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Service Marks (sm) MAP-in, SVP Café, and TAP-in are service marks of Synopsys, Inc. SystemC is a trademark of the Open SystemC Initiative and is used under license. ARM and AMBA are registered trademarks of ARM Limited. All other product or company names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Document Order Number: 37919-000 ZA HSPICE Quick Reference Guide, Version X-2005.09 HSPICE Quick Reference Guide Table of Contents Introduction 1 Input and Output Files 2 Behavior Macromodeling 5 Controlling Input 22 Analyzing Data 46 Optimizing Data 63 Output Format 66 Introduction This Quick Reference Guide is a condensed version of the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide, HSPICE Applications Manual, and HSPICE Command Reference. For more specific details and examples refer to the relevant manual. Syntax Notation xxx, yyy, zzz Arbitrary alphanumeric strings < ... > Optional data fields are enclosed in angle brackets < >. All other symbols and punctuation are required. UPPERCASE Keywords, parameter names, etc. are represented in uppercase. lowercase Variables; should be replaced with a numeric or symbolic value. ... Any number of parameters of the form shown can be entered. + Continuation of the preceding line. The meaning of a parameter may depend on its location in the statement. Be sure that a complete set of parameters is entered in the correct sequence before running the simulation. Common Abbreviations Å Angstrom amp ampere cm centimeter deg degree Centigrade (unless specified as Kelvin) ev electron volt F farad H Henry m meter s second V volt Introduction 1 Input and Output Files General Form /usr/george/mydesign.sp /usr/george/ The design path. mydesign The design name. mydesign The design root. tr0 The suffix. File Name Suffix X increments for each .TEMP or .ALTER. X can be one of the characters 0-9999. Input: input netlist .sp design configuration .cfg Output (X is alter number, usually 0) (N is the statement number in one netlist, starting at 0). graph data .trX (transient analysis) .swX (dc sweep) .acX (ac analysis) .mtX (tran Measure) .msX (dc Measure) .maX (ac Measure) .pwlN_trX (from .STIM <TRAN> PWL) .datN_trX (from .STIM TRAN DATA) .datN_acX (from .STIM AC DATA) .datN_swX (from .STIM DC DATA) .vecN_trX (from .STIM <TRAN> VEC) hardcopy data .grX (from .GRAPH) 2 Input and Output Files Input Netlist File For a complete description of HSPICE installation, system configuration, setup and basic operation, please refer to the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. HSPICE now accepts input line lengths of 1024 characters. Sample Input Netlist File Structure .TITLE Implicit first line; becomes input netlist file title. * or $ Comments to describe the circuit. .OPTION <.TRAN> <.AC> <.DC> <.OP> Set conditions for simulation analysis. .TEMPERATURE Sets the circuit temperatures for the entire circuit simulation. .PRINT/.PLOT/ Sets print, plot, graph, and probe variables. .GRAPH/.PROBE .IC or .NODESET Sets input state; can also be put in initial conditions. SOURCES Sets input stimulus. NETLIST Circuit description. .MACRO libraries .LIBRARY and .INC. <.PROTECT> Suppresses the printout of the text from the list file. <.UNPROTECT> Restores output printback. .ALTER Sequence for inline case analysis. .PARAMETER Defines a parameter. .END Terminates any ALTERs and the simulation. Numeric Scale Factors A number may be an integer, a floating point number, an integer or floating point number followed by an integer exponent, or an integer or floating point number followed by one of the scale factors listed below. A =1e-18 F =1e-15 P =1e-12 N =1e-9 Input and Output Files 3 U =1e-6 M =1e-3 K =1e3 MEG (or X) =1e6 MI =25.4e6 G =1e9 Algebraic Expressions In addition to simple arithmetic operations (+, -, *, /), the following quoted string functions may be used: sin(x) sinh(x) abs(x) cos(x) cosh(x) min(x,y) tan(x) tanh(x) max(x,y) atan(x) sqrt(x) db(x) log(x) log10(x) exp(x) pwr(x,y) pow(x,y) or or pwrx**y powx**y Algebraic Expressions as Input General Form ‘algebraic expression’ Either single (‘ ’) or double (“ ”) quotes may be used. Algebraic Expressions as Output General Form PAR (‘algebraic expression’) The left and right parentheses are mandatory. Equation Constants εo Vacuum permittivity=8.854e-12 F/m εox 3.453143e-11 F/m εsi 1.0359e-10 F/m dielectric constant of silicon f Frequency k 1.38062e-23 - Boltzmann’s constant q 1.60212e-19 - Electron charge t Temperature in degrees Kelvin ∆t 4 t - tnom Input and Output Files tnom Nominal temperature in degrees Kelvin (user-input in degrees C). Tnom = 273.15 + TNOM vt(t) k ⋅ t/q Thermal voltage vt(tnom) k ⋅ tnom/q Thermal voltage Behavior Macromodeling HSPICE performs the following types of behavioral modeling. Subcircuit/Macros .SUBCKT or .MACRO Statement General Form .SUBCKT subnam n1 <n2 n3 …> + <parnam=val …> Or .MACRO subnam n1 <n2 n3 …> + <parnam=val …> n1 … Node numbers for external reference parnam A parameter name set to a value or another parameter subnam Reference name for the subcircuit model call See “.SUBCKT” or “.MACRO” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .ENDS or .EOM Statement General Form .ENDS <SUBNAM> Or .EOM <SUBNAM> See “.ENDS” or “.EOM” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Subcircuit Calls General Form Xyyy n1 <n2 n3 …> subnam + <parnam=val …> <M=val> M Multiplier n1 … Node names for external reference parnam A parameter name set to a value for use only in the subcircuit Behavior Macromodeling 5 subnam Subcircuit model reference name Xyyy Subcircuit element name See “Subcircuit Call Statement” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Voltage and Current Controlled Elements HSPICE supports the following voltage and current controlled elements. For detailed information, see “Voltage and Current Controlled Elements” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. E Elements Voltage Controlled Voltage Source—VCVS Linear General Form Exxx n+ n- <VCVS> in+ in- gain + <MAX=val> <MIN=val> <SCALE=val> + <TC1=val> <TC2=val><ABS=1> + <IC=val> Polynomial General Form Exxx n+ n- <VCVS> POLY(NDIM) in1+ + in1- ... inndim+ inndim+ <TC1=val> <TC2=val> <SCALE=val> + <MAX=val> <MIN=val> <ABS=1> + p0 <p1…> <IC=val> Piecewise Linear General Form 6 Exxx n+ n- <VCVS> PWL(1) in+ + in- <DELTA=val> <SCALE=val> + <TC1=val> <TC2=val> x1,y1 + x2,y2 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> Behavior Macromodeling Multi-Input Gates General Form Exxx n+ n- <VCVS> gatetype(k) + in1+ in1- ... inj+ inj+ <DELTA=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> <SCALE=val> + x1,y1 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> Delay Element General Form Exxx n+ n- <VCVS> DELAY in+ + in- TD=val <SCALE=val> + <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + <NPDELAY=val> See “Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Behavioral Voltage Source General Form Exxx n+ n- VOL=’equation’ + <MAX=val> <MIN=val> See “Voltage and Current Controlled Elements” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Ideal Op-Amp General Form Exxx n+ n- OPAMP in+ in- See “Ideal Op-Amp” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Ideal Transformer General Form Exxx n+ n- TRANSFORMER in+ in- k See “Ideal Transformer” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. E Element Parameters Parameter Description ABS Output is absolute value if ABS=1. DELAY Keyword for the delay element. DELTA Controls the curvature of the piecewise linear corners. Behavior Macromodeling 7 Parameter Description Exxx Voltage-controlled element name. gain Voltage gain. gatetype(k) Can be AND, NAND, OR, or NOR. IC Initial condition. in +/- Positive or negative controlling nodes. k Ideal transformer turn ratio. MAX Maximum output voltage value. MIN Minimum output voltage value. n+/- Positive or negative node of a controlled element. NDIM Number of polynomial dimensions. NPDELAY Sets the number of data points to use in delay simulations. OPAMP Keyword for an ideal op-amp element. P0, P1… Polynomial coefficients. POLY Polynomial keyword. PWL Piecewise linear function keyword. SCALE Element value multiplier. TC1, TC2 First-order and second-order temperature coefficients. TD Time (propagation) delay keyword. TRANSFORMER Keyword for an ideal transformer. VCVS Keyword for a voltage-controlled voltage source. x1,… Controlling voltage across the in+ and in- nodes. y1,… Corresponding element values of x. See “E Element Parameters” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. F Elements Current Controlled Current Sources—CCCS Linear General Form 8 Fxxx n+ n- <CCCS> vn1 gain + <MAX=val> <MIN=val> + <SCALE=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> <M=val> <ABS=1> + <IC=val> Behavior Macromodeling Polynomial General Form Fxxx n+ n- <CCCS> POLY(ndim) + vn1 <... vnndim> <MAX=val> + <MIN=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <ABS=1> p0 <p1…> + <IC=val> Piecewise Linear General Form Fxxx n+ n- <CCCS> PWL(1) vn1 + <DELTA=val> <SCALE=val> + <TC1=val> <TC2=val> <M=val> + x1,y1 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> Multi-Input Gates General Form Fxxx n+ n- <CCCS> gatetype(k) + vn1, ... vnk <DELTA=val> + <SCALE=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> <M=val> <ABS=1> + x1,y1 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> Delay Element General Form Fxxx n+ n- <CCCS> DELAY vn1 + TD=val <SCALE=val> + <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + NPDELAY=val See “Current-Controlled Current Source (CCCS)” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. F Element Parameters Parameter Heading ABS Output is absolute value if ABS=1. CCCS Keyword for current-controlled current source. DELAY Keyword for the delay element. DELTA Controls the curvature of piecewise linear corners. Fxxx Current-controlled current source element name. gain Current gain. gatetype(k) Can be AND, NAND, OR, or NOR. Behavior Macromodeling 9 Parameter Heading IC Initial condition (estimate). M Number of element replications in parallel. MAX Maximum output current value. MIN Minimum output current value. n+/- Positive or negative controlled source connecting nodes. NDIM Number of polynomial dimensions. Must be a positive number. Default=one dimension. NPDELAY Number of data points to use in delay simulations. P0, P1… Polynomial coefficients. POLY Polynomial keyword. PWL Piecewise linear function keyword. SCALE Element value multiplier. TC1, TC2 First-order and second-order temperature coefficients. TD Time (propagation) delay keyword. vn1… Names of voltage sources, through which the controlling current flows. x1,… Controlling current, through the vn1 source. y1,… Corresponding output current values of x. See “F Element Parameters” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. G Elements Voltage Controlled Current Source—VCCS Linear General Form 10 Gxxx n+ n- <VCCS> in+ in+ transconductance <MAX=val> + <MIN=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + <ABS=1> <IC=val> Behavior Macromodeling Polynomial General Form Gxxx n+ n- <VCCS> POLY(NDIM) + in1+ in1- ... + <inndim+ inndim-> MAX=val> + <MIN=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + <ABS=1> P0<P1…> <IC=vals> Piecewise Linear General Form Gxxx n+ n- <VCCS> PWL(1) in+ + in- <DELTA=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + x1,y1 x2,y2 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> <SMOOTH=val> Or Gxxx n+ n- <VCCS> NPWL(1) in+ + in- <DELTA=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <TC1=val><TC2=val> + x1,y1 x2,y2 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> <SMOOTH=val> Or Gxxx n+ n- <VCCS> PPWL(1) in+ + in- <DELTA=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + x1,y1 x2,y2 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> <SMOOTH=val> Multi-Input Gates General Form Gxxx n+ n- <VCCS> gatetype(k) + in1+ in1- ... ink+ ink+ <DELTA=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> x1,y1 ... + x100,y100<IC=val> Delay Element General Form Gxxx n+ n- <VCCS> DELAY in+ + in- TD=val <SCALE=val> + <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + NPDELAY=val See “Voltage-Controlled Current Source (VCCS)” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Behavior Macromodeling 11 Behavioral Current Source General Form Gxxx n+ n- CUR=’equation’ +<MAX>=val> <MIN=val> <M=val> +<SCALE=val> See “Behavioral Current Source” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Voltage Controlled Resistor—VCR Linear General Form Gxxx n+ n- VCR in+ in+ transfactor <MAX=val> + <MIN=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + <IC=val> Polynomial General Form Gxxx n+ n- VCR POLY(NDIM) in1+ + in1- ... <inndim+ inndim-> + <MAX=val> <MIN=val> + <SCALE=val> <M=val> + <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + P0 <P1…> <IC=vals> Piecewise Linear General Form Or Or 12 Gxxx n+ n- VCR PWL(1) in+ in+ <DELTA=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + x1,y1 x2,y2 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> <SMOOTH=val> Gxxx n+ n- VCR NPWL(1) in+ in+ <DELTA=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + x1,y1 x2,y2 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> <SMOOTH=val> Gxxx n+ n- VCR PPWL(1) in+ in+ <DELTA=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + x1,y1 x2,y2 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> <SMOOTH=val> Behavior Macromodeling Multi-Input Gates General Form Gxxx n+ n- VCR gatetype(k) + in1+ in1- ... ink+ ink+ <DELTA=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> <SCALE=val> + <M=val> x1,y1 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> See “Voltage-Controlled Resistor (VCR)” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Voltage