8. TENACITY – behavior under
stress/deformation
4.
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5.
6.
(for nitrogen, carbon, oxygen
dynamics)
EARTH’S DOSTANCE FROM THE SUN
HABITABLE ZONE – range of orbits
around a star which can support
water
SOURCE OF HEAT
GREENHOUSE EFFECT
- Warm Earth’s surface and lower
atmosphere
- Half of solar radiation
ROLE OF ATMOSPHERE
Helps maintain consistent temp
Shields earth from collisions
Oxygen level is at 21%
ACTIVE PLATE TECTONICS AND
DIFFERENTIATED INTERNAL
STRUCTURE
PRESENCE OF THE MOON AND TILT
OF AXIS
- Earth’s motion = rotation and
revolution
Axis – imaginary line which a body rotates
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EARTH’S SYSTEMS
1. LITHOSPHERE – solid earth
2. BIOSPHERE – living organisms
3. HYDROSPHERE – 71% ocean 12,500
ft deep
4. ATMOSPHERE – thin layer of gas
(meron pa teka lang madami pa to)
ESTRATERRESTRIAL IMPACT
-
(onting kembot pa wait lang)
WHAT MAKES EARTH HABITABLE?
1. Life would not begin without water
- For photosynthetic organisms
 CYANOBACTERIA – prokaryotes that
Tilted 23.5 degrees
Causes primordial heat through
kinetic energy
GRAVITAIONAL CONTRACTION OF EARTH’S
INTERIOR
-
Accretionary process forces
earth to contract = conversion of
gravitational energy to heat
energy
RADIOACTIVE DECAY OF UNSTABLE
ISOTOPES
-
Produces subatomic particles
that collide and cause heat
MAGMATISM – formation and movement
of magma under crust
capture sunlight using chlorophyll
Key role in mountain formation
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Magma – molten rocks beneath
earth’s surface
- 45% to 75% silica
- 800 to 1400 C melting point
CONDITIONS REQUIRED IN THE
GENERATION OF MAGMA FORMATION
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Decompression Melting – temp
stays but pressure decreases
Flux Melting – volatiles are added to
hot liquid rocks
Heat Transfer Melting – melting of
surrounding rocks
AREAS WHERE MAGMA IS GENERATED:
1. Oceanic Ridge
- Submarine volcano
- Basaltic magma
2. Islandic Arc
- Japan Archipelago
- Subduction of Oceanic plate at a
trench
- Andesite magma, dacite magma
3. Hot spot
- Hawaii island, Iceland
- Mantle gushes up through tubes
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No change in chemical
composition
Exfoliation – buried rocks are
uplifted and exposed
Frost Wedging
Salt Wedging
CHEMICAL WEATHERING – through
chemical changes in its minerals
PROCESS:
1. Oxidation – reddish coloration like
rust
2. Hydrolysis – igneous rocks have
much silica which readily combines
with water
3. Carbonation and Solution – carbon
dioxide + water = soluble product
BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING – plants and
animal
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Roots physically break rock
Lichens remove weaken rocks
Burrowing animals increase
weathering
( wait ders more parekoy)
VOLCANISM
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Through HUMAN perspective is
DESTRUCTIVE
Through GEOLOGIC perspective
is a CONSTRUCTIVE process
GEOMORPHIC PROCESSES
A.
1.
2.
B.
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- Create and modify landforms
ENDOGENOUS PROCESSES
- Large scale landform building
and transforming
- Create relief
Igneous Process
a. Volcanism – volcanic eruption
b. Plutonism – igneous intrusion
Tectonic Processes
a. Folding – mountains
b. Faulting – rift valleys, graben,
escarpments
c. Lateral Faulting – strike slip
faults
EXOGENOUS PROCESSES
- Modify relief
a. Degradation
Weathering – disintegration and
decomposition of rocks in situations
with no transportation = regolith
PHYSICAL/MECHANICAL WEATHERINGweather elements, extreme temps
EROSION AND TRANSPORTATION
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Various geomorphic agents
Erosional feature:
1. Flowing water – fluvial morphology
2. Wind – Eolian Landscapes
3. Tides and Waves – Coastal
Morphology
4. Moving Ice – Glacial Morphology
DEPOSITION
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Various geomorphic agents
associated and resulting
Depositional features
Fluvial – humid regions
Eolian – Sand dunes
Coastal – Sea beaches and coral
reefs
Glacial – alpine
EOLIAN- sediment erosion, transportation,
and deposition by wind.
ALLUVIAL FAN - cover of soil, sand, and fine
grained rocks on the Earth’s surface.
GLACIER - carry lots of loose rock and
debris. Glacial sediment is deposited as the
ice melts.
