Session 4 - Girl Scouts Western Oklahoma

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Junior
STEM Kits
“Get Moving”
“It’s Your Planet - Love It!”
Journey STEM Activities
These activities are from the Leader’s Guide Book, “How
to Guide Juniors Through ‘Get Moving!’” These activities
correlate directly with the science activities found in your
Leader Guide. Your STEM kits in a box contain the supplies necessary to complete each of these activities,
except where noted.
You will use the material in these kits to help the girls
achieve their Journey badges as Juniors. These activities
MUST be completed as part of their Journey throughout
the course of the year.
Each activity includes a leader guide that gives background on the information covered in the activity.
Chris Simon, STEM Coordinator
Girl Scouts – Western Oklahoma
[email protected]
Phone: 405-528-4475 or 1-800-698-0022
This kit is provided through an award from the Oklahoma NSF EPSCoR program
and is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIA-1301789.
Project title: “Adapting Socio-ecological Systems to Increased Climate Variability.”
Any opinions, findings & conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s)
and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. www.okepscor.org
Sponsored By
OK NSF EPSCoR Content Reviewers: Dr. Jody L. Campiche, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics and
Extension Economist, Oklahoma State University; Dr. Renee McPherson, Associate Professor of Geography and
Environmental Sustainability and Girl Scout, University of Oklahoma
Junior
STEM Kits
Session 4
“Get Moving”
“Shining A Light
On Light Bulbs”
Leader Guide, Page 48
What’s My Wattage?
(Begin this Journey by discussing the role of electricity and
light bulbs in modern life with your Juniors.)
ASK: Where do you see light? Where do you use it? Can you
feel light? (Allow time for answers and brief discussion.)
Activity Materials:
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•
•
•
•
•
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Computers, tablets, or
smart phones for research
Laser pointed digital
thermometer
1 incandescent light bulb
1 fluorescent light bulb
1 LED light bulb
Lamp
Gloves
This lesson will explore the different types of
light bulbs available and the relationship
between light, electricity, and heat. Juniors will
also be introduced to the basic mechanics of
how light bulbs work and how much energy is
lost due to heat.
ASK: How does the warmth from the sun make you feel
when you’re outdoors? (Allow time for answers.)
ASK: Before the invention of light bulbs, what did people use
to create light when they needed it? (Allow time for answers.
Your girls might discuss fire, candles, oil lamps and gas
lamps.)
ASK: Why might light bulbs be considered better than these
other ways of making artificial light? (For their convenience,
brighter light, and they’re longer lasting.)
ASK: In what ways could the old-fashioned forms of light be
considered better than light bulbs? (They don’t need
electricity to function, lower carbon impact.)
ASK: Besides producing light, what else do light bulbs
produce? (Heat.)
ASK: Can you think of any inventions that use light bulbs
primarily for the heat they make, rather than the light?
(Incubators, Easy-Bake ovens, food warmers at restaurants,
etc.)
ASK: What are some activities that you couldn’t do without
the invention of the light bulb? (They may mention watching
TV, reading at night, using the computer, driving at night,
playing sports at night, etc.)
Junior
STEM Kits
Session 4
“Shining A Light
On Light Bulbs”
“Get Moving”
Leader Guide, Page 48
Types of Light Bulbs
SAY: Now we are going to explore light bulbs, the light they give off, and the energy they use. First we’re
going to do some research on these types of light bulbs:
The Incandescent Light Bulb (Hold up the incandescent bulb)
The Fluorescent Light Bulb (Hold up the fluorescent bulb)
And the LED Light Bulb (Hold up the LED bulb)
SAY: We need to divide into three groups. We’re going to take 10 minutes to find as many facts as we can
about each type of bulb. You’ll need to decide which bulb your group is going to research. Get online and
research your topic. Then we will take 5 minutes to gather all our facts and eliminate any duplicates, and
then you will present what you’ve found to the group. (Allow your troop time to research and present to
the group.)
NOTE: The girls may present these facts in their research:
• Incandescent bulb: An electric current passes through a thin filament (metal wire), heating it
until it produces light. Only 10 percent of the energy used by an incandescent bulb produces light;
the rest is given off as heat. Most of these bulbs use 60 to 100 watts of electricity.