Controlled Capacitors—VCCAP General Form Gxxx n+ n- VCCAP PWL(1) in+ + in- <DELTA=val> + <SCALE=val> <M=val> + <TC1=val> <TC2=val> + x1,y1 x2,y2 ... x100,y100 + <IC=val> <SMOOTH=val> See “Voltage-Controlled Capacitor (VCCAP)” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis Manual. G Element Parameters Parameter Description ABS Output is absolute value, if ABS=1. CUR= equation Current output which flows from n+ to n-. DELAY Keyword for the delay element. DELTA Controls the curvature of the piecewise linear corners. Gxxx Voltage-controlled element name. gatetype(k) Can be AND, NAND, OR, or NOR. IC Initial condition. in +/- Positive or negative controlling nodes. M Number of element replications in parallel. MAX Maximum current or resistance value. MIN Minimum current or resistance value. n+/- Positive or negative node of the controlled element. NDIM Number of polynomial dimensions. NPDELAY Sets the number of data points to use in delay simulations. NPWL Models the symmetrical bidirectional switch or transfer gate, NMOS. Behavior Macromodeling 13 Parameter Description p0, p1 … Polynomial coefficients. POLY Polynomial keyword. PWL Piecewise linear function keyword. PPWL Models the symmetrical bidirectional switch or transfer gate, PMOS. SCALE Element value multiplier. SMOOTH For piecewise-linear, dependent-source elements, SMOOTH selects curve smoothing. TC1,TC2 First- and second-order temperature coefficients. TD Time (propagation) delay keyword. transconduct Voltage-to-current conversion factor. -ance transfactor Voltage-to-resistance conversion factor. VCCAP Keyword for voltage-controlled capacitance element. VCCS Keyword for voltage-controlled current source. VCR Keyword for the voltage controlled resistor element. x1, ... Controlling voltage, across the in+ and in- nodes. y1, ... Corresponding element values of x. See “G Element Parameters” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. H Elements Current Controlled Voltage Source—CCVS Linear General Form Hxxx n+ n- <CCVS> vn1 + transresistance <MAX=val> + <MIN=val> <SCALE=val> + <TC1=val><TC2=val> <ABS=1> + <IC=val> Polynomial General Form 14 Hxxx n+ n- <CCVS> POLY(NDIM) + vn1 <... vnndim> <MAX=val> + <MIN=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> <SCALE=val> + <ABS=1> P0 <P1…> <IC=val> Behavior Macromodeling Piecewise Linear General Form Hxxx n+ n- <CCVS> PWL(1) vn1 + <DELTA=val> <SCALE=val> + <TC1=val> <TC2=val> x1,y1 ... + x100,y100 <IC=val> Multi-Input Gates General Form Hxxx n+ n- gatetype(k) + vn1, ... vnk <DELTA=val> + <SCALE=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> x1,y1 ... + x100,y100 <IC=val> Delay Element General Form Hxxx n+ n- <CCVS> DELAY vn1 + TD=val <SCALE=val><TC1=val> + <TC2=val> <NPDELAY=val> See “Current-Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS)” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. H Element Parameters Parameter Description ABS Output is absolute value if ABS=1. CCVS Keyword for current-controlled voltage source. DELAY Keyword for the delay element. DELTA Controls the curvature of piecewise linear corners. gatetype(k) Can be AND, NAND, OR, or NOR. Hxxx Current-controlled voltage source element name. IC Initial condition. MAX Maximum voltage value. MIN Minimum voltage value. n+/- Positive or negative controlled source connecting nodes. NDIM Number of polynomial dimensions. NPDELAY Number of data points to use in delay simulations. P0, P1… Polynomial coefficients. POLY Polynomial dimension. PWL Piecewise linear function keyword. Behavior Macromodeling 15 Parameter Description SCALE Element value multiplier. TC1, TC2 First-order and second-order temperature coefficients. TD Time (propagation) delay keyword. transresistance Current-to-voltage conversion factor. vn1… Names of voltage sources, through which the controlling current flows. x1,… Controlling current, through the vn1 source. y1,… Corresponding output voltage values of x. See “H Element Parameters” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Op-Amp Element Statement COMP=0 xa1 in- in+ out vcc vee modelname AV=val Or COMP=1 xa1 in- in+ out comp1 comp2 vcc vee modelname AV=val in+ Noninverting input in- Inverting input modelname Subcircuit reference name out Output, single ended vcc Positive supply vee Negative supply See “Op-Amp Element Statement Format” in the HSPICE Applications Manual. Op-Amp .MODEL Statement General Form .MODEL mname AMP parameter=value … AMP Identifies an amplifier model mname Model name. Elements reference the model by this name. parameter Any model parameter described below value Value assigned to a parameter See “Op-Amp .MODEL Statement Format” in the HSPICE Applications Manual. 16 Behavior Macromodeling P Element Ports General Pxxx p n port=portnumber Form + $ **** Voltage or Power Information ******** + <DC mag> <AC <mag <phase>>> + <HBAC <mag <phase>>> <HB <mag <phase <harm + <tone <modharm <modtone>>>>>>> + <transient_waveform> <TRANFORHB=[0|1]> + <DCOPEN=[0|1]> + $ **** Source Impedance Information ******** + <Z0=val> <RDC=val> <RAC=val> + <RHBAC=val> <RHB=val> <RTRAN=val> + $ **** Power Switch ******** + <power=[1|0]> P Element Parameters Parameter Description port=portnumber The port number. The ports are numbered sequentially beginning with 1 with no shared port numbers. <DC mag> DC voltage or power source value. <AC <mag <phase>>> AC voltage or power source value. <HBAC <mag <phase>>> (HSPICE RF) HBAC voltage or power source value. <HB <mag <phase <harm <tone <modharm <modtone>>>>>>> (HSPICE RF) HB voltage, current, or power source value. Multiple HB specifications with different harm, tone, modharm, and modtone values are allowed. phase is in degrees harm and tone are indices corresponding to the tones specified in the .HB statement. Indexing starts at 1 (corresponding to the first harmonic of a tone). modtone and modharm specify sources for multi-tone simulation. A source specifies a tone and a harmonic, and up to 1 offset tone and harmonic (modtone for tones and modharm for harmonics). The signal is then described as: V(or I) = mag*cos(2*pi* (harm*tone+modharm*modtone)*t + phase) <transient waveform> (Transient analysis) Voltage or power source waveform. Any one of waveforms: AM, EXP, PULSE, PWL, SFFM, or SIN. Multiple transient descriptions are not allowed. Behavior Macromodeling 17 Parameter Description TRANFORHB=[0|1] 0 (default): The transient description is ignored if an HB value is given or a DC value is given. If no DC or HB value is given and TRANFORHB=0, then HB treats the source as a DC source, and the DC source value is the time=0 value. 1: HB analysis uses the transient description if its value is VMRF, SIN, PULSE, PWL, or LFSR. If the type is a non-repeating PWL source, then the time=infinity value is used as a DC source value. To override the global TRANFORHB option, explicitly set TRANFORHB for a voltage or current source. DCOPEN Switch for open DC connection when DC mag is not set. 0 (default): P element behaves as an impedance termination. 1 : P element is considered an open circuit in DC operating point analysis. DCOPEN=1 is mainly used in .LIN analysis so the P element will not affect the self-biasing device under test by opening the termination at the operating point. <z0=val> (LIN analysis) System impedance used when converting to a power source, inserted in series with the voltage source. Currently, this only supports real impedance. When power=0, z0 defaults to 0. When power=1, z0 defaults to 50 ohms. You can also enter zo=val. 18 <RDC=val> (DC analysis) Series resistance (overrides z0). <RAC=val> (AC analysis) Series resistance (overrides z0). <RHBAC=val> (HSPICE RF HBAC analysis) Series resistance (overrides z0). <RHB=val> (HSPICE RF HB analysis) Series resistance (overrides z0). <RTRAN=val> (Transient analysis) Series resistance (overrides z0). Behavior Macromodeling Parameter Description <power=[0 | 1 | 2 | W | dbm]> (HSPICE RF) Power Switch When 0 (default), element treated as a voltage or current source. When 1 or W, element treated as a power source, realized as a voltage source with a series impedance. In this case, the source value is interpreted as RMS available power in units of Watts. When 2 or dbm, element treated as a power source in series with the port imedance. Values are in dbms. You can use this parameter for Transient analysis if the power source is either DC or SIN. S Element Transmission Line General Form Sxxx nd1 nd2 ... ndN ndRef + <MNAME=Smodel_name> + <FQMODEL=sp_model_name> + <TYPE=[s | y]> <Zo=[value | vector_value]> + <FBASE = base_frequency> + <FMAX=maximum_frequency> + <PRECFAC=val> + <DELAYHANDLE=[1 | 0 | ON | OFF]> + <DELAYFREQ=val> + <INTERPOLATION=STEP | LINEAR | SPLINE> + <INTDATTYP =[RI | MA | DBA]> + <HIGHPASS=val> + <LOWPASS=val> <MIXEDMODE=[0 | 1]> + <DATATYPE=data_string> + <NOISE=[1 | 0]> <DTEMP=val> S Element Parameters Parameter Description nd1 nd2 ... ndN N terminal nodes. nd_ref Reference node. MNAME S model name, which is used to refer to an S model. FQMODEL .MODEL statement of sp type, which defines the frequency behavior of the S or Y parameter. Behavior Macromodeling 19 Parameter Description TYPE Parameter type: S (scattering) (default) Y (admittance) Z (impedance) Zo Characteristic impedance value for the reference line (frequency-independent). For multiple terminals (N>1), HSPICE or HSPICE RF assumes that the characteristic impedance matrix of the reference lines is diagonal, and that you set diagonal values to Zo. To specify more general types of reference lines, use Zof. The default is 50. FBASE The base frequency. This value becomes the base frequency point for the Inverse Fourier Transformation. If you do not set this value, the base frequency is a reciprocal value of the transient period. FMAX Maximum frequency use in transient analysis. HSPICE uses the value as the maximum frequency point for Inverse Fourier Transformation. PRECFAC A precondition factor keyword used for the precondition process of the S parameter. A precondition is used to avoid an infinite admittance matrix. The default is 0.75, which is good for most cases. DELAYHANDLE Delay handler for transmission-line type parameters. Set DELAYHANDLE to ON (or 1) to turn on the delay handle; set DELAYHANDLE to OFF (or 0) to turn off the delay handle (default). DELAYFREQ Delay frequency for transmission-line type parameters. The default is FMAX. If the DELAYHANDLE is set to OFF, but DELAYFREQ is nonzero, HSPICE still simulates the S element in delay mode. INTERPOLATION The interpolation method: STEP: piecewise step LINEAR: piecewise linear (default) SPLINE: b-spline curve fit 20 Behavior Macromodeling Parameter Description INTDATTYPE Data type for the linear interpolation of the complex data. RI: real-imaginary based interpolation MA: magnitude-angle based interpolation (default) DBA: dB-angle based interpolation HIGHPASS Method to extrapolate higher frequency points. 0: cut off 1: use highest frequency point 2: perform linear extrapolation using the highest 2 points 3: apply the window function to gradually approach the cut-off level (default) LOWPASS Method to extrapolate lower frequency points. 0: cut off 1: use the magnitude of the lowest point 2: perform linear extrapolation using the magnitude of the lowest two points MIXEDMODE Set to 1 if the parameters are represented in the mixed mode. DATATYPE A string used to determine the order of the indices of the mixed-signal incident or reflected vector. The string must be an array of a letter and a number (Xn) where: X = D to indicate a differential term = C to indicate a common term = S to indicate a single (grounded) term n = the port number NOISE Activates thermal noise. 1: element generates thermal noise 0 (default): element is considered noiseless DTEMP Temperature difference between the element and the circuit. Expressed in °C. The default is 0.0. Behavior Macromodeling 21 Controlling Input For complete definitions, see the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide, “Specifying Simulation Input and Controls.” .OPTION Statement General Form .OPTION opt1 <opt2 opt3 …> opt1 … Specifies any input control options. See “.OPTION” in the HSPICE Command Reference. General Control (I/O) Options Option Description ACCT Reports job accounting and runtime statistics, at the end of the output listing. ACOUT AC output calculation method for the difference in values of magnitude, phase, and decibels for prints and plots. ALT999, ALT9999 This option is no longer necessary and is ignored because HSPICE accepts any number of .ALTER statements without overwriting files beyond the 36th .ALTER statement. ALTCC Enables only reading the input netlist once for multiple .ALTER statements. ALTCHK Disables topology checking in elements redefined by the .ALTER statement. BEEP BEEP=1 sounds an audible tone when simulation returns a message, such as “info: HSPICE job completed.” BEEP=0 turns off the audible tone. 22 BINPRINT Outputs binning parameters of the CMI MOSFET model. Currently available only for Level 57. BRIEF, NXX Stops print back of data file until HSPICE or HSPICE RF finds an .OPTION BRIEF = 0, or the .END statement. CO = x Sets the number of columns for printout: x can be either 80 (for narrow printout) or 132 (for wide carriage printouts). Controlling Input Option Description INGOLD = x Specifies the printout data format. LENNAM = x Maximum length of names in the printout of operating point analysis results. LIST Produces an element summary of the input data to print. MEASDGT = x Formats the .MEASURE statement output in both the listing file and the .MEASURE output files (.ma0, .mt0, .ms0, and so on). NODE Prints a node cross reference table. NOELCK Bypasses element checking to reduce preprocessing time for very large files. NOMOD Suppresses printout of model parameters NOPAGE Suppresses page ejects for title headings NOTOP Suppresses topology checks to increase speed for pre-processing very large files NUMDGT = x Number of significant digits to print for output variable values. NXX Same as BRIEF. See BRIEF. OPFILE = x Outputs the operating point information to a new file. OPTLST = x Outputs additional optimization information: 0 No information (default). 