FLUVIAL - river environments.
DELTA - sediment deposit that forms at the
mouth or a river, where it enters a lake or
the ocean.
DEFORMATION – a process in which rocks
change size, shape, location due to
squeezing, stretching, or shearing
TYPES OF STRESS ( ETO STRESS TO SOBRA )
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Stress is a force applied per unit
area
1. UNIFORM STRESS – from all
directions
- Confining stress
2. DIFFERENTIAL STRESS – not equal
from all direction
- Tensional (Away from each
other)
- Compressional (towards each
other)
- Shear (towards each other but
not same axis) *shear diba yun
yung sabi mo sa kaklase mong
may baon? “pre pashear naman
aq hihi”*
STRAIN – resulting change in rocks due to
different kinds of stress
2 KINDS OF STRAIN
1. Shear – involves movement in one
part
2. Elastic – temporary
SUCCESSIVE STAGES OF DEFORMATION
1. Elastic – reversible strain
2. Ductile – irreversible
3. Fracture – permanent
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY – study of rock
deformation
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STRIKE – compass direction,
intersection of inclined plane and
horizontal plane
DIP – angle between inclined plane
and horizontal plane
FAULT – planar structures resulting from
brittle deformation
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Active faults – Sliding in recent
geologic times
HANGING WALL – block of rock on top of
the fault
FOOTWALL- rock below fault
TYPES OF FAULTS
1. Dip-slip – shifted vertically
2. Strike-slip – slide past each other
3. Normal Fault – hanging wall moves
down
4. Reverse Fault – hanging wall moves
up
5. Thrust Fault – reverse fault with
inclination of 35 degrees
6. Right-lateral – towards the right
7. Left-lateral – moves to the left
8. Oblique – diagonal
FOLDS – deformation of ductile materials
PARTS OF A FOLD:
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Hinge line/Fold Axis – curvature is
greatest
Limbs – sides of the folds
Axial plane – contains fold axis of
folded layers
TYPES OF FOLD:
1. Anticline – limbs are inclined away
from hinge
2. Syncline – limbs incline toward the
hinge
3. Monocline – bend in a flat rock layer
4. Overturned – axial plane is inclined
and one limb is higher
TECTONIC FOLIATION – alignment of
deformed grains
MOUNTAIN BUILDING
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Uplift – lower elevation to higher
elevation
Orogenesis – mountain building
Crustal root – thickened crust
Isostasy – adjustment to maintain
buoyancy
HORSTS – elevated landforms, bounded by
faults inclined to opposite directions
GRABENS – valleys filled with sediments,
bounded by normal faults inclined towards
each other
ORGANIC BELT/MOUNTAIN BELT –
development where new rocks are
produced
EVIDENCES:
1. FOSSIL EVIDENCE
2. GLACIAL DEPOSITS
3. TECTONIC FIT
4. JIGSAW FIT
5. GEOLOGICAL FIT
METAMORPHISM – rocks change without
melting or disintegration
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Protolith – original rock
PROCESSES INVLOVED IN METAMORPHISM
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Recrystallization – change shape and
size w/o changing identity
Phase Change – new minerals with
different crystal structure
Neocrystallization – new minerals
that differ from those in the
protolith.
Pressure solutions – squeezed in one
direction, low temp and pressure
with water
Plastic Deformation – flattened but
no change in composition or crystal
structure
CAUSE OF METAMORPHISM
1.
2.
3.
4.
Heat
Pressure
Different Stress
Hydrothermal Fluids
Metasomatism – hydrothermal fluids are
involved in the change of chemical
composition
TYPES OF METAMORPHISM:
1. Contact Metamorphism – due to
heat
2. Burial Metamorphism – buried =
diagenesis
3. Dynamic/Cataclastic Metamorphism
– shearing = mylonite
4. Regional Metamorphism – change in
pressure and temp over large region
of crust
5. Hydrothermal Metamorphism – high
temp fluid
6. Shock Metamorphism – heat and
pressure deform underlying rock
layers
CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY – all
continents were once a single land called
PANGAEA
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ALFRED WEGENER
CRUST
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CONTINENTAL CRUST – 10-7km
Oceanic crust – 7km / young
PLATE TECTONICS – deformation of crust as
a consequence of plate interaction
ASTHENOSPHERE is just below the
LITHOSPHERE (crust and upper part of the
mantle)
PLATES – moved around by hot mantle
convection cells
DIVERGENT - <>
Spreading ridges – new material erupts to
fill gap
CONVERGENT - ><
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Continent to continent
Continent to oceanic
(subduction)
Oceanic to oceanic (subduction
zone)
TRANSFORM - //
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