microprocessor 1st presentation

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Welcome to my presentation
Mawlana Bhashani Science And Technology
University
Course Title : Microprocessor and Assembly Language
Course Code
: CSE - 3103
Submitted to:
Submitted by:
Mahbuba Begum
Assistant Professor
Dept. of CSE,
MBSTU
Md. Abdur Rahim
ID: CE-16051
Dept. of CSE,
MBSTU
Objectives
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Generation of computer
Microprocessor
Generation of microprocessor
Coprocessor
Physical & Logical memory
Real mode & protected mode
Types of microprocessor based on register
Microcontroller
Microprocessor vs Microcontroller
Compiler vs Assembler
Types of register (CPU)
Computer Generation:
Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Initially, the
generation term was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies. Nowadays, generation
includes both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system.
There are five computer generations known till date. Here is given the features of five generation.
First Generation: Vacuum Tubes (1940-1959)
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Program & data reside in the same memory
Vacuum tubes were used to implement the function
Unreliable
Supported machine language only
Very costly
Generated a lot of heat
Slow input and output devices
Huge size
Need of AC
Non-portable
Consumed a lot of electricity
Some computers of this generation were −ENIAC , EDVAC, UNIVAC
Second Generation: Transistors (1959-1965)
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Use of transistors
FORTAN is used
Separate I\O processor were developed to operate in parallel with CPU
Reliable in comparison to first generation computers
Smaller size as compared to first generation computers
Generated less heat as compared to first generation computers
Consumed less electricity as compared to first generation computers
Faster than first generation computers
Still very costly
AC required
Supported machine and assembly languages
Some computers of this generation were −IBM 1620, IBM 7094, CDC 1604
Third Generation: Integrated Circuits (1965-1971)
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IC technology improved
Multiprogramming, pipelining concepts were incorporated
Cache & virtual memory concepts were developed
Better speed and could calculate data in nanoseconds.
Commercial production increased.
Used mouse and keyboard for input.
Consumed lesser electricity
Supported high-level language
Some computers of this generation were − IBM-360 series
Fourth Generation: VLSI Microprocessors (1971-1980)
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CPU termed as microprocessor
Intel, Motorola, national semiconductors started developing microprocessor
Interconnection of different computer for better communication LAN ,MAN , WAN
Digital signal processor were also developed
Fifth Generation: ULSI Microprocessors (1980-Present)
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ULSI technology
Development of true artificial intelligence
Development of Natural language processing
Advancement in Parallel Processing
Advancement in Superconductor technology
More user-friendly interfaces with multimedia features
Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates
AI includes −
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Robotics
Neural Networks
Game Playing
Development of expert systems to make decisions in real-life situations
Natural language understanding and generation
Some computer types of this generation are −Desktop, Laptop, NoteBook
Microprocessor Generation:
 1st Generation: This was the period during 1971 to 1973 of microprocessor’s history. In 1971, INTEL
created the first microprocessor 4004 that would run at a clock speed of 108 KHz. During this period,
the other microprocessors in the market including Rockwell international PPS-4, INTEL-8008 and
National semiconductors IMP-16 were in use. But, all these were not TTL compatible processors.
 2nd Generation: This was the period during 1973 to 1978 in which very efficient 8-bit
microprocessors were implemented like Motorola 6800 and 6801, INTEL-8085 and Zilogs-Z80, which
were among the most popular ones. Owing to their superfast speed, they were costly as they were
based on NMOS technology fabrication.
 3rd Generation: During this period 16 bit processors were created and designed using HMOS
technology. From 1979 to 1980, INTEL 8086/80186/80286 and Motorola 68000 and 68010 were
developed. Speeds of those processors were four times better than the 2nd generation processors
 4th Generation: From 1981 to 1995 this generation developed 32 bit microprocessors by using
HCMOS fabrication. INTEL-80386 and Motorola’s 68020/68030 were the popular processors.
 5th Generation: From 1995 to until now this generation has been bringing out high-performance and
high-speed processors that make use of 64-bit processors. Such processors include Pentium, Celeron,
Dual and Quad core processors.