1 Prints parameter, Broyden update, and bisection results information. 2 Prints gradient, error, Hessian, and iteration information. 3 Prints all of the above, and Jacobian. OPTS Prints the current settings for all control options. PATHNUM Prints subcircuit path numbers, instead of path names PLIM = x Specifies plot size limits for current and voltage plots. POSTTOP=n Outputs instances, up to n levels deep. .OPTION POST saves all nodes, at all levels of hierarchy. .OPTION POSTTOP or .OPTION POSTTOP=1 saves only the TOP node. .OPTION POSTTOP=2 saves only nodes at the top two levels. Controlling Input 23 Option Description POST_VERSION = x Sets the post-processing output version with values x=9601, 9007, or 2001. STATFL Controls if HSPICE creates a .st0 file. statfl=0 (default) outputs a .st0 file. statfl=1 suppresses the .st0 file. SEARCH Search path for libraries and included files. See “General Control Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. CPU Options Option Description CPTIME = x Maximum CPU time in seconds, allotted for this simulation job. EPSMIN = x Smallest number that a computer can add or subtract, a constant value. EXPMAX = x Largest exponent that you can use for an exponential, before overflow occurs. LIMTIM = x Amount of CPU time reserved to generate prints and plots, if a CPU time limit (CPTIME = x) terminates simulation. See “CPU Options” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Interface Options 24 Option Description ARTIST = x ARTIST = 2 enables Cadence Analog Artist interface. Requires a specific license. CDS, SDA CDS = 2 produces a Cadence WSF (ASCII format) post-analysis file for Opus. Requires a specific license. CSDF Selects Common Simulation Data Format (Viewlogiccompatible graph data file). DLENCSDF How many digits to use with Viewlogic-compatible graph data file format. MEASOUT Outputs .MEASURE statement values and sweep parameters into an ASCII file for post-analysis processing using AvanWaves or other analysis tools. Controlling Input Option Description MENTOR = x MENTOR = 2 enables the Mentor MSPICEcompatible (ASCII) interface. Requires a specific license. MONTECON Continues Monte Carlo analysis. Retrieves next random value, even if non-convergence occurs. POST = x Stores simulation results for analysis by using AvanWaves interface or other methods. POST = 1 saves results in binary. POST = 2 saves results in ASCII. POST = 3 saves results in New Wave binary format. PROBE Limits post-analysis output to only variables specified in .PROBE, .PRINT, .PLOT, and .GRAPH statements. PSF = x Specifies if HSPICE or HSPICE RF outputs binary or ASCII data from the Parameter Storage Format. SDA Same as CDS. See CDS. ZUKEN = x If x is 2, enables Zuken interactive interface. If x is 1 (default), disables this interface. See “Interface Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Analysis Options Option Description ASPEC Sets HSPICE or HSPICE RF to ASPECcompatibility mode. FFTOUT Prints 30 harmonic fundamentals, sorted by size, THD, SNR, and SFDR. You can use this option in HSPICE, but not in HSPICE RF. LIMPTS = x Number of points to print or plot in AC analysis. NOISEMINFREQ = x Specifies the minimum frequency of noise analysis. Default = 1e-5. PARHIER Selects parameter-passing rules that control evaluation order of subcircuit parameters. SPICE Makes HSPICE compatible with Berkeley SPICE. SEED Starting seed for a random-number generator for Monte Carlo analysis. See “Analysis Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Controlling Input 25 Error Options Option Description BADCHR Generates a warning when it finds a non-printable character in an input file. DIAGNOSTIC Logs negative model conductances. NOWARN Suppresses all warning messages, except those generated from statements in .ALTER blocks. WARNLIMIT = x Limits how many times certain warnings appear in the output listing. This reduces the output listing file size. See “Error Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Version Options Option Description H9007 Sets default values for general-control options to correspond to the values for HSPICE Release H9007D. See “Version Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Model Analysis Options See “Model Analysis Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. General Options Option Description DCAP Selects equations to calculate depletion capacitance for LEVEL 1 or 3 diodes, BJTs. HIER_SCALE Defines how HSPICE or HSPICE RF interprets the S parameter as a user-defined parameter or an HSPICE scale parameter. 26 MODSRH If MODSRH=1, HSPICE or HSPICE RF does not load or reference a model described in a .MODEL statement, if the netlist does not use that model. This option can shorten simulation run time. Default is MODSRH=0. SCALE Element scaling factor. TNOM Reference temperature for simulation. Controlling Input Option Description MODMONTE If MODMONTE=1, then each device receives a different random value for its Monte Carlo parameters. If MODMONTE=0 (default), then each device receives the same random value for its Monte Carlo parameters. HSPICE RF does not support Monte Carlo analysis. MOSFET Control Options Option Description CVTOL Changes the number of numerical integration steps when calculating gate capacitor charge for a MOSFET by using CAPOP = 3. DEFAD Default value for MOSFET drain diode area. DEFAS Default value for MOSFET source diode area. DEFL Default value for MOSFET channel length. DEFNRD Default number of squares for drain resistor on a MOSFET. DEFNRS Default number of squares for source resistor on a MOSFET. DEFPD Default MOSFET drain diode perimeter. DEFPS Default MOSFET source diode perimeter. DEFW Default MOSFET channel width. SCALM Model scaling factor. WL Reverses specified order in the VSIZE MOS element. Default order is length-width; changes order to width-length. WNFLAG=[0|1] (BSIM4 models). Used to globally turn on the WNFLAG instance parameter. Local definition takes precedence. See “MOSFET Control Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Controlling Input 27 Inductor Options You can use the following inductor options in HSPICE, but not in HSPICE RF: GENK Automatically computes second-order mutual inductance for several coupled inductors. KLIM Minimum mutual inductance, below which automatic second-order mutual inductance calculation no longer proceeds. BJT and Diode Options EXPLI Current-explosion model parameter. PN junction characteristics above explosion current are linear. DC Solution Control Options 28 Option Description ABSH = x Sets the absolute current change, through voltagedefined branches (voltage sources and inductors). ABSI = x Sets the absolute branch current error tolerance in diodes, BJTs, and JFETs during DC and transient analysis. ABSMOS = x Current error tolerance (for MOSFET devices) in DC or transient analysis. ABSTOL = x ABSTOL is an alias for ABSI. See ABSI. ABSVDC = x Sets the absolute minimum voltage for DC and transient analysis. DI = x Sets the maximum iteration-to-iteration current change, through voltage-defined branches (voltage sources and inductors). GDCPATH Adds conductance to nodes having no DC path to ground. KCLTEST Starts KCL (Kirchhoff’s Current Law) test. MAXAMP = x Sets the maximum current, through voltagedefined branches (voltage sources and inductors). RELH = x Relative current tolerance, through voltage-defined branches (voltage sources and inductors). RELI = x Relative error/tolerance change, from iteration to iteration. Determines convergence for all currents in diode, BJT, and JFET devices. RELMOS = x Sets error tolerance (percent) for drain-to-source current, from iteration to iteration. Determines convergence for currents in MOSFET devices. Controlling Input Option Description RELV = x Relative error tolerance for voltages. RELVDC = x Relative error tolerance for voltages. See “DC Operating Point, DC Sweep, and Pole/Zero Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Matrix Options ITL1 = x Maximum DC iteration limit. ITL2 = x Iteration limit for the DC transfer curve. NOPIV Prevents HSPICE from automatically switching to pivoting matrix factors. PIVOT = x Selects a pivot algorithm. PIVREF Pivot reference. PIVREL = x Maximum/minimum row/matrix ratio. PIVTOL = x Absolute minimum value for which HSPICE or HSPICE RF accepts a matrix entry as a pivot. SPARSE = x Same as PIVOT. Pole/Zero I/O Options CAPTAB Prints table of single-plate node capacitance for diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs, JFETs, and passive capacitors at each operating point. DCCAP Generates C-V plots, and prints capacitance values of a circuit (both model and element), during a DC analysis. OPFILE The OPFILE option outputs the operating point information to a new file. VFLOOR = x Minimum voltage to print in output listing. DC Convergence Options ABSTOL = ABSTOL is an alias for ABSI. See ABSI. CAPTAB Prints table of single-plate node capacitance for diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs, JFETs, and passive capacitors at each operating point. CONVERGE Invokes different methods to solve non-convergence problems CSHDC The same option as CSHUNT; use only with the CONVERGE option. Controlling Input 29 DCCAP Generates C-V plots, and prints capacitance values of a circuit (both model and element), during a DC analysis. DCFOR = x Use with DCHOLD and .NODESET to enhance DC convergence. DCHOLD = x Use DCFOR and DCHOLD together to initialize a DC analysis. DCIC = x DC sweep analysis loads the initial conditions for DC sweep points. DCON = X If a circuit cannot converge, HSPICE or HSPICE RF automatically sets DCON = 1. DCSTEP = x Converts DC model and element capacitors to a conductance to enhance DC convergence properties. DCTRAN DCTRAN is an alias for CONVERGE. See CONVERGE. DV = x Maximum iteration-to-iteration voltage change for all circuit nodes in both DC and transient analysis. GMAX = x Conductance in parallel with a current source for .IC and .NODESET initialization circuitry. GMINDC = x Conductance in parallel to all pn junctions and all MOSFET nodes for DC analysis. GRAMP = x HSPICE sets this value during autoconvergence. GSHDC Adds conductance from each node to ground when calculating the DC operating point of the circuit (.OP). Default=0. GSHUNT Adds conductance from each node to ground. Default=0. ICSWEEP Saves current analysis result of parameter or temperature sweep as the starting point in the next analysis in the sweep. ITLPTRAN Controls the iteration limit used in the final try of the pseudo-transient method in OP or DC analysis. ITL1 = x Maximum DC iteration limit. ITL2 = x Iteration limit for the DC transfer curve. KCLTEST Starts KCL (Kirchhoff’s Current Law) test. MAXAMP = x Sets the maximum current, through voltage-defined branches (voltage sources and inductors). NEWTOL Calculates one more iterations past convergence for every calculated DC solution and timepoint circuit solution. NOPIV OFF 30 For all active devices, initializes terminal voltages to zero, if you did not initialize them to other values. Controlling Input NOPIV Prevents HSPICE from automatically switching to pivoting matrix factors. PIVREL = x Maximum/minimum row/matrix ratio. PIVTOL = x Absolute minimum value for which HSPICE or HSPICE RF accepts a matrix entry as a pivot. RESMIN = x Minimum resistance for all resistors, including parasitic and inductive resistances. SPARSE = x Same as PIVOT. SYMB = x If you set the SYMB option to 1, HSPICE operates with a symbolic operating point algorithm to get initial guesses before calculating operating points. Pole/Zero Control Options Option Description CSCAL Sets the capacitance scale. HSPICE multiplies capacitances by CSCAL. FMAX Sets the maximum frequency of angular velocity for poles and zeros. FSCAL Sets the frequency scale, by which HSPICE or HSPICE RF multiplies the frequency. GSCAL Sets the conductance scale. LSCAL Sets the inductance scale. PZABS Absolute tolerances for poles and zeros. PZTOL Relative error tolerance for poles or zeros. RITOL Minimum ratio for (real/imaginary) or (imaginary/ real) parts of poles or zeros. (X0R,X0I), (X1R,X1I), (X2R,X2I) The three complex starting points in the Muller pole/ zero analysis algorithm. See “Pole/Zero Control Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Transient and AC Control Options Option Description ABSH = x Sets the absolute current change, through voltagedefined branches (voltage sources and inductors). ABSV = x Same as VNTOL. See VNTOL. ACCURATE Selects a time algorithm; uses LVLTIM=3 and DVDT = 2 for circuits such as high-gain comparators. Default is 0. Controlling Input 31 Option Description ACOUT AC output calculation method for the difference in values of magnitude, phase, and decibels. Use this option for prints and plots. Default is 1. CHGTOL = x Sets a charge error tolerance if you set LVLTIM=2. Default=1e-15 (coulomb). CSHUNT Adds capacitance from each node to ground. Default=0. DI = x Maximum iteration-to-iteration current change, through voltage-defined branches (voltage sources and inductors). Default is 0.0. GMIN = x Minimum conductance added to all PN junctions for a time sweep in transient analysis. Default is 1e-12. GSHUNT Adds conductance added from each node to ground. Default=0. MAXAMP = x Maximum current, through voltage-defined branches (voltage sources and inductors). If current exceeds the MAXAMP value, HSPICE issues an error. Default=0.0. RELH = x Relative current tolerance, through voltage-defined branches (voltage sources and inductors). Default is 0.05. RELI = x Relative error/tolerance change, from iteration to iteration. Default is 0.01 for KCLTEST=0 or 1e-6 for KCLTEST=1. RELQ = x Used in timestep algorithm for local truncation error (LVLTIM=2). Default=0.01. RELTOL, RELV Relative error tolerance for voltages. Default is 1e-3. RISETIME Smallest risetime of a signal, .OPTION RISETIME = x. TRTOL = x Used in timestep algorithm for local truncation error (LVLTIM=2). Default=7.0. VNTOL = x, ABSV Absolute minimum voltage for DC and transient analysis. Default=50 (microvolts). See “Transient and AC Small Signal Analysis Options” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Speed Options 32 AUTOSTOP Stops transient analysis, after calculating all TRIG-TARG, FIND-WHEN, and FROM-TO measure functions. BKPSIZ = x Size of breakpoint table. Default=5000. Controlling Input BYPASS To speed-up simulation, does not update status of latent devices. Default is 1. BYTOL = x Voltage tolerance, at which a MOSFET, MESFET, JFET, BJT, or diode becomes latent. Default is MBYPASSxVNTOL. FAST To speed-up simulation, does not update status of latent devices. Default is 0. ITLPZ Sets the iteration limit for pole/zero analysis. Default is 100. MBYPASS = x Computes default of BYTOL control option. Default is 1 for DVDT = 0, 1, 2, or 3. Default is 2 for DVDT = 4. TRCON Controls automatic convergence, and the speed of large non-linear circuits with large TSTOP/ TSTEP values. Default=1. Timestep Options ABSVAR = x Absolute limit for the maximum voltage change, from one time point to the next. Default is 0.5 (volts). DELMAX = x Maximum Delta of the internal timestep. HSPICE automatically sets the DELMAX value. DVDT Adjusts the timestep, based on rates of change for node voltage. Default=4. 