• Compact Fluorescent Bulb: This gas-discharging bulb uses electricity to ‘excite” mercury
vapors that produce visible light. Fluorescent bulbs are more expensive than incandescent bulbs,
but they last longer and can use as little as one tenth the energy. Fluorescent bulbs typically use 7
to 14 watts of electricity.
• LED (light emitting diode): generates light when electric current is passed through positive
and negative materials. They are cool to the touch and typically use only 2 to 10 watts of
electricity, and lasts up to 30,000 hours.)
Junior
STEM Kits
Session 4
“Shining A Light
On Light Bulbs”
“Get Moving”
Leader Guide, Page 48
(After the girls have finished presenting their facts:)
SAY: Now we’re going to conduct an experiment. You will need to follow the instructions on the sheet.
ASK: Who wants to be responsible for reading the instructions? (Wait for a volunteer to respond and give
her the instruction sheet.)
ASK: Who wants to be responsible for recording the results on the data sheet? (Again, wait for a
volunteer to respond and give her the data collection sheet.)
SAY: Now, conduct your experiment.
When the girls finish their experiment, have one of the girls lead a discussion about their
observations.
Here are some things the girls may discover:
Incandescent lights give off heat as well as light energy. The higher the wattage of the light bulb the higher
the temperature. A compact fluorescent bulb gives off very little heat energy because they do not use
resistance and cause a light to glow hot.)
ASK: Why is the use of incandescent bulbs less efficient to use in the home or office other than the
energy wasted through generation of heat? (In a home or office, lots of incandescent lights means that
the air conditioner would have to use more energy during the summer to remove the extra heat given off
by lights. Also, some lights such as torchieres, can be very dangerous as the bulbs are rated at 300 watts
or more and get VERY hot. They can catch drapes or other materials on fire if you're not careful.)
ASK: Was one bulb brighter than the others? Which bulbs light did you prefer?
ASK: As of January 2014 the United States no longer produces incandescent light bulbs. In terms of cost
is that a good, or a bad thing?
Junior
STEM Kits
Session 4
“Get Moving”
“Shining A Light
On Light Bulbs”
Leader Guide, Page 48
“Brrr, That’s Cold:
Checking for Drafts”
SAY: So far, we have investigated how we can be save more
energy in our schools and homes just by changing the kinds
of light bulbs we use.
Activity Materials:
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Pencil
Tape
Plastic food wrap
Ruler (this can be shared)
Marker (to mark plastic wrap
before cutting)
ASK: How can we identify other ways we waste energy?
(Allow time for the girls to respond.)
ASK: Do you know what a draft is? (Depending on the girls’
answers, you might have to explain what a draft is and how it
is wasteful.)
SAY (if necessary): A draft is air moving into and out from a
building in a place where it’s not wanted, such as around a
window, a door, or an electrical outlet. The places where
cables enter buildings can also be drafty. If a building has
drafty places, energy is being wasted, because it’s escaping
from doors or windows. It means outdoor air is coming
inside, and indoor air is going out. So you may be heating or
cooling that unwanted outdoor air, and your heated or
cooled indoor air is escaping. This means that rooms can
lose heat in winter or lose cooled air in the summer. All of this
wastes energy. So, what do you say we “Get Moving!” and
check for drafts?
(You will need to give each of the girls the materials listed
above.)
SAY: Now we are going to make Draft-O-Meters.
Junior
STEM Kits
Session 4
“Shining A Light
On Light Bulbs”
“Get Moving”
Leader Guide, Page 48
ASK: Who wants to be responsible for reading the instructions? (Wait for a volunteer to respond. Choose
somebody other than the person who got to read the light bulb experiment instructions. This Junior will make her
device at the same time.)
Instructions to be read by a troop member:
SAY: First you have to measure and cut a 12 inch by 6 inch strip of plastic wrap. (Wait for everybody to finish.)
SAY: Now, tape one of the shorter edges of the wrap to your pencil and let the rest hang freely. (Wait for
everybody to finish)
SAY: Now blow the plastic wrap gently.
ASK: Do you see how sensitive the wrap is to air movement? When we hold this close to an area we think may be
drafty, the plastic wrap will move if a draft is present.
(End of instructions for troop member to read)
SAY: I want you to look for places you think may have drafts blowing through.
ASK: Where might some of those places be? (Doors, windows, electrical outlets.)
SAY: For each area, use your Draft-O-Meter tool to check for airflow. Record your observations on your chart.
