Chart of Common Prefixes Prefix: an additional element placed at the beginning of a root word to modify its meaning. Prefix Part of Speech it is Used With Meaning Example anti- against adjective Antisocial He is a very social person (he likes people). He is a very antisocial person (he doesn't like people). dis- not, reverse, absence, separate, remove verb Disappear The man appeared suddenly (he was not here, now he is here). The man disappeared suddenly (he was here, then he is not here). en- to make, have, become turns a noun into an adjective Enrage The dog is full of rage (full of anger). The enraged dog is barking (the dog has been made angry). il- not adjective Illegal Giving money to people is legal (permitted by law). Stealing money from people is illegal (not permitted by law). im- not adjective Impolite The child is very polite (acts in a correct way). The child is very impolite (acts in a bad way). in- not adjective Incomplete The assignment is complete (finished). The assignment is incomplete (not finished). ir- not adjective Irregular The verb is regular (has a pattern). The verb is irregular (does not have a pattern). mis- wrong, bad verb Misread I read the sentence correctly. I misread the sentence (not correctly). non- not noun / adjective Nonsense That sentence makes sense (is logical). That sentence is nonsense (is not logical). ob- / op- against verb Oppose I oppose violence (I do not agree with violence). pre- before verb / adjective / noun Prepare I prepared for my trip to Germany by learning some useful German phrases. un- not verb / adjective Unhappy I am happy. I am unhappy (not happy). re- again verb Remarry I married in 1995. I divorced in 1999. I remarried in 2001 (married again). Chart of Common Suffixes Suffix: an additional element placed at the end of a root word to modify its meaning. Suffix Meaning Part of Speech it is Used With Example -less without turns a noun into an adjective Sleepless I had a good sleep last night ( I slept well). I had a sleepless night last night (I did not sleep). -ful full of turns a noun or verb into an adjective Beautiful The child is beautiful (full of beauty). -able can turns a verb into an adjective Breakable The old cup is breakable (can be broken). -ly in a way that is turns an adjective into an adverb Slowly He is a slow walker. He walks slowly (describes the way he walks). -er / or / -ar the person who does ______ turns a verb into a noun Painter I paint houses. I am a house painter (the person who paints). -ist the person who is ______ noun Dentist I am a dentist. I fix teeth. -y full of, covered with turns a noun into an adjective Sleepy The children need to go to sleep. They are very sleepy (full of sleep). -ous full of, covered with turns a noun into an adjective Joyous People are full of joy during holidays. People are joyous during holidays. -al connected with turns a noun into an adjective Emotional I show my emotions easily. I am very emotional. -ion the act of doing something turns a verb into a noun Action To act means to do something (verb). Action is the thing you do (noun). -ence the act of doing something turns a adjective into a noun Confidence I am confident that I will find a good job. (adj) I have confidence in my ability to get a good job. (noun) -ment the act of doing something; result of an action turns a verb into a noun Encouragement The teacher encourages me to work harder (verb). The teacher gives me encouragement (noun). -ness the state of being something turns an adjective into a noun Kindness People should be kind to each other. Kindness is important to people. -ship the state of being something noun Friendship I have many friends. Friendship is important to me. -ity the state of being something turns an adjective into a noun Clarity Writing should be clear. Clarity is important in writing. -ish like, similar, to turns a noun into an adjective Childish He is not a child, but he is very childish. (acts like a child) -ic like, similar, to turns a noun into an adjective Athletic He is an athlete (person who is very good at sports) (noun). He is athletic (very good at sports) (adj.). -ive has qualities of turns a verb into an adjective Creative He creates many new things. He is very creative. -ate to make, have, become verb Translate The woman translated the letter from Chinese to English (She made an English copy of the letter.) -ify to make, have, become turns an adjective into a verb Beautify The woman wants to make her garden more beautiful. She wants to beautify her garden. -ize to make, have, become changes a noun into a verb Sympathize I have a lot of sympathy for my sick friend (feel sad for). I sympathize with my sick friend (have sad feelings for).