0 - original algorithm 1 - fast 2 - accurate 3,4 - balance speed and accuracy FS = x Decreases Delta (internal timestep) by the specified fraction of a timestep (TSTEP) for the first time point of a transient. Default=0.25. FT = x Decreases Delta (the internal timestep), by a specified fraction of a timestep (TSTEP) for an iteration set that does not converge. Default is 0.25. IMIN = x, ITL3 = x Minimum number of iterations. Required to obtain convergence at a timepoint in transient analysis simulations. Determines internal timestep. Default is 3.0. IMAX = x, ITL4 = x Maximum number of iterations to obtain convergence at a timepoint in transient analysis. Determines internal timestep. Default is 8.0. Controlling Input 33 ITL5 = x Iteration limit for transient analysis output. Default is 0.0. RELVAR = x Used with ABSVAR, and DVDT timestep option. Sets relative voltage change for LVLTIM=1 or 3. Default is 0.30 (30%). RMAX = x TSTEP multiplier, controls maximum value (DELMAX) to use for internal timestep Delta. Default is 5 when dvdt=4, and lvltim=1. Otherwise, default=2. Maximum is 1e+9, minimum is 1e-9. Recommend maximum=1e+5. RMIN = x Sets the minimum value of Delta (internal timestep). Default=1.0e-9. SLOPETOL = x Minimum value for breakpoint table entries in a piecewise linear (PWL) analysis. Default is 0.5. TIMERES = x Minimum separation between breakpoint values for breakpoint table. Default=1 ps. WACC = x Triggers the W element dynamic step control algorithm. x is a real number between 0.0 and 10.0. Larger values result in higher performance and lower accuracy, while smaller values result in lower performance and higher accuracy. If x=0.0, a static step control algorithm is used. Default=0.0. Algorithm Options DVTR Limits voltage in transient analysis. Default is 1000. IMAX = x, ITL4 = x Maximum number of iterations to obtain convergence at a timepoint in transient analysis. Determines internal timestep. Default is 8.0. IMIN = x, ITL3 = x Minimum number of iterations. Required to obtain convergence at a timepoint in transient analysis simulations. Determines internal timestep. Default is 3.0. LVLTIM = x Selects the timestep algorithm for transient analysis. If LVLTIM = 1 (default), HSPICE uses the DVDT timestep algorithm. If LVLTIM = 2, HSPICE uses the local truncation error (LTE) timestep control method. If LVLTIM = 3, HSPICE uses the DVDT timestep algorithm with timestep reversal. MAXORD = x 34 Controlling Input Maximum order of integration for the GEAR method (see METHOD). METHOD = name Sets numerical integration method for a transient analysis to GEAR or TRAP. PURETP Sets the integration method to use for the reversal time point. Default = 0. MU = x Coefficient for trapezoidal integration. Range for MU is 0.0 to 0.5. Default=0.5. RUNLVL = x Controls the speed and accuracy trade-off. It can be set to 0,1,2,3,4,5,6. Higher values of RUNLVL result in higher accuracy and longer simulation times, while lower values give lower accuracy and faster simulation runtimes. RUNLVL=0 turns off this algorithm. RUNLVL=1 is the lowest simulation runtime. RUNLVL=3 is the default (similar to original HSPICE default mode). RUNLVL=5, 6 correspond to the HSPICE standard accurate mode. For most circuits, RUNLVL=5 is similar to the HSPICE standard accurate mode. TRCON Controls the automatic convergence (autoconvergence) process. TRCON=3: enable auto-speedup only. HSPICE invokes auto-speed up if: - there are more than 1000 nodes, or - there are more than 300 active devices, or - Tstop/Tstep (as defined in .TRAN) > 1e8. When auto-speedup is active, RMAX increases, and HSPICE can take larger timesteps. TRCON=2: enables auto-convergence only. HSPICE invokes auto-convergence if you use the default integration method (trapezoidal), and if HPSICE fails to converge with an “internal timestep too small” error. Auto-convergence sets method=gear, lvltim=2, and starts the transient simulation again from time=0. TRCON=1: enables both auto-convergence and auto-speedup. TRCON=0: disables both auto-convergence and auto-speedup (default). TRCON=-1: same as TRCON=0. Controlling Input 35 Input and Output Options INTERP Limits output for post-analysis tools, such as Cadence or Zuken to only .TRAN timestep intervals. ITRPRT Prints output variables, at their internal timepoints. MCBRIEF = x Controls how HSPICE outputs Monte Carlo parameters. MEASFAIL If MEASFAIL=0, outputs 0 into the .mt#, .ms#, or .ma# file, and prints failed to the listing file. If MEASFAIL=1 (default), prints failed into the .mt#, .ms#, or .ma# file, and into the listing file. MEASFILE = x If MEASFILE=0, outputs measure information to several files. If MEASFILE=1 (default), outputs measure information to a single file. MEASSORT This option is no longer necessary and is ignored. PUTMEAS Controls the output variables, listed in the .MEASURE statement. Default = 1. UNWRAP Displays phase results from AC analysis in unwrapped form (continuous phase plot). AC Control Options ABSH=x Sets the absolute current change, through voltagedefined branches (voltage sources and inductors). ACOUT AC output calculation method for the difference in values of magnitude, phase, and decibels for prints and plots. DI=x Sets the maximum iteration-to-iteration current change, through voltage-defined branches (voltage sources and inductors). MAXAMP = x Sets the maximum current, through voltage-defined branches (voltage sources and inductors). RELH = x Relative current tolerance, through voltage-defined branches (voltage sources and inductors). UNWRAP Displays phase results from AC analysis in unwrapped form (continuous phase plot). Common Model Interface Options 36 CMIFLAG Controls loading of the CMI library. CUSTCMI=x Controls gate tunneling current modeling and additional instance parameter support for Customer CMI with topoid=0. Controlling Input Verilog-A Options SPMODEL In this option, the name is the cell name that uses a SPICE definition. VAMODEL This option specifies that the name is the cell name that uses a Verilog-A definition rather than the subcircuit definition when both exist. Statements HSPICE supports the following statements: .ALTER Statement General Form .ALTER <title_string> See “.ALTER” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Comments General Form *<Comment on a line by itself> Or <HSPICE statement> $<comment following HSPICE input> .ALIAS Statement You can alias one model name to another: .alias pa1 par1 During simulation, this .ALIAS statement indicates to use the par1 model in place of a reference to a previouslydeleted pa1 model. See “.ALIAS” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Controlling Input 37 .CONNECT Statement Connects two nodes in your HSPICE netlist so that simulation evaluates the two nodes as only one node. Both nodes must be at the same level in the circuit design that you are simulating: you cannot connect nodes that belong to different subcircuits. You also cannot use this statement in HSPICE RF. .CONNECT node1 node2 where: node1 Name of the first of two nodes to connect to each other. node2 Name of the second of two nodes to connect to each other. The first node replaces this node in the simulation. .DATA Statement See “.DATA” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Inline .DATA Statement General Form .DATA datanm pnam1 <pnam2 + pnam3 …pnamxxx > + pval1<pval2 pval3 … + pvalxxx> pval1’ <pval2’ + pval3’ …pvalxxx’> .ENDDATA External File .DATA Statement General Form 38 Controlling Input .DATA datanm + MER FILE = ‘filename1’ + pname1=colnum + <panme2=colnum …> + <FILE = ‘filename2’ + pname1 = colnum + <pname2 = colnum …>> … + <OUT = ‘fileout’> .ENDDATA Column Laminated .DATA Statement General Form .DATA datanm + LAM FILE=‘filename1’ + pname1=colnum + <panme2=colnum …> + <FILE=‘filename2’ + pname1=colnum + <pname2=colnum …>>… + <OUT = ‘fileout’> .ENDDATA datanm Specifies the data name referred to in the .TRAN, .DC, or .AC statement. LAM Specifies column-laminated (parallel merging) data files to use. filenamei Specifies the name of the data file to read. MER Specifies concatenated (series merging) data files to use. pnami Specifies the parameter names used for source value, element value, device size, model parameter value, and so on. colnum Specifies the column number in the data file for the parameter value. fileout Specifies the name of the data file to write with all of the data concatenated. pvali Specifies the parameter value. See “Column Laminated .DATA Statement” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. .DEL LIB Statement General Form .DEL LIB ‘<filepath>filename’ + entryname .DEL LIB libnumber entryname entryname Entry name, used in the library call statement to delete. filename Name of a file to delete from the data file. filepath Path name of a file, if the operating system supports tree-structured directories. libnumber Library number, used in the library call statement to delete. See “.DEL LIB” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Controlling Input 39 Element Statements General Form elname <node1 node2 … nodeN> + <mname> <pname1 = val1> + <pname2 = val2> <M = val> Or elname <node1 node2 … nodeN> + <mname> <pname = ‘expression’> + <M = val> Or elname <node1 node2 … nodeN> + <mname> <val1 val2 … valn> B IBIS buffer C Capacitor D Diode E,F,G,H Dependent current and voltage sources I Current source J JFET or MESFET K Mutual inductor L Inductor M MOSFET Q BJT R Resistor S S element T,U,W Transmission line V Voltage source X Subcircuit call expression Any mathematical expression containing values or parameters, i.e., param1 * val2. elname Element name that cannot exceed 1023 characters, and must begin with a specific letter for each element type. M = val Element multiplier. mname Model reference name is required for all elements except passive devices. node1 … Node names are identifiers of the nodes to which the element is connected. pname1 … Element parameter name used to identify the parameter value that follows this name. val1… Value assigned to the parameter pname1 or to the corresponding model node. See “Element and Source Statements” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. 40 Controlling Input .END Statement General Form .END <comment> comment Any comment, normally the name of the data file being terminated. See “.END” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .GLOBAL Statement General Form .GLOBAL node1 node2 node3 … See “.GLOBAL” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .IC/.DCVOLT Initial Condition Statement General Form .IC v(node1)=val 1 v(node2)= + val 2 … Or .DCVOLT V(node1)=val 1 + V(node2)=val 2 See “.IC” and “.DCVOLT” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .IF-.ELSEIF-.ELSE-.ENDIF Statements You can use this if-else structure to change the circuit topology, expand the circuit, set parameter values for each device instance, or select different model cards in each if-else block. .IF (condition1) … < .ELSEIF (condition2) …> < .ELSE …> .ENDIF .INCLUDE Statement General Form .INCLUDE ‘<filepath> filename’ .LIB Library Call Statement General Form .LIB ‘<filepath> filename’ entryname entryname Entry name for the section of the library file to include. Controlling Input 41 filename Name of a file to include in the data file. filepath Path to a file. .LIN Statement General Form .LIN <sparcalc = [1|0] <modelname = ...>> + <filename = ...