Coprocessor :
A coprocessor is a special set of circuits in a microprocessor chip that is designed to manipulate numbers
or perform some other specialized function more quickly than the basic microprocessor circuits could
perform the same task. A coprocessor offloads specialized processing operations, thereby reducing the
burden on the basic microprocessor circuitry and allowing it to work at optimum speed.
Features of coprocessor :
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Floating point arithmetic
Graphics
Signal processing
String processing
Encryption
High performance
I/O interfacing
Advantages:
• In the intelligent monitor interface, the coprocessors monitors the instruction
stream by obtaining commands directly from the bus at the same as the main
microprocessor. This has the obvious advantage of requiring no additional
bicycle to pass the content of the instruction word to the processor.
• The coprocessor helps to offload the process intensive freeing the memory
for the processor to work with.
• Coprocessor helps to work with high speed calculations to maintain the
system performance.
• Coprocessor increases the processing rate of the system.
Disadvantages:
• Each coprocessor in the system must duplicate the bus monitoring circuitry and
instruction queue, tracking all branches, wait states, operand fetches and instruction
fetches.
• Once the main processor defects a coprocessor instruction, the main has to use bus
bandwidth & timing to transmit the command to the appropriate processor.
Physical Memory :
The physical memory is the memory available in the system in the form of memory cards in
various slots of system. The physical address space is associated with this type of memory. The
Physical address space across the all the memory cards is handled by kernel VMM.
Logical Memory :
Logical memory enables the user to use large amount of memory to store data. It defines way to
organize the physical memory such as RAM and cache. This enables the Operating System to
arrange memory into a logical manner such as assigning a logical address. Logical address is a
memory location and it is accessed by an application program. The system maps the logical
address to real physical storage address. During the execution of the program, same logical
address can be mapped to many different physical addresses.
Real mode :
Real mode is called 8086 mode because it is based on the 8086 and 8088 processor.The orginal
IBM pc include an 8088 processor that could execute 16-bit instructions using 16-bit internal
registers and could address only 1 MB of memory using 20 address lines.For example DOS and
DOS software(Disk operating system) .
All software running in real mode must use only 16-bit instructions and live within the 1MB
memory architecture it supports. Software of this type is usually single-tasking that is only one
program can run at a time.
Protected mode :
The 80286 introduced something into the X86 architecture called protected mode. Protected
mode is an operational mode of the INTEL 80286-Compatible CPU It permits system software
to use feature such as virtual memory paging and safe multi-tasking. There is no 1MB limit in
protected mode. All of the major operating systems today use protected mode.
Microprocessor:
A microprocessor is an integrated circuit (IC) which incorporates core functions of a computer’s central
processing unit (CPU). It is a programmable multipurpose silicon chip, clock driven, register based,
accepts binary data as input and provides output after processing it as per the instructions stored in the
memory.
The very first microprocessor is considered to be intel 4004. It was released in 1971 & was a 4 bit processor.
Fig: Block diagram of a microprocessor
Microprocessor section :
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ALU
Control Unit
Register
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) :
Arithmetic logic units (ALUs) in microprocessors allow computers to add, subtract, multiply, divide and
perform other logical operations at high speeds. Thanks to advanced ALUs, modern microprocessors and
GPUs (graphics processing units) are able to perform very complicated operations on large floating-point
numbers.
Control Unit :
The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs the
operation of the processor. It tells the computer's memory, arithmetic/logic unit and input and output
devices on how to respond to a program's instructions.
Register :
Register is a small high speed named memory. It consists of a set of binary storage cells called flip-flops
with parallel reading or writing or both the facilities. The number of bits in a register depends on the type
and address of the data.
Register plays a major role in CPU operations. Microprocessor picks up data from one of the registers for
doing arithmetic or logical operation. Once the operation is over, it stores the result in a register. Data are
usually loaded from memory to register. Similarly the resultant data will be loaded from registers to
memory.
Types of microprocessor based on register :
There are two types of microprocessor based on register. They are
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2.
Accumulator based
Register based
Difference between Accumulator and register based Microprocessor
Accumulator based MP
Register based MP
All operands are held in accumulator.
Register is used to hold memory and data.
Result after arithmetic and logic operation stored in
the accumulator.
Stored in the register.
One address instructions are very predominate in
this organization.
The number size types of register vary from one mp
to another.
8-bit mp is usually accumulator based.
