Bacteria

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CHAPTER 8
LECTURE
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Photosynthesis
Chapter 8
Photosynthesis Overview
• Energy for all life on Earth ultimately
comes from photosynthesis
6CO2 + 12H2O
C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2
• Oxygenic photosynthesis is carried out by
– Cyanobacteria
– 7 groups of algae
– All land plants – chloroplasts
3
Chloroplast
• Thylakoid membrane – internal membrane
– Contains chlorophyll and other
photosynthetic pigments
– Pigments clustered into photosystems
• Grana – stacks of flattened sacs of
thylakoid membrane
• Stroma lamella – connect grana
• Stroma – semiliquid surrounding
thylakoid membranes
4
5
Stages
• Light-dependent reactions
– Require light
1.Capture energy from sunlight
2.Make ATP and reduce NADP+ to NADPH
• Carbon fixation reactions or
light-independent reactions
– Does not require light
3.Use ATP and NADPH to synthesize
organic molecules from CO2
6
7
Discovery of Photosynthesis
• Jan Baptista van Helmont (1580–1644)
– Demonstrated that the substance of the
plant was not produced only from the soil
• Joseph Priestly (1733–1804)
– Living vegetation adds something to the air
• Jan Ingen-Housz (1730–1799)
– Proposed plants carry out a process that uses
sunlight to split carbon dioxide into carbon
and oxygen (O2 gas)
8
• F.F. Blackman (1866–
1947)
– Came to the startling
conclusion that
photosynthesis is in
fact a multistage
process, only one
portion of which
uses light directly
– Light versus dark
reactions
– Enzymes involved
9
• C. B. van Niel (1897–1985)
– Found purple sulfur bacteria do not release
O2 but accumulate sulfur
– Proposed general formula for photosynthesis
• CO2 + 2 H2A + light energy → (CH2O) + H2O + 2 A
– Later researchers found O2 produced
comes from water
• Robin Hill (1899–1991)
– Demonstrated Niel was right that light
energy could be harvested and used in a
reduction reaction
10
Pigments
• Molecules that absorb light energy in
the visible range
• Light is a form of energy
• Photon – particle of light
– Acts as a discrete bundle of energy
– Energy content of a photon is inversely
proportional to the wavelength of the light
• Photoelectric effect – removal of an
electron from a molecule by light
11
12
Absorption spectrum
• When a photon strikes a molecule, its
energy is either
– Lost as heat
– Absorbed by the electrons of the molecule
• Boosts electrons into higher energy level
• Absorption spectrum – range and
efficiency of photons molecule is capable
of absorbing
13
14
• Organisms have evolved a variety
of different pigments
• Only two general types are used in
green plant photosynthesis
– Chlorophylls
– Carotenoids
• In some organisms, other molecules
also absorb light energy
15
Chlorophylls
• Chlorophyll a
– Main pigment in plants and cyanobacteria
– Only pigment that can act directly to
convert light energy to chemical energy
– Absorbs violet-blue and red light
• Chlorophyll b
– Accessory pigment or secondary pigment
absorbing light wavelengths that chlorophyll
a does not absorb
16
Pigments
Pigments:
17
• Structure of
chlorophyll
• porphyrin ring
– Complex ring structure
with alternating double
and single bonds
– Magnesium ion at the
center of the ring
• Photons excite
electrons in the ring
• Electrons are shuttled
away from the ring
18
• Action spectrum
– Relative effectiveness of different wavelengths
of light in promoting photosynthesis
– Corresponds to the absorption spectrum
for chlorophylls
19
• Carotenoids
– Carbon rings linked to
chains with
alternating single and
double bonds
– Can absorb photons
with a wide range of
energies
– Also scavenge free
radicals – antioxidant
• Protective role
• Phycobiloproteins
– Important in low-light
ocean areas
20
Photosystem Organization
• Antenna complex
– Hundreds of accessory pigment molecules
– Gather photons and feed the captured
light energy to the reaction center
• Reaction center
– 1 or more chlorophyll a molecules
– Passes excited electrons out of
the photosystem
21
Antenna complex
• Also called light-harvesting complex
• Captures photons from sunlight and
channels them to the reaction
center chlorophylls
• In chloroplasts, light-harvesting complexes
consist of a web of chlorophyll molecules
linked together and held tightly in the
thylakoid membrane by a matrix of
proteins
22
23
Reaction center
• Transmembrane protein–pigment complex
• When a chlorophyll in the reaction center
absorbs a photon of light, an electron is
excited to a higher energy level
• Light-energized electron can be
transferred to the primary electron
acceptor, reducing it
• Oxidized chlorophyll then fills its electron
“hole” by oxidizing a donor molecule
24
25
Light-Dependent Reactions
1. Primary photoevent
2. – Photon of light is captured by a pigment molecule
Charge separation
energy
– Energy is transferred to the reaction center; an excited
electron is transferred to an acceptor moleculeof
3. Electron transport
Capture
– Electrons move through carriers to reduce NADP+
4. Chemiosmosis
– Produces ATP
26
light
Cyclic photophosphorylation
• In sulfur bacteria, only one photosystem is
used
• Generates ATP via electron transport
• Anoxygenic photosynthesis
• Excited electron passed to
electron transport chain
• Generates a proton gradient for
ATP synthesis
27
28
Chloroplasts have two connected
photosystems
• Oxygenic photosynthesis
• Photosystem I (P700)
– Functions like sulfur bacteria
• Photosystem II (P680)
– Can generate an oxidation potential high enough to
oxidize water