> <format=[selem|citi|touchstone]> + <noisecalc = [1|0] <gdcalc = [1|0]> + <mixedmode2port = [dd|dc|ds|cd|cc|cs|sd|sc|ss]> sparcalc If 1, extract S parameters (default). modelname Model name listed in the .MODEL statement in the .sc# model output file. filename Output file name (default=netlist name). format Output file format: - selem is for S element .sc# format, which you can include in the netlist. - citi is CITIfile format. - touchstone is TOUCHSTONE file format. noisecalc If 1, extract noise parameters (perform 2-port noise analysis). Default=0. gdcalc If 1, extract group delay (perform group delay analysis). Default=0. mixedmode2port The mixedmode2port keyword describes the mixed-mode data map of output mixed mode S parameter matrix. The availability and default value for this keyword depends on the first two port (P element) configuration as follows: case 1: p1=p2=single (standard mode P element) available: ss default: ss case 2: p1=p2=balanced (mixed mode P element) available: dd, cd, dc, cc default: dd case 3: p1=balanced p2=single available: ds, cs default: ds case 4: p1=single p2=balanced available: sd, sc default: sd 42 Controlling Input .LIB Library File Definition Statement General Form .LIB entryname1 . . $ ANY VALID SET OF HSPICE + STATEMENTS . .ENDL entryname1 .LIB entryname2 . . $ ANY VALID SET OF HSPICE + STATEMENTS . .ENDL entryname2 .LIB entryname3 . . $ ANY VALID SET OF HSPICE + STATEMENTS . .ENDL entryname3 The text following a library file entry name must consist of valid HSPICE statements. See “.LIB Library File Definition Statement” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. .LIB Nested Library Calls Library calls may be nested in other libraries provided they call different files. Library calls may be nested to any depth. See “.LIB Nested Library Calls” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. .MALIAS Statement You can use the .MALIAS statement to assign an alias (another name) to a diode, BJT, JFET, or MOSFET model that you defined in a .MODEL statement. You can also use the .MALIAS statement to assign an alias to a subcircuit defined in a .SUBCKT statement. See .MALIAS Statement in the HSPICE Command Reference. You cannot use the .MALIAS statement in HSPICE RF. The syntax of the .MALIAS statement is: .MALIAS model_name=alias_name1 <alias_name2 . . .> Controlling Input 43 .MODEL Statement General Form .MODEL mname type + <VERSION = version_number> + <pname1 = val1 pname2 = val2 …> VERSION HSPICE version number, used to allow portability of the BSIM (LEVEL=13), BSIM2 (LEVEL = 39) models between HSPICE releases. Version parameter also valid for LEVEL 49, 53, 54, 57, and 59. mname Model name reference. pname1 … Parameter name. type Selects the model type, which must be one of the following: For HSPICE: AMP operational amplifier model C capacitor model COREmagnetic core model D diode model L magnetic core mutual inductor NJF n-channel JFET model NMOSn-channel MOSFET model NPN npn BJT model OPT optimization model PJF p-channel JFET model PLOTplot model for .GRAPH statement PMOSp-channel MOSFET model PNP pnp BJT model R resistor model U lossy transmission line (lumped) W lossy transmission line model S S model SP Frequency table model For HSPICE RF: C D R W capacitor model diode model resistor model lossy transmission line model See “.MODEL” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .NODESET Statement General Form 44 .NODESET V(node1) = val1 + <V(node2) = val2 …> Or .NODESET node1 val1 <node2 val2> node1… Node numbers or node names can include full path names or circuit numbers Controlling Input val1 Specifies voltage. See “.NODESET” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .PARAM Statement General Form .PARAM <ParamName>=<RealNumber> See “.PARAM” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Algebraic Format General Form .PARAM <ParamName>=<AlgebraicExpression> .PARAM<ParamName1>=<ParamName2> Quotes around the algebraic expression are mandatory. See “Algebraic Parameter (Equation)” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Optimization Format General Form OPTIMIZE=opt_pav_fun Or (element or model keyname) .PARAM <ParamName>=<OptParamFunc> (<Init>, <LoLim>, <Hi Lim>, <Inc>) paramname1 … Parameter names are assigned to values OptParmFunc Optimization parameter function (string) Init Initial value of parameter (real) LoLim Lower limit for parameter (real) HiLim Upper limit for parameter (real) Inc Rounds to nearest <Inc> value (real) A parameter can be used in an expression only if it is defined. .PROTECT Statement General Form .PROTECT The .PROTECT command suppresses the print back of text. See “.PROTECT” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Controlling Input 45 .TITLE Statement General Form Any string of up to 72 characters Or .TITLE “any string” Title The first line of the simulation is always the title. See “.TITLE” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .UNPROTECT Statement General Form .UNPROTECT The .UNPROTECT command restores normal output functions from a .PROTECT command. See “.UNPROTECT” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .WIDTH Statement General Form .WIDTH OUT={80|132} OUT The output print width. Permissible values are 80 and 132. See “.WIDTH” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Analyzing Data You can perform several types of analyses with HSPICE. DC Analysis HSPICE can perform the following types of DC analyses. .DC Statement—DC Sweep See “.DC” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Sweep or Parameterized Sweep 46 General Form .DC var1 start1 stop1 incr1 + <SWEEP var2 type np + start2 stop2> Or .DC var1 start1 stop1 incr1 + <var2 start2 stop2 incr2> Analyzing Data Data-Driven Sweep General Form .DC var1 type np start1 stop1 + <SWEEP DATA = datanm> Or .DC DATA = datanm + <SWEEP var2 start2 stop2 + incr2> Or .DC DATA = datanm Monte Carlo General Form .DC var1 type np start1 stop1 + <SWEEP MONTE = val> <firstrun = num1> Or .DC var1 type np start1 stop1 + <SWEEP MONTE = list<(> <num1:num2> + <num3> <num5:num6> <num7> <)> > Or .DC MONTE = val <firstrun = num1> Or .DC MONTE = list<(> <num1:num2> + <num3> <num5:num6> <num7> <)> Optimization General Form .DC DATA = datanm OPTIMIZE = + opt_par_fun RESULTS = + measnames MODEL = optmod Or .DC var1 start1 stop1 SWEEP + OPTIMIZE = OPTxxx + RESULTS = measname + MODEL = optmod DC analysis statement .DC <DATA=filename> SWEEP + OPTIMIZE=OPTxxx + RESULTS=ierr1 ... ierrn + MODEL=optmod DATA=datanm Datanm is the reference name of a .DATA statement. incr1 … Voltage, current, element, model parameters, or temperature increment values. MODEL Optimization reference name, used in the .MODEL OPT statement. MONTE=val Produces a number (val) of randomly generated values, which select parameters from a distribution. np Number of points per decade (or depending on the preceding keyword). OPTIMIZE Specifies the parameter reference name used in the .PARAM statement. Analyzing Data 47 RESULTS Specifies the measure name used in the .MEASURE statement. start1 … Starting voltage, current, element, model parameters, or temperature values. stop1 … Final voltage, current, any element, model parameter, or temperature values. SWEEP Indicates that a second sweep has a different variation type (DEC, OCT, LIN, POI, DATA statement, or MONTE = val). TEMP Indicates a temperature sweep. type Can be any of the following keywords: DEC, OCT, LIN, POI. var1 … Name of an independent voltage or current source, any element or model parameter, or the TEMP keyword. .DCMATCH Statement—DC Mismatch See “.DCMATCH” in the HSPICE Command Reference. General Form .DCMATCH OUTVAR <THRESHOLD=T> + <FILE=string> <PERTURBATION=P> + <INTERVAL=Int OUTVAR Valid node voltages, the difference between node pairs or branch currents. Threshold Report devices with a relative contribution above Threshold in the summary table. T=0: reports results for all devices T<0: suppresses table output; however, individual results are still available through .PROBE or .MEASURE statements. The upper limit for T is 1, but at least 10 devices are reported, or all if there are less than 10. Default value is 0.01. 48 File Valid file name for the output tables. Default is basename.dm# where “#” is the usual sequence number for HSPICE output files. Perturbation Indicates that perturbations of P standard deviation will be used in calculating the finite difference approximations to device derivatives. The valid range for P is 0.01 to 6, with a default value of 2. Analyzing Data Interval Applies only if a DC sweep is specified. Int is a positive integer. A summary is printed at the first sweep point, then for each subsequent increment of Int, and then, if not already printed, at the final sweep point. Only single sweeps are supported. See “.DCMATCH” in the HSPICE Command Reference. DCmatch Definition Block .Variation .Local_Variation modelType modelName modelParam1='Expression1 for Sigma' + modelParam2='Expression2 for Sigma' .End_Local_Variation .End_Variation modelType Identifies a model type. modelName Model name reference. modelParam1,2 Defines DCmatch variation for a model parameter of the device specified. The expression can be a constant, parameter, or a function containing allowed instance parameters. Add a space and % character after the expression to specify the variation as a percentage of the nominal value. .OP Statement—Operating Point General Form .OP <format> <time> <format> <time> ... <interpolation> format Any of the following keywords: ALL, BRIEF, CURRENT, DEBUG, NONE, VOLTAGE. time Parameter after ALL, VOLTAGE, CURRENT, or DEBUG to specify the time at which the report is printed. interpolation Selects an interpolation method for .OP time points to display during transient analysis. See “.OP” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Analyzing Data 49 .PZ Statement—Pole/Zero Analysis General Form .PZ ov srcnam ov Output variable: a node voltage V(n) or branch current I(element) srcnam Input source: an independent voltage or current source name See “.PZ” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .SENS Statement—DC Sensitivity Analysis General Form .SENS ov1 <ov2 ...> ov1 ov2 … Branch currents or nodal voltage for DC component sensitivity analysis. See “.SENS” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .TF Statement—DC Small-Signal Transfer Function Analysis General Form .TF ov srcnam ov Small-signal output variable srcnam Small-signal input source See “.TF” in the HSPICE Command Reference. AC Analysis .AC Statement Single/Double Sweep 50 General Form .AC type np fstart fstop Or .AC type np fstart fstop + <SWEEP var <START=>start + <STOP=>stop <STEP=>incr> Or .AC type np fstart fstop <SWEEP var type np start stop> Analyzing Data Or .AC type np fstart fstop + <SWEEP var + START="param_expr1" + STOP="param_expr2" + STEP="param_expr3"> Or .AC type np fstart fstop + <SWEEP var start_expr + stop_expr step_expr> See “.AC” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Parameterized Sweep General Form .AC type np fstart fstop <SWEEP DATA = datanm> Or .AC DATA = datanm Or .AC DATA = datanm <SWEEP var + <START=>start <STOP=>stop + <STEP=>incr> Or .AC DATA = datanm <SWEEP var + type np start stop> Or .AC DATA = datanm <SWEEP var + START="param_expr1" + STOP="param_expr2" + STEP="param_expr3"> Or .AC DATA = datanm <SWEEP var + start_expr stop_expr + step_expr> Optimization General Form .AC DATA = datanm + OPTIMIZE = opt_par_fun + RESULTS = measnames + MODEL = optmod AC analysis statement .AC <DATA=filename> SWEEP + OPTIMIZE=OPTxxx + RESULTS=ierr1 ... ierrn + MODEL=optmod Random/Monte Carlo General Form .AC type np fstart fstop + <SWEEP MONTE = val> <firstrun = num1> or .AC type np fstart fstop + <SWEEP MONTE = list<(> <num1:num2> + <num3> <num5:num6> <num7> <)> > Analyzing Data 51 DATA=datanm Data name referenced in the .AC statement. fstart Starting frequency. If you use POI (list of points) type variation, use a list of frequency values, not fstart fstop. fstop Final frequency. incr Increment value of the voltage, current, element, or model parameter. If you use type variation, specify the np (number of points) instead of incr. MONTE = val Produces a number (val) of randomly-generated values (HSPICE only; not supported in HSPICE RF). HSPICE uses these values to select parameters from a distribution, either Gaussian, Uniform, or Random Limit. np Number of points, points per decade, or octave, depending on which keyword precedes it. start Starting voltage, current, or any parameter value for an element or a model. stop Final voltage, current, or any parameter value for an element or a model. SWEEP This keyword indicates that the .AC statement specifies a second sweep. TEMP This keyword indicates a temperature sweep firstrun The val value specifies the number of Monte Carlo iterations to perform. The firstrun value specifies the desired number of iterations. HSPICE runs from num1 to num1+val-1. list The iterations at which HSPICE performs a Monte Carlo analysis. You can write more than one number after list. The colon represents "from ... to ...". Specifying only one number makes HSPICE run at only the specified point. type Can be any of the following keywords: DEC – decade variation. OCT – octave variation. LIN – linear variation. POI – list of points. var 52 Analyzing Data Name of an independent voltage or current source, element or model parameter, or the TEMP (temperature sweep) keyword. .DISTO Statement—AC Small-Signal Distortion Analysis General Form .DISTO Rload <inter <skw2 + <refpwr <spwf>>>> inter Interval at which HSPICE prints a distortionmeasure summary. refpwr Reference power level, used to compute the distortion products. Rload Element name of the output load resistor, into which the output power feeds. skw2 Ratio of the second frequency (F2) to the nominal analysis frequency (F1). spwf Amplitude of the second frequency (F2). See “.DISTO” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .LIN Statement—AC Linear Parameter Extraction Analysis General Form .LIN sparcalc=1 + modelname=my_custom_model + filename=mydesign format=touchstone + noisecalc=1 gdcalc=1 + dataformat=[ri | ma | db] sparcalc Flag to do S parameter extraction. Default=1 modelname The model name to store the S Parameters. filename The name of output data file. format Data file format: TOUCHSTONE, CITIfile, or .sc* file. noisecalc Flag to do two-port noise analysis. Default=0. gdcalc Flag to do group delay analysis. Default=0. dataformat Data format in the output data file: RI/MA/DB See “.LIN” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Analyzing Data 53 .NOISE Statement—AC Noise Analysis General Form .NOISE ovv srcnam inter inter Interval at which HSPICE or HSPICE RF prints a noise analysis summary; inter specifies how many frequency points to summarize in the AC sweep. ovv Nodal voltage output variable, defining the node at which HSPICE or HSPICE RF sums the noise. srcnam Name of the independent voltage or current source to use as the noise input reference. See “.NOISE” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .SAMPLE Statement—Noise Folding Analysis General Form .SAMPLE FS = freq <TOL = val> + <NUMF = val> <MAXFLD = val> + <BETA = val> BETA Integrator duty cycle; specifies an optional noise integrator at the sampling node. FS = freq Sample frequency in hertz. MAXFLD Maximum number of folding intervals. NUMF Maximum allowed number of frequencies that you can specify. TOL Sampling error tolerance. See “.SAMPLE” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Small-Signal Network Analysis .NET Statement—AC Network Analysis One-port network General Form .NET input <RIN = val> Or .NET input <val> Two-port network 54 General Form .NET output input + <ROUT = val> <RIN = val> input Name of the voltage or current source for AC input. Analyzing Data output Output port. It can be: An output voltage, V(n1,n2). An output current, I(source), or I(element). RIN Keyword for input or source resistance. The RIN value calculates output impedance, output admittance, and scattering parameters. The default RIN value is 1 ohm. ROUT Keyword for output or load resistance. The ROUT value calculates input impedance, admittance, and scattering parameters. The default ROUT value is 1 ohm. See “.NET” in the HSPICE Command Reference. AC Network Analysis—Output Specification General Form Xij(z), ZIN(z), ZOUT(z), YIN(z), YOUT(z) ij Identifies which matrix parameter to print. X Specifies Z for impedance, Y for admittance, H for hybrid, or S for scattering. YIN Input admittance. YOUT Output admittance. z Output type: R, I, M, P, DB, T. ZIN Input impedance. ZOUT Output impedance. See “AC Network Analysis - Output Specification” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Temperature Analysis .TEMP Statement General Form .TEMP t1 <t2 <t3 ...>> t1 t2 … Temperatures in °C, at which HSPICE or HSPICE RF simulates the circuit. See “.TEMP” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Analyzing Data 55 Transient Analysis .TRAN Statement See “ .TRAN” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Single-Point Analysis .TRAN tincr1 tstop1 <tincr2 tstop2 ...tincrN tstopN> + <START = val> <UIC> Double-Point Analysis .TRAN tincr1 tstop1 <tincr2 tstop2 ...tincrN tstopN> + <START = val> <UIC> + <SWEEP var type np pstart pstop> or .TRAN tincr1 tstop1 <tincr2 tstop2 ...tincrN tstopN> + <START = val> <UIC> <SWEEP var + START="param_expr1" STOP="param_expr2" + STEP="param_expr3"> or .TRAN tincr1 tstop1 <tincr2 tstop2 ... tincrN tstopN> + <START=val> <UIC> <SWEEP var start_expr + stop_expr step_expr> Data-Driven Sweep 56 General Form (data-driven sweep) .TRAN DATA = datanm Or .TRAN tincr1 tstop1 <tincr2 tstop2...tincrN + tstopN> <START = val> <UIC> + <SWEEP DATA = datanm> Or .TRAN DATA = datanm <SWEEP var + <START=>pstart <STOP=>pstop + <STEP=>pincr> Or .TRAN DATA = datanm <SWEEP var + type np pstart pstop> Analyzing Data Or .TRAN DATA = datanm <SWEEP var + START="param_expr1" + STOP="param_expr2" + STEP="param_expr3"> Or .TRAN DATA = datanm <SWEEP var + start_expr stop_expr step_expr> Monte Carlo Analysis General Form .TRAN tincr1 tstop1 <tincr2 tstop2 + ...tincrN tstopN> <START = val> + <UIC><SWEEP MONTE = val> + <firstrun = num1> Or .TRAN tincr1 tstop1 <tincr2 tstop2 + ...tincrN tstopN> <START = val> + <UIC><SWEEP MONTE = list<(> + <num1:num2> <num3> + <num5:num6> <num7> <)> > Optimization General Form .TRAN DATA = datanm OPTIMIZE = + opt_par_fun RESULTS = measnames + MODEL = optmod TRAN analysis statement .TRAN <DATA=filename> SWEEP + OPTIMIZE=OPTxxx + RESULTS=ierr1 ... ierrn + MODEL=optmod DATA = datanm Data name referenced in the .TRAN statement. MONTE = val Produces a number val of randomly-generated values used to select parameters from a distribution. np Number of points per decade (or depending on the preceding keyword). param_expr... User-specified expressions. pincr Voltage, current, element, or model parameter, or temperature increment value. pstart Starting voltage, current, temperature, any element, or model parameter value. pstop Final voltage, current, temperature, any element, or model parameter value. START Time at which printing/plotting begins. SWEEP Indicates a second sweep is specified on the .TRAN statement. Analyzing Data 57 tincr1… Printing/plotting increment for printer output, and the suggested computing increment for the postprocessor. tstop1… Time at which the transient analysis stops incrementing by tincr1. type Specifies any of the following keywords: DEC, OCT, LIN, POI. UIC Causes HSPICE to use the nodal voltages specified in the .IC statement (or by the “IC = ” parameters in the various element statements) to calculate the initial transient conditions, rather than solving for the quiescent operating point. var Name of an independent voltage or current source, any element or model parameter, or the keyword TEMP. .BIASCHK Statement General Form As an expression monitor: .BIASCHK 'expression' <limit = lim> <noise = ns> + <max = max> <min = min> + <simulation = op | dc | tr | all> <monitor = v | i | w | l > + <tstart = time1> <tstop = time2> <autostop> As an element and model monitor: .BIASCHK type <region=cutoff | linear | saturation> + terminal1=t1 <terminal2=t2> <limit=lim> + <noise=ns> <max=max> <min=min> + <simulation=op | dc | tr | all> <monitor=v | i | w | l> + <name=name1, name2, ...> + <mname=modname_1, modname_2, ...> + <tstart=time1> <tstop=time2> <autostop> + <except=name_1,name_2, ...> 58 type Element type to check. terminal 1, terminal2 Terminals, between which HSPICE checks (checks between terminal1 and terminal2) limit Biaschk limit that you define. noise Biaschk noise that you define. The default is 0.1v. max Maximum value. min Minimum value. name Element or instance name to check. mname Model or subcircuit name. For model name, HSPICE checks elements for bias. For subcircuit name, HSPICE checks instances for bias. Analyzing Data region Values can be cutoff, linear, or saturation. HSPICE monitors when the MOS device, defined in the .BIASCHK command, enters and leaves the specified region (such as cutoff). simulation The simulation type you want to monitor. You can specify op, dc, tr (transient), and all (op, dc, and tr). The tr option is the default simulation type. monitor The kind of value you want to monitor. You can specify v (voltage), i (current), w, and l (device size) for the element type. This parameter is not used for an expression-type monitor. tstart The biaschk start time during transient analysis. The default is 0. tstop The biaschk end time during transient analysis. The analysis ends on its own by default if you do not set this parameter. autostop If you set this keyword HSPICE supports autostop for this biaschk card so that it can report error message and stop the simulation immediately. except Specifies the element or instance that this instatement does not need to check. This parameter is not used for an expression type monitor. You can use a wild card to describe name, mname, or “except” parameter in the biaschk card. • ? stands for one character • * stands for 0 or more characters. If type is “subckt”, then a bias check is done for subcircuit instances. In which case, the rules are: • After one and only one mname has been defined, the terminal names for this statement are those pins defined by the subckt definition of mname. • Multiple mname parameters are not allowed if bias checking for subcircuit pins; therefore, wild carding is not supported for mname for bia checking of subcircuits. • When both mname and name are defined while multiple name are allowed, and if any specified name is also an instance of mname, then only those name definitions will be checked and the others will be ignored. If none of the name definitions are instances of mname, then this statement will be ignored. Analyzing Data 59 • If mname has not been defined, then the subcircui type is determined by the first specification of name. • For a subcircuit bias check, at least one name or mname must be specified in this statement. Options for the .BIASCHK Command Output file defined option: General Form .OPTION biasfile=biaschk/mos.bias Warning message turn off (on) option: General Form (on) .OPTION biawarn=1 General Form (off, default) .OPTION biawarn=0 Numerical Integration Algorithm Controls See “Numerical Integration Algorithm Controls (HSPICE)” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Gear Algorithm General Form .OPTION METHOD=GEAR Backward-Euler General Form .OPTION METHOD=GEAR MU = 0 Trapezoidal Algorithm General Form .OPTION METHOD=TRAP FFT Analysis .FFT Statement General Form 60 Analyzing Data .FFT output_var <START = value> + <STOP = value> <NP = value> + <FORMAT = keyword> + <WINDOW = keyword> + <ALFA = value> <FREQ = value> + <FMIN = value> <FMAX = value> ALFA Parameter used in GAUSS and KAISER windows to control the highest side-lobe LEVEL, bandwidth, and so on. FMAX Maximum frequency for which HSPICE prints FFT output into the listing file. THD calculations also use this frequency. FMIN Minimum frequency for which HSPICE prints FFT output into the listing file. THD calculations also use this frequency. FORMAT Output format. NORM= normalized magnitude UNORM=unnormalized magnitude FREQ Frequency to analyze. FROM An alias for START. NP Number of points to use in FFT analysis. output_var Any valid output variable, such as voltage, current, or power. START Beginning of the output variable waveform to analyze. STOP End of the output variable waveform to analyze. TO An alias for STOP. WINDOW Window type to use: RECT, BART, HANN, HAMM, BLACK, HARRIS, GAUSS, KAISER. See “.FFT” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Worst Case Analysis See “Worst Case Analysis” in the Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Sigma Deviations Type Param Slow Fast NMOS XL + - RSH + - DELVTO + - TOX + - XW - + Analyzing Data 61 Type Param Slow Fast PMOS XL + - RSH + - DELVTO - + TOX + - XW - + Monte Carlo Analysis HSPICE statements needed to set up a Monte Carlo analysis are: • .PARAM statement. • .DC, .AC, or .TRAN analysis—enable MONTE. • .MEASURE statement. See “Monte Carlo Analysis” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. For details about the syntax for these statements, see the HSPICE Command Reference. Operating Point General Form .DC MONTE=val DC Sweep General Form .DC vin 1 5 .25 SWEEP MONTE=val AC Sweep General Form .AC dec 10 100 10meg SWEEP + MONTE=val TRAN Sweep General Form .TRAN 1n 10n SWEEP MONTE=val .PARAM Distribution Function Syntax 62 General Form .PARAM xx=UNIF(nominal_val, + rel_variation <, multiplier>) Or .PARAM xx=AUNIF(nominal_val, + abs_variation <,multiplier>) Analyzing Data Or .PARAM xx=GAUSS(nominal_val, + rel_variation, sigma <,multiplier>) Or .PARAM xx=AGAUSS(nominal_val, + abs_variation, sigma <,multiplier>) Or .PARAM xx=LIMIT(nominal_val, + abs_variation) abs_variation AUNIF and AGAUSS vary the nominal_val by +/abs_variation. AGAUSS Gaussian distribution function by using absolute variation. AUNIF Uniform distribution function by using absolute variation. GAUSS Gaussian distribution function by using relative variation. LIMIT Random limit distribution function by using absolute variation. multiplier If you do not specify a multiplier, the default is 1. nominal_val Nominal value for Monte Carlo analysis, and default value for all other analyses. rel_variation UNIF and GAUSS vary the nominal_val, by +/(nominal_val ⋅ rel_variation). sigma Specifies abs_variation or rel_variation at the sigma level. UNIF Uniform distribution function by using relative variation. xx Distribution function calculates the value of this parameter. 1- Optimizing Data This chapter briefly describes how to optimize your design data. Analysis Statement (.DC, .TRAN, .AC) Syntax General Form .DC <DATA=filename> SWEEP + OPTIMIZE=OPTxxx + RESULTS=ierr1 ... + ierrn MODEL=optmod DATA In-line file of parameter data to use in the optimization. Optimizing Data 63 MODEL The optimization reference name (also specified in the .MODEL optimization statement). OPTIMIZE Indicates the analysis is for optimization. Or .AC <DATA=filename> SWEEP + OPTIMIZE=OPTxxx + RESULTS=ierr1 ... + ierrn MODEL=optmod Or .TRAN <DATA=filename> SWEEP + OPTIMIZE=OPTxxx + RESULTS=ierr1 ... + ierrn MODEL=optmod RESULTS The measurement reference name (also specified in the .MEASURE optimization statement). See “.DC,” “.TRAN,” or “.AC” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .PARAM Statement Syntax General Form .PARAM parameter=OPTxxx + (initial_guess, low_limit, upper_limit) Or .PARAM parameter=OPTxxx + (initial_guess, low_limit, upper_limit, + delta) delta The final parameter value is the initial guess ± (n⋅delta). OPTxxx Optimization parameter reference name. The associated optimization analysis references this name. parameter Parameter to be varied, the initial value estimate, the lower limit, and the upper limit allowed for the parameter. See “.PARAM” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .MODEL Statement Syntax 64 General Form .MODEL mname OPT <parameter = val + ...