16-bit and 32-bit usually register based.
Lower speed.
Higher speed.
Data transfer are performed via accumulator.
Via register.
Are made by NMOS technique.
Are Made by HMOS technique
Example intel- 8085
Motorola-6800
Example intel-8086 80386
Motorola-68020,68030
Microcontroller :
A microcontroller is a computer present in a single integrated circuit which is
dedicated to perform one task and execute one specific application. It contains
memory, programmable input/output peripherals as well a processor.
Microcontrollers are mostly designed for embedded applications and are
heavily used in automatically controlled electronic devices such as cellphones,
cameras, microwave ovens, washing machines, etc.
Block diagram of Microcontroller :
Fig: Microcontroller
Difference between Microcontroller and Microprocessor :
Microcontroller
Microprocessor
CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are
all on a single chip
CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O,
timer are separate
fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM,
I/O ports
designer can decide on the amount of
ROM, RAM and I/O ports.
Single-purpose
general-purpose
for applications in which cost, power
and space are critical
expensive
Low processing power
High processing power
Low power consumption
High power consumption
Instruction sets focus on control and
bit-level operations
Instruction sets focus on processingintensive operations
Typically 8/16 bit
Typically 32/64 – bit
Typically single-cycle/two-stage
pipeline
Typically deep pipeline (5-20 stages)
Difference between Compiler and Assembler
Compiler
Assembler
Generates the assembly language
code or directly the executable code
Generates the relocatable machine
code
Input is the Preprocessed source code
Input is the Assembly language code
Output is the assembly code
generated by the compiler is a
mnemonic version of machine code
Output is The relocatable machine
code generated by an assembler is
represented by binary code
compilers can be written in a way that whereas with assemblers the two are
separates the "front-end"
always the same.
(corresponding to the programming
language) and the "back-end"
(corresponding to the computer
architecture)
The compilation phases are lexical
analyzer, syntax analyzer, semantic
analyzer, intermediate code
generation, code optimization, code
generation.
Assembler makes two passes over the
given input.
Difference between 16 & 32 bit processor :
16 bit
32 bit
A 16-bit register can store
216 different values.
A 32-bit register can store
232 different values.
If ALU is 16 bits , then it can perform If ALU is 32 bits , then it can perform
operation on 16 bits data at a time.
operation on 32 bits data at a time.
If register is 16 bits , then it can store If register is 32 bits , then it can store
16 bits data at a time.
32 bits data at a time.
If data bus is 16 bits , then it can pass If data bus is 32 bits , then it can pass
16 bits data at a time.
32 bits data at a time.
If address bus is 16 bits , then it can
pass 16 bits address of data at a time.
If address bus is 32 bits , then it can
pass 32 bits address of data at a time.
Register in CPU :
Register are used to quickly accept, store, and transfer data and instructions that are being used
immediately by the CPU. These registers are the top of the memory hierarchy, and are the
fastest way for the system to manipulate data. In a very simple microprocessor, it consists of a
single memory location, usually called an accumulator. Registers are built from fast multiported memory cell.
Types of register in CPU :
Memory Address Register (MAR):
This register holds the address of memory where CPU wants to read or write
data. When CPU wants to store some data in the memory or reads the data
from the memory, it places the address of the required memory location in the
MAR.
Memory Buffer Register (MBR):
This register holds the contents of data or instruction read from, or written in memory. The contents
of instruction placed in this register are transferred to the Instruction Register, while the contents of
data are transferred to the accumulator or I/O register.
I/O Address Register (I/O AR):
I/O Address register is used to specify the address of a particular I/O device.
I/O Buffer Register (I/O BR):
I/O Buffer Register is used for exchanging data between the I/O module and the processor.
Instruction Register (IR):
Once an instruction is fetched from main memory, it is stored in the Instruction Register. The
control unit takes instruction from this register, decodes and executes it by sending signals to
the appropriate component of computer to carry out the task.
Accumulator Register(AC):
The accumulator register is located inside the ALU, It is used during arithmetic & logical
operations of ALU. The control unit stores data values fetched from main memory in the
accumulator for arithmetic or logical operation. This register holds the initial data to be
operated upon, the intermediate results, and the final result of operation. The final result is
transferred to main memory through MBR.
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