• Working together, the two photosystems carry
out a noncyclic transfer of electrons that is used
to generate both ATP and NADPH
29
• Photosystem I transfers electrons
+
ultimately to NADP , producing NADPH
• Electrons lost from photosystem I are
replaced by electrons from photosystem II
• Photosystem II oxidizes water to replace
the electrons transferred to photosystem I
• 2 photosystems connected by cytochrome/
b6-f complex
30
Noncyclic photophosphorylation
• Plants use photosystems II and I in
series to produce both ATP and NADPH
• Path of electrons not a circle
• Photosystems replenished with electrons
obtained by splitting water
• Z diagram
31
32
Photosystem II
• Resembles the reaction center of purple bacteria
• Core of 10 transmembrane protein subunits with
electron transfer components and two P680
chlorophyll molecules
• Reaction center differs from purple bacteria
in that it also contains four manganese atoms
– Essential for the oxidation of water
• b6-f complex
– Proton pump embedded in thylakoid membrane
33
Photosystem I
• Reaction center consists of a core
transmembrane complex consisting of 12
to 14 protein subunits with two bound
P700 chlorophyll molecules
• Photosystem I accepts an electron from
plastocyanin into the “hole” created by
the exit of a light-energized electron
• Passes electrons to NADP+ to form
NADPH
34
35
Chemiosmosis
• Electrochemical gradient can be used
to synthesize ATP
• Chloroplast has ATP synthase enzymes
in the thylakoid membrane
– Allows protons back into stroma
• Stroma also contains enzymes that
catalyze the reactions of carbon fixation –
the Calvin cycle reactions
36
Production of additional ATP
• Noncyclic photophosphorylation generates
– NADPH
– ATP
• Building organic molecules takes more
energy than that alone
• Cyclic photophosphorylation used
to produce additional ATP
– Short-circuit photosystem I to make a
larger proton gradient to make more ATP
37
Carbon Fixation – Calvin Cycle
• To build carbohydrates cells use
• Energy
– ATP from light-dependent reactions
– Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation
– Drives endergonic reaction
• Reduction potential
– NADPH from photosystem I
– Source of protons and energetic electrons
38
Calvin cycle
• Named after Melvin Calvin (1911–1997)
• Also called C3 photosynthesis
• Key step is attachment of CO2 to RuBP
to form PGA
• Uses enzyme ribulose bisphosphate
carboxylase/oxygenase or rubisco
39
3 phases
1. Carbon fixation
– RuBP + CO2 → PGA
2. Reduction
– PGA is reduced to G3P
3. Regeneration of RuBP
– PGA is used to regenerate RuBP
•
•
3 turns incorporate enough carbon to produce
a new G3P
6 turns incorporate enough carbon for
1 glucose
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Output of Calvin cycle
• Glucose is not a direct product of
the Calvin cycle
• G3P is a 3 carbon sugar
– Used to form sucrose
• Major transport sugar in plants
• Disaccharide made of fructose and glucose
– Used to make starch
• Insoluble glucose polymer
• Stored for later use
43
Energy cycle
• Photosynthesis uses the products of
respiration as starting substrates
• Respiration uses the products of
photosynthesis as starting substrates
• Production of glucose from G3P even uses part
of the ancient glycolytic pathway, run in reverse
• Principal proteins involved in electron
transport and ATP production in plants are
evolutionarily related to those in mitochondria
44
45
Photorespiration
• Rubisco has 2 enzymatic activities
– Carboxylation
• Addition of CO2 to RuBP
• Favored under normal conditions
– Photorespiration
• Oxidation of RuBP by the addition of O2
• Favored when stoma are closed in hot conditions
• Creates low-CO2 and high-O2
• CO2 and O2 compete for the active site on
RuBP
46
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Types of photosynthesis
• C3
– Plants that fix carbon using only C3
photosynthesis (the Calvin cycle)
• C4 and CAM
– Add CO2 to PEP to form 4 carbon molecule
– Use PEP carboxylase
– Greater affinity for CO2, no oxidase activity
– C4 – spatial solution
– CAM – temporal solution
48
C4 plants
• Corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and a number of
other grasses
• Initially fix carbon using PEP carboxylase
in mesophyll cells
• Produces oxaloacetate, converted to
malate, transported to bundle-sheath cells
• Within the bundle-sheath cells, malate is
decarboxylated to produce pyruvate and CO2
• Carbon fixation then by rubisco and the Calvin
cycle
49
50
• C4 pathway, although it overcomes the
problems of photorespiration, does have a cost
• To produce a single glucose requires 12
additional ATP compared with the Calvin cycle
alone
• C4 photosynthesis is advantageous in hot dry
climates where photorespiration would
remove more than half of the carbon fixed by
the usual C3 pathway alone
51
CAM plants
• Many succulent (water-storing) plants,
such as cacti, pineapples, and some
members of about two dozen other plant
groups
• Stomata open during the night and
close during the day
– Reverse of that in most plants
• Fix CO2 using PEP carboxylase during
the night and store in vacuole
52
• When stomata closed during the day,
organic acids are decarboxylated to yield
high levels of CO2
• High levels of CO2 drive the Calvin
cycle and minimize photorespiration
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Compare C4 and CAM
• Both use both C3 and C4 pathways
• C4 – two pathways occur in different cells
• CAM – C4 pathway at night and the
C3 pathway during the day
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