> CENDIF Point at which more accurate derivatives are required. CLOSE Initial estimate of how close parameter initial value estimates are to final solution. Optimizing Data CUT DIFSIZ Modifies CLOSE, depending on how successful the iterations toward the solution become. Determines the increment change in a parameter value for gradient calculations ( ∆x = DIFSIZ ⋅ max(x, PARMIN)). GRAD Possible convergence when gradient of RESULTS function is less than GRAD. ITROPT Sets the maximum number of iterations. LEVEL Selects an optimizing algorithm. MAX Sets the upper limit on CLOSE. mname Model name. PARMIN Allows better control of incremental parameter changes during error calculations. RELIN Relative input parameter variation for convergence. RELOUT Relative output RESULTS function variance for convergence. See “.MODEL” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Filters and Systems To optimize filters and systems, use Pole Zero analysis. See “.PZ Statement— Pole/Zero Analysis” in the HSPICE Applications Manual. Laplace Transforms See “Laplace Transform (LAPLACE) Function” and “Laplace Transform” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Transconductance H(s) General Form Gxxx n+ n- LAPLACE in+ in- k0, k1, ..., kn + / d0, d1, ..., dm <SCALE=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> <M=val> Optimizing Data 65 Voltage Gain H(s) General Form Exxx n+ n- LAPLACE in+ in- k0, k1, ..., kn + / d0, d1, ..., dm <SCALE=val> <TC1=val> + <TC2=val> 2- Output Format For a detailed description of graphing with HSPLOT and GSI, see the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide “Graphing.” Graphing Results in AvanWaves The .OPTION POST must be placed in the HSPICE netlist input file. • POST or POST=1 (default) creates a binary file. • POST=2 creates an ASCII file, portable to all supported machines. Limiting the Size of the Graph Data File The option PROBE limits the number of curves stored to those nodes specified in the HSPICE input file’s .PRINT, .PLOT, .OPTION PROBE, and .GRAPH statements. The option INTERP (for transient analysis only) limits the number of points stored. The option INTERP preinterpolates the output to the interval specified on the .TRAN statement. Automatic Hardcopy During HSPICE Run A .GRAPH statement automatically produces a hardcopy plot. A .TITLE statement placed before each .GRAPH statement sets the graph title. Otherwise, the simulation title is used. The POST option in conjunction with .GRAPH creates a graph data file. 66 Output Format Starting AvanWaves—Command line AvanWaves’ command line definition is: awaves [[-i][plot][-d] <path><design-name> + [-c <config_name>] + [laf(windows|openlook|motif)] -i Immediately opens the Awaves Command User Interface windows when you open AvanWaves. -plot Changes the plot mode to Continuous when you open AvanWaves. The default plot mode is Monotonic. -d The name of the design to be opened on invoking AvanWaves -c Specifies that a previously saved configuration for the current design is to be used upon the initialization of AvanWaves. -laf [windows| openlook| motif] Specifies the window manager style to be used. The default is Motif. Setup Commands Cmd Default Description I -- Name input file. XMIN, XMAX, YMIN, YMAX X=LIM Y=AUTO Set range defaults for all panels. XSCAL 1.0 default 0.0 Scale for X axis. YSCAL 1.0 Scale for Y axis. XS, YS LIN Set x or y scale. P 1 Set number of panels. F NONE Set the frequency of symbols. T ON Set/Toggle ticks. M NO Monotonic. Set/Toggle for family of curves. XG, YG ON Set/Toggle x or y grids. D Reinitialize all Setup menu values. -- Accessible Menus From Setup G Bring up the Graph window. N Bring up the Node window. Q Exit the program. Output Format 67 Node Menu Prompts -Panel Each panel prompts for one x-axis parameter and any number of y-axis curves. -X-axis Any node may be chosen as the x-axis for a panel. -Y-axis Any listed node name or function, or algebraic expression can be entered at the y-axis prompt. Node Menu Commands $P Remove all curves in present panel. $A Remove all curves from all panels. $Q Exit the program. MORE Display next/previous page of nodes. /BACK These commands appear only when the node list spans more than one page. $S Bring up the Setup menu. AC Analysis *R Draw the Real component of the data. *I Draw the Imaginary component of the data. *M Calculate and draw the Magnitude. *P Calculate and draw the Phase. Graph Commands A, D Add or Delete curves or expressions. X, Y Change the view on some panels or all panels. Q Exit the program. Accessible Menus from Graph Menu N Bring up the Node window P Bring up the Print menu S Bring up the Setup menu Print Menu The Print menu lists printers and /or plotters at your site on which you may create a hardcopy plot. 68 Output Format Screensave Option The SCREENSAVE function produces a file that can later be displayed on the terminal. The function is useful for making video slides. Print Commands <CR> Print with the default printer. 1…n-1 Print with one of printer options. n Save the screen into a preview file. .PRINT Statement General Form .PRINT antype ov1 <ov2 ... ovn> See “.PRINT” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .PLOT Statement General Form .PLOT antype ov1 <(plo1,phi1)> . . . + <ovn> <(ploon,phin)> See “.PLOT” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .PROBE Statement General Form .PROBE antype ov1 … <ovn> See “.PROBE” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .GRAPH Statement General Form .GRAPH antype <MODEL = mname> + <unam1 = > ov1, <unam2 = >ov2, … + <unamn = > ovn (plo,phi) antype Type of analysis for outputs: DC, AC, TRAN, NOISE, or DISTO. HSPICE RF does not support DISTO analysis. mname Plot model name referenced in .GRAPH. ov1 …ovn Output variables to print or plot. plo, phi … Lower and upper plot limits. unam1… User-defined output names. See “.GRAPH” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Output Format 69 .MODEL Statement for .GRAPH General Form .MODEL mname PLOT (pnam1 = val1 + pnam2 = val2….) mname Plot model name referenced in .GRAPH statement. PLOT Keyword for a .GRAPH statement model. pnam1=val1… Each .GRAPH statement model includes several model parameters. See “.MODEL” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .MEASURE Statement: Rise, Fall, and Delay General Form .MEASURE <DC | AC | TRAN> result + TRIG … TARG … <GOAL=val> + <MINVAL=val> <WEIGHT=val> <DC|AC|TRAN> Analysis type of the measurement. If omitted, assumes the last analysis mode requested. GOAL Desired measure value in optimization. MEASURE Specifies measurements. MINVAL If the absolute value of GOAL is less than MINVAL, then MINVAL replaces the GOAL value in the denominator of the ERRfun expression. TRIG…, TARG … Identifies the beginning of trigger and target specifications, respectively. WEIGHT The calculated error is multiplied by the weight value. See “.MEASURE” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Trigger General Form TRIG trig_var VAL=trig_val + <TD=time_delay> <CROSS=c> + <RISE=r> <FALL=f> Or TRIG AT=val result Name associated with the measured value in the HSPICE output. Target General Form 70 Output Format TARG targ_var VAL = targ_val + <TD = time_delay> <CROSS = c | LAST> + <RISE = r | LAST> <FALL = f | LAST> AT = val Trigger specification. Determines where measurement takes place. CROSS = c RISE = r FALL = f Numbers indicate which occurrence of a CROSS, FALL, or RISE event to measure. LAST HSPICE or HSPICE RF measures when the last CROSS, FALL, or RISE event occurs. TARG Beginning of the target signal specification. targ_val Value of the targ_var, which increments the counter for crossings, rises, or falls, by one. targ_var Name of the output variable, at which HSPICE or HSPICE RF determines the propagation delay with respect to the trig_var. time_delay Amount of simulation time that must elapse, before HSPICE or HSPICE RF enables the measurement. TRIG Beginning of the trigger specification. trig_val Value of trig_var at which the counter for crossing, rises, or falls increments by one. trig_var Name of the output variable, that determines the logical beginning of a measurement. Average, RMS, MIN, MAX, and Peak to Peak General Form .MEASURE <DC | AC | TRAN> + result func out_var + <FROM = val> <TO = val> + <GOAL = val> + <MINVAL = val> <WEIGHT = val> Or .MEASURE < TRAN > out_var + func var FROM = start + TO = end Or .MEASURE DC results <MAX> + <DCMATCH_TOTAL | + DCMATCH(InstanceName)> <DC|AC|TRAN> Analysis type of the measurement. If omitted, HSPICE assumes the last analysis mode requested. FROM Initial value for the “func” calculation. Output Format 71 func Type of the measure statement: AVG (average) MAX (maximum) MIN (minimum) PP (peak-to-peak) RMS (root mean squared) INTEG (integral) GOAL Desired .MEASURE value. MINVAL If the absolute value of GOAL is less than MINVAL, then MINVAL replaces the GOAL value in the denominator of the ERRfun expression. out_var Name of any output variable whose function the simulation measures. result Name of the measured value in the HSPICE output. TO End of the “func” calculation. WEIGHT Multiplies the calculated error, by the weight value. start Starting time of the measurement period. end Ending time of the measurement period. DCMATCH (InstanceName) .DCMATCH contribution from InstanceName. DCMATCH_TOTAL .DCMATCH total output variation. Equation Evaluation General Form .MEASURE <DC | AC | TRAN> result + PARAM = ‘equation’ <GOAL = val> + <MINVAL = val> Or .MEASURE TRAN varname + PARAM = ‘expression’ See “.MEASURE” in the HSPICE Command Reference. 72 Output Format ERROR Function General Form .MEASURE <DC | AC | TRAN> result + ERRfun meas_var calc_var + <MINVAL = val> < IGNORE | + YMIN = val> <YMAX = val> + <WEIGHT = val> <FROM = val> + <TO = val> <DC|AC|TRAN> Analysis type of the measurement. If omitted, assumes the last analysis mode requested. calc_var Name of the simulated output variable or parameter in the .MEASURE statement to compare with meas_var. ERRfun ERRfun indicates which error function to use: ERR, ERR1, ERR2, or ERR3. FROM Beginning of the ERRfun calculation. IGNOR|YMIN If the absolute value of meas_var is less than the IGNOR value, the ERRfun calculation does not consider this point. meas_var Name of any output variable or parameter in the data statement. MINVAL If the absolute value of meas_var is less than MINVAL, then MINVAL replaces the meas_var value in the denominator of the ERRfun expression. result Name of measured result in the output. TO End of the ERRfun calculation. WEIGHT Multiplies the calculated error by the weight value. YMAX If the absolute value of meas_var is greater than the YMAX value, then the ERRfun calculation does not consider this point. Output Format 73 Find and When Functions General Form .MEASURE <DC | AC | TRAN> result + WHEN out_var = val <TD = val> + < RISE = r | LAST > <FALL = f | + LAST > <CROSS = c | LAST > + <GOAL = val> <MINVAL = val> + <WEIGHT = val> Or .MEASURE <DC | AC | TRAN> result + WHEN out_var1 = out_var2 + < TD = val > < RISE = r | LAST > + <FALL = f | LAST > < CROSS = c| + LAST > <GOAL = val> + <MINVAL = val> <WEIGHT = val> Or .MEASURE <DC | AC | TRAN> result + FIND out_var1 WHEN out_var2 = val + < TD = val > < RISE = r | LAST > + <FALL = f | LAST > < CROSS = c| + LAST > <GOAL = val> + <MINVAL = val> <WEIGHT = val> Or .MEASURE <DC | AC | TRAN> result + FIND out_var1 WHEN + out_var2 = out_var3 <TD = val > + < RISE = r | LAST > <FALL = f | + LAST ><CROSS = c | LAST> + <GOAL = val> <MINVAL = val> + <WEIGHT = val> Or .MEASURE <DC | AC | TRAN> result + FIND out_var1 AT = val + <GOAL = val> <MINVAL = val> + <WEIGHT = val> Or .MEASURE DC result + FIND <DCMATCH_TOTAL | + DCMATCH(InstanceName)> AT = val <DC | AC | TRAN> Analysis type for the measurement. If omitted, HSPICE or HSPICE RF assumes the last analysis type requested. 74 CROSS = c RISE = r FALL = f Numbers indicate which occurrence of a CROSS, FALL, or RISE event starts measuring. AT = val Trigger specification. Determines where measurement takes place. FIND Selects the FIND function. GOAL Desired .MEASURE value. LAST Starts measurement at the last CROSS, FALL, or RISE event. Output Format MINVAL If the absolute value of GOAL is less than MINVAL, then MINVAL replaces GOAL value in ERRfun expression denominator. out_var(1,2,3) Establish conditions to start measuring. result Name associated with a measured value in HSPICE or HSPICE RF output. TD Time at which measurement starts. WEIGHT Multiplies calculated error by weight value. WHEN Selects the WHEN function. DCMATCH (InstanceName) .DCMATCH contribution from InstanceName. DCMATCH_TOTAL .DCMATCH total output variation. .DOUT Statement .DOUT nd VTH ( time state < time state > ) where: • nd is the node name. • VTH is the single voltage threshold. • time is an absolute time-point. • state is one of the following expected conditions of the nd node at the specified time: - 0 expect ZERO,LOW. - 1 expect ONE,HIGH. - else Don’t care. .DOUT nd VLO VHI ( time state < time state > ) where: • nd is the node name. • VLO is the voltage of the logic low state. • VHI is the voltage of the logic high state. • time is an absolute time-point. Output Format 75 • state is one of the following expected conditions of the nd node at the specified time: - 0 expect ZERO,LOW. - 1 expect ONE,HIGH. - else Don’t care. See “.DOUT” in the HSPICE Command Reference. .STIM Statement You can use the .STIM statement to reuse the results (output) of one simulation as input stimuli in a new simulation. The .STIM statement specifies: • Expected stimulus (PWL Source, DATA CARD, or VEC FILE). • Signals to transform. • Independent variables. One .STIM statement produces one corresponding output file. Syntax Brackets [ ] enclose comments, which are optional. .STIM <tran|ac|dc> PWL|DATA|VEC <filename=output_filename> ... DC and Transient Output See “DC and Transient Output Variables” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Nodal Voltage General Form V(n1<,n2>) n1, n2 Defines nodes between which the voltage difference (n1-n2) is to be printed/plotted. See “Nodal Voltage Syntax” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. 