Chart of Common Prefixes and Suffixes

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Chart of Common Prefixes
Prefix: an additional element placed at the beginning of a root word to modify its meaning.
Prefix
Part of Speech
it is Used With
Meaning
Example
anti-
against
adjective
Antisocial
He is a very social person (he likes
people).
He is a very antisocial person (he
doesn't like people).
dis-
not,
reverse,
absence,
separate,
remove
verb
Disappear
The man appeared suddenly (he was not
here, now he is here).
The man disappeared suddenly (he was
here, then he is not here).
en-
to make,
have,
become
turns a noun into an
adjective
Enrage
The dog is full of rage (full of anger).
The enraged dog is barking (the dog has
been made angry).
il-
not
adjective
Illegal
Giving money to people
is legal (permitted by law).
Stealing money from people
is illegal (not permitted by law).
im-
not
adjective
Impolite
The child is very polite (acts in a correct
way).
The child is very impolite (acts in a bad
way).
in-
not
adjective
Incomplete
The assignment is complete (finished).
The assignment is incomplete (not
finished).
ir-
not
adjective
Irregular
The verb is regular (has a pattern).
The verb is irregular (does not have a
pattern).
mis-
wrong,
bad
verb
Misread
I read the sentence correctly.
I misread the sentence (not correctly).
non-
not
noun / adjective
Nonsense
That sentence makes sense (is logical).
That sentence is nonsense (is not
logical).
ob- / op-
against
verb
Oppose
I oppose violence (I do not agree with
violence).
pre-
before
verb / adjective / noun
Prepare
I prepared for my trip to Germany by
learning some useful German phrases.
un-
not
verb / adjective
Unhappy
I am happy.
I am unhappy (not happy).
re-
again
verb
Remarry
I married in 1995. I divorced in 1999.
I remarried in 2001 (married again).
Chart of Common Suffixes
Suffix: an additional element placed at the end of a root word to modify its meaning.
Suffix
Meaning
Part of Speech
it is Used With
Example
-less
without
turns a noun into
an adjective
Sleepless
I had a good sleep last night ( I slept well).
I had a sleepless night last night (I did not
sleep).
-ful
full of
turns a noun or
verb into an
adjective
Beautiful
The child is beautiful (full of beauty).
-able
can
turns a verb into an
adjective
Breakable
The old cup is breakable (can be broken).
-ly
in a way that
is
turns an adjective
into an adverb
Slowly
He is a slow walker.
He walks slowly (describes the way he
walks).
-er / or / -ar
the person
who does
______
turns a verb into a
noun
Painter
I paint houses.
I am a house painter (the person
who paints).
-ist
the person
who is ______
noun
Dentist
I am a dentist. I fix teeth.
-y
full of, covered
with
turns a noun into
an adjective
Sleepy
The children need to go to sleep. They are
very sleepy (full of sleep).
-ous
full of, covered
with
turns a noun into
an adjective
Joyous
People are full of joy during holidays.
People are joyous during holidays.
-al
connected with
turns a noun into
an adjective
Emotional
I show my emotions easily.
I am very emotional.
-ion
the act of
doing
something
turns a verb into a
noun
Action
To act means to do something (verb).
Action is the thing you do (noun).
-ence
the act of
doing
something
turns a adjective
into a noun
Confidence
I am confident that I will find a good job.
(adj)
I have confidence in my ability to get a
good job. (noun)
-ment
the act of
doing
something;
result of an
action
turns a verb into a
noun
Encouragement
The teacher encourages me to work
harder (verb).
The teacher gives
me encouragement (noun).
-ness
the state of
being
something
turns an adjective
into a noun
Kindness
People should be kind to each other.
Kindness is important to people.
-ship
the state of
being
something
noun
Friendship
I have many friends.
Friendship is important to me.
-ity
the state of
being
something
turns an adjective
into a noun
Clarity
Writing should be clear. Clarity is
important in writing.
-ish
like, similar, to
turns a noun into
an adjective
Childish
He is not a child, but he is very childish.
(acts like a child)
-ic
like, similar, to
turns a noun into
an adjective
Athletic
He is an athlete (person who is very good
at sports) (noun).
He is athletic (very good at sports) (adj.).
-ive
has qualities
of
turns a verb into an
adjective
Creative
He creates many new things.
He is very creative.
-ate
to make,
have, become
verb
Translate
The woman translated the letter from
Chinese to English (She made an English
copy of the letter.)
-ify
to make,
have, become
turns an adjective
into a verb
Beautify
The woman wants to make
her garden more beautiful.
She wants to beautify her garden.
-ize
to make,
have, become
changes a noun into
a verb
Sympathize
I have a lot of sympathy for my sick friend
(feel sad for).
I sympathize with my sick friend (have
sad feelings for).
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