76 Output Format Current: Voltage Sources General Form I(Vxxx) Vxxx Voltage source element name. See “Current: Voltage Sources” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Current: Element Branches General Form In(Wwww) or Iall(Wwww) n Node position number in the element statement. Wwww Element name. Iall (Www) An alias just for diode, BJT, JFET, and MOSFET devices. See “Current: Element Branches” in the HSPICE User Guide. Power Output See “Power Output” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Print/Plot Power General Form .PRINT <DC|TRAN> P(element_or_subcircuit_name) POWER Or .PLOT <DC|TRAN> P(element_or_subcircuit_name) POWER antype Type of analysis for the specified plots: DC, AC, TRAN, NOISE, or DISTO. ov1 … Output variables to plot. plo1,phi1 … Lower and upper plot limits. Power calculation is associated only with transient and DC sweep analyses. The .MEASURE statement may be used to compute the average, rms, minimum, maximum, and peak to peak value of the power. POWER invokes the total power dissipation output. See “.PRINT” or “.PLOT” in the HSPICE Command Reference. Output Format 77 AC Analysis Output See “AC Analysis Output Variables” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Nodal Voltage General Form Vz(n1<,n2>) z Voltage output type. DB Decibel I Imaginary Part M Magnitude P Phase R Real Part T Group Delay n1, n2 Node names. If you omit n2, HSPICE assumes ground (node 0). See “Nodal Voltage” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Current: Independent Voltage Sources General Form Iz(Vxxx) Vxxx Voltage source element name. If an independent power supply is within a subcircuit, then to access its current output, append a dot and the subcircuit name to the element name. z Current output type. See Nodal Voltage in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide for specific output types. See “Current: Independent Voltage Sources” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. 78 Output Format Current: Element Branches General Form Izn(Wwww) n Node position number in element statement. Wwww Element name. If the element is within a subcircuit, then to access its current output, append a dot and the subcircuit name to the element name. z Current output type. See Nodal Voltage of the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide for specific output types. See “Current: Element Branches” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Group Time Delay t General Form VT(n1<,n2>) or IT(Vxxx) or ITn(Wwww) n1, n2 Node names. If you omit n2, HSPICE assumes grough (node 0). Vxxx Independent voltage source element name. n Node position number in element statement. Wwww Element name Since there is discontinuity in phase each 360 degrees, the same discontinuity occurs in the Td, even though Td is continuous. See “Group Time Delay” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Network Output General Form Xij (z), ZIN(z), ZOUT(z), YIN(z), YOUT(z) ij i and j can be 1 or 2. They identify the matrix parameter to print. X Specifies Z for impedance, Y for admittance, H for hybrid, or S for scattering parameters. YIN Input admittance. YOUT Output admittance. z Output type. If you omit z, HSPICE or HSPICE RF prints the magnitude of the output variable. Output Format 79 ZIN Input impedance. For a one-port network, ZIN, Z11, and H11 are the same. ZOUT Output impedance. See “Network” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Noise and Distortion General Form ovar <(z)> See “Nodal Voltage” on page 80 for specific output types. ovar Noise and distortion analysis parameter. z Output type (only for distortion). See “Noise and Distortion” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Element Template Output Use for DC, AC, or Transient Analysis. General Form Elname:Property Elname Name of the element. Property Property name of an element, such as a userinput parameter, state variable, stored charge, capacitance current, capacitance, or derivative of a variable. See “Element Template Output” in the HSPICE Simulation and Analysis User Guide. Element Template Listings Resistor Name 80 Alias Description G LV1 Conductance at analysis temperature R LV2 Resistance at analysis temperature TC1 LV3 First temperature coefficient TC2 LV4 Second temperature coefficient Output Format Capacitor Name Alias Description CEFF LV1 Computed effective capacitance IC LV2 Initial condition Q LX0 Charge stored in capacitor CURR LX1 Current flowing through capacitor VOLT LX2 Voltage across capacitor – LX3 Capacitance (not used in HSPICE releases after 95.3) Inductor Name Alias Description LEFF LV1 Computed effective inductance IC LV2 Initial condition FLUX LX0 Flux in the inductor VOLT LX1 Voltage across inductor CURR LX2 Current flowing through inductor – LX4 Inductance (not used in HSPICE releases after 95.3) Mutual Inductor Name Alias Description K LV1 Mutual inductance Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source (E Element) Name Alias Description VOLT LX0 Source voltage CURR LX1 Current through source CV LX2 Controlling voltage DV LX3 Derivative of source voltage with respect to control current Output Format 81 Current-Controlled Current Source (F Element) Name Alias Description CURR LX0 Current through source CI LX1 Controlling current DI LX2 Derivative of source current with respect to control current Voltage-Controlled Current Source (G Element) Name Alias Description CURR LX0 Current through the source, if VCCS R LX0 Resistance value, if VCR C LX0 Capacitance value, if VCCAP CV LX1 Controlling voltage CQ LX1 Capacitance charge, if VCCAP DI LX2 Derivative of source current with respect to control voltage ICAP LX2 Capacitance current, if VCCAP VCAP LX3 Voltage across capacitance, if VCCAP Current-Controlled Voltage Source (H Element) Name Alias Description VOLT LX0 Source voltage CURR LX1 Source current CI LX2 Controlling current DV LX3 Derivative of source voltage with respect to control current Independent Voltage Source 82 Name Alias Description VOLT LV1 DC/transient voltage VOLTM LV2 AC voltage magnitude VOLTP LV3 AC voltage phase Output Format Independent Current Source Name Alias Description CURR LV1 DC/transient current CURRM LV2 AC current magnitude CURRP LV3 AC current phase Name Alias Description AREA LV1 Diode area factor AREAX LV23 Area after scaling Diode IC LV2 Initial voltage across diode VD LX0 Voltage across diode (VD), excluding RS (series resistance) IDC LX1 DC current through diode (ID), excluding RS. Total diode current is the sum of IDC and ICAP GD LX2 Equivalent conductance (GD) QD LX3 Charge of diode capacitor (QD) ICAP LX4 Current through diode capacitor. Total diode current is the sum of IDC and ICAP. C LX5 Total diode capacitance PID LX7 Photo current in diode BJT Name Alias Description AREA LV1 Area factor ICVBE LV2 Initial condition for base-emitter voltage (VBE) ICVCE LV3 Initial condition for collector-emitter voltage (VCE) MULT LV4 Number of multiple BJTs FT LV5 FT (Unity gain bandwidth) ISUB LV6 Substrate current GSUB LV7 Substrate conductance LOGIC LV8 LOG 10 (IC) LOGIB LV9 LOG 10 (IB) BETA LV10 BETA LOGBETAI LV11 LOG 10 (BETA) current Output Format 83 84 Name Alias Description ICTOL LV12 Collector current tolerance IBTOL LV13 Base current tolerance RB LV14 Base resistance GRE LV15 Emitter conductance, 1/RE GRC LV16 Collector conductance, 1/RC PIBC LV18 Photo current, base-collector PIBE LV19 Photo current, base-emitter VBE LX0 VBE VBC LX1 Base-collector voltage (VBC) CCO LX2 Collector current (CCO) CBO LX3 Base current (CBO) GPI LX4 g π = ¹ib /¹vbe, constant vbc GU LX5 gµ = ¹ib /¹vbc, constant vbe GM LX6 gm = ¹ic /¹vbe+ ¹ic /¹vbe, constant vce G0 LX7 g0 = ¹ic /¹vce, constant vbe QBE LX8 Base-emitter charge (QBE) CQBE LX9 Base-emitter charge current (CQBE) QBC LX10 Base-collector charge (QBC) CQBC LX11 Base-collector charge current (CQBC) QCS LX12 Current-substrate charge (QCS) CQCS LX13 Current-substrate charge current (CQCS) QBX LX14 Base-internal base charge (QBX) CQBX LX15 Base-internal base charge current (CQBX) GXO LX16 1/Rbeff Internal conductance (GXO) CEXBC LX17 Base-collector equivalent current (CEXBC) – LX18 Base-collector conductance (GEQCBO) (not used in HSPICE releases after 95.3) CAP_BE LX19 cbe capacitance (C Π ) CAP_IBC LX20 cbc internal base-collector capacitance (Cµ) Output Format Name Alias Description CAP_SCB LX21 csc substrate-collector capacitance for vertical transistors csb substrate-base capacitance for lateral transistors CAP_XBC LX22 cbcx external base-collector capacitance CMCMO LX23 ¹(TF*IBE) /¹vbc VSUB LX24 Substrate voltage JFET Name Alias Description AREA LV1 JFET area factor VDS LV2 Initial drain-source voltage VGS LV3 Initial gate-source voltage PIGD LV16 Photo current, gate-drain in JFET PIGS LV17 Photo current, gate-source in JFET VGS LX0 VGS VGD LX1 Gate-drain voltage (VGD) CGSO LX2 Gate-to-source (CGSO) CDO LX3 Drain current (CDO) CGDO LX4 Gate-to-drain current (CGDO) GMO LX5 Transconductance (GMO) GDSO LX6 Drain-source transconductance (GDSO) GGSO LX7 Gate-source transconductance (GGSO) GGDO LX8 Gate-drain transconductance (GGDO) QGS LX9 Gate-source charge (QGS) CQGS LX10 Gate-source charge current (CQGS) QGD LX11 Gate-drain charge (QGD) CQGD LX12 Gate-drain charge current (CQGD) CAP_GS LX13 Gate-source capacitance CAP_GD LX14 Gate-drain capacitance – LX15 Body-source voltage (not used in HSPICE releases after 95.3) QDS LX16 Drain-source charge (QDS) CQDS LX17 Drain-source charge current (CQDS) GMBS LX18 Drain-body (backgate) transconductance (GMBS) Output Format 85 MOSFET 86 Name Alias Description L LV1 Channel length (L) W LV2 Channel width (W) AD LV3 Area of the drain diode (AD) AS LV4 Area of the source diode (AS) ICVDS LV5 Initial condition for drain-source voltage (VDS) ICVGS LV6 Initial condition for gate-source voltage (VGS) ICVBS LV7 Initial condition for bulk-source voltage (VBS) – LV8 Device polarity: 1 = forward, 1 = reverse (not used in HSPICE releases after 95.3) VTH LV9 Threshold voltage (bias dependent) VDSAT LV10 Saturation voltage (VDSAT) PD LV11 Drain diode periphery (PD) PS LV12 Source diode periphery (PS) RDS LV13 Drain resistance (squares) (RDS) RSS LV14 Source resistance (squares) (RSS) XQC LV15 Charge sharing coefficient (XQC) GDEFF LV16 Effective drain conductance (1/RDeff) GSEFF LV17 Effective source conductance (1/ RSeff) IDBS LV18 Drain-bulk saturation current at -1 volt bias ISBS LV19 Source-bulk saturation current at -1 volt bias VDBEFF LV20 Effective drain bulk voltage BETAEFF LV21 BETA effective GAMMAEFF LV22 GAMMA effective DELTAL LV23 ∆ L (MOS6 amount of channel length modulation) (only valid for LEVELs 1, 2, 3 and 6) UBEFF LV24 UB effective (only valid for LEVELs 1, 2, 3 and 6) VG LV25 VG drive (only valid for LEVELs 1, 2, 3 and 6) VFBEFF LV26 VFB effective Output Format Name Alias Description – LV31 Drain current tolerance (not used in HSPICE releases after 95.3) IDSTOL LV32 Source diode current tolerance IDDTOL LV33 Drain diode current tolerance COVLGS LV36 Gate-source overlap capacitance COVLGD LV37 Gate-drain overlap capacitance COVLGB LV38 Gate-bulk overlap capacitance VBS LX1 Bulk-source voltage (VBS) VGS LX2 Gate-source voltage (VGS) VDS LX3 Drain-source voltage (VDS) CDO LX4 DC drain current (CDO) CBSO LX5 DC source-bulk diode current (CBSO) CBDO LX6 DC drain-bulk diode current (CBDO) GMO LX7 DC gate transconductance (GMO) GDSO LX8 DC drain-source conductance (GDSO) GMBSO LX9 DC substrate transconductance (GMBSO) GBDO LX10 Conductance of the drain diode (GBDO) GBSO LX11 Conductance of the source diode (GBSO) Meyer and Charge Conservation Model Parameters QB LX12 Bulk charge (QB) CQB LX13 Bulk charge current (CQB) QG LX14 Gate charge (QG) CQG LX15 Gate charge current (CQG) QD LX16 Channel charge (QD) CQD LX17 Channel charge current (CQD) CGGBO LX18 CGGBO = ∂Qg/ ∂Vgb= CGS + CGD + CGB CGDBO LX19 CGDBO = ∂Qg/ ∂Vdb, (for Meyer CGD = -CGDBO) CGSBO LX20 CGSBO = ∂Qg/ ∂Vsb, (for Meyer CGS = -CGSBO) CBGBO LX21 CBGBO = ∂Qb/ ∂Vgb, (for Meyer CGB = -CBGBO) Output Format 87 Name Alias Description CBDBO LX22 CBDBO = -dQb/dVd intrinsic floating body-to-drain capacitance CBSBO LX23 CBSBO = -dQb/dVs intrinsic floating body-to-source capacitance QBD LX24 Drain-bulk charge (QBD) – LX25 Drain-bulk charge current (CQBD) (not used in HSPICE releases after 95.3) QBS LX26 Source-bulk charge (QBS) – LX27 Source-bulk charge current (CQBS) (not used in HSPICE releases after 95.3) CAP_BS LX28 Bulk-source capacitance CAP_BD LX29 Bulk-drain capacitance CQS LX31 Channel charge current (CQS) CDGBO LX32 CDGBO = ∂Qd/ ∂Vgb CDDBO LX33 CDDBO = ∂Qd/ ∂Vdb CDSBO LX34 CDSBO = ∂Qd/ ∂Vsb Saturable Core Element Name Alias Description MU LX0 Dynamic permeability (mu) Weber/(amp-turnmeter) H LX1 Magnetizing force (H) Ampere-turns/meter B LX2 Magnetic flux density (B) Webers/meter2 Saturable Core Winding Name 88 Alias Description LEFF LV1 Effective winding inductance (Henry) IC LV2 Initial condition FLUX LX0 Flux through winding (Weber-turn) VOLT LX1 Voltage across winding (Volt) Output Format