Rate each area you check as either “no draft” or “small,” “medium,” or “large draft.”
(Allow time for the girls to accomplish their investigation. When girls have finished conducting their
investigating call them to order.)
Now, What Can You Do?
ASK: Did anyone find a drafty area? (Allow girls to discuss where they found drafts.)
Junior
STEM Kits
Session 4
“Shining A Light
On Light Bulbs”
“Get Moving”
Leader Guide, Page 48
ASK: How can we improve the drafty areas that you found? (Allow time for discussion.)
ASK: Now that we know about this particular building, where else could you investigate improving energy use?
(Allow time for answers.)
ASK: How can your investigation lead to lasting change? Why is that important? (Allow time for answers.)
ASK: How does lasting change allow you to live the Girl Scout Law? (I will do my best to be honest and fair, friendly
and helpful, considerate and caring, courageous and strong, and responsible for what I say and do, and to respect
myself and others, respect. authority, use resources wisely, make the world a better place, and be a sister to every
Girl Scout.)
ASK: When you learn something new, why is it important to pass your new knowledge along to others? (Allow time
for answers)
(Depending on what is brought up, you may have to say the following:)
SAY (If necessary): When you speak out about something you are being an “advocate.” Check out the “Relate
and Communicate!” tips that we came up with (Session 3) and have been practicing.
ASK: What new communication tips might be important when we talk to people about using energy wisely? Are
there any new tips we should add?
Junior
STEM Kits
Session 4
“Get Moving”
“Shining A Light
On Light Bulbs”
Leader Guide, Page 48
“Bundle Up for
Comfort: The Value
of Insulation”
Activity Materials:
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•
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Five glass jars of equal size
with lids, covered in the
following insulators: Wool
Sock, Cotton Balls, T-Shirt,
Construction Paper. There is
also one that has no
insulation on it.
5 Digital Thermometers.
Hot Water (provided by you)
Paper
Pencils
SAY: We’ve been talking about being energy wise. We did
an investigation into light bulbs. We discovered that
incandescent bulbs generate more heat than light.
Remember, that 90% of the power we use for
incandescent light bulbs is lost due to heat. Only 10% of
that power makes light. We just learned that if a house or
school or church has drafts, we lose money because we
lose cool air to the outside and the hot air outside comes
inside through the draft. It’s opposite in the winter; we
lose our heat to the outside and the cold air rushes in.
ASK: Does anybody know what insulation is? How about
what insulation does? (Allow the girls time to answer.)
SAY: Insulation or, more correctly, thermal insulation, is a
term used to describe products that reduce heat loss or
heat gain by providing a barrier between areas that are
significantly different in temperature.
Insulation is very clever. Not only does it make your home
warmer in winter, it also helps keep it cooler in summer.
This is a little bit like a thermos that keeps drinks hot or
cold by using an insulating layer between the drink and
the outside air. Air is a poor conductor of heat, so the tiny
pockets of air trapped in insulation minimize the amount
of heat which can pass between the inside and outside
of your house. This means that in the winter, the heat
stays inside a home, and in the summer, it stays outside!
Junior
STEM Kits
Session 4
“Shining A Light
On Light Bulbs”
“Get Moving”
Leader Guide, Page 48
SAY: Now we’re going to conduct another investigation. What we have here are 5 jars. One of them has been
wrapped in a wool sock (show the appropriate jar). This one has been wrapped in a t-shirt (show the appropriate
jar). This one is wrapped up in cotton balls (show the appropriate jar). This one has been encased in construction
paper (show the appropriate jar). We’re going to leave this one alone (indicate a plain, unwrapped jar).
ASK: Does anyone know what you call the subject that is completely left alone in an experiment? (Wait for
answers.)
SAY: It is called the control.
ASK: Why do we need a control? (Wait for answers.)
SAY: We need it to compare what happens when a variable is tested versus if we did nothing to it all.
ASK: What is a variable? (Wait for answers.)
SAY: In an experiment, a variable is anything that can be changed. They are the things that you are testing.
ASK: So, in our experiment, what are our dependent and independent variables? (Dependent variable: water
temperature; Independent variable: the different types of insulators - wool socks, cotton balls, cardboard and the
t-shirt.) What are we testing for? (How well each does at keeping the water hot; i.e., how well it insulates.)
SAY: Now, what we need to do is fill each jar with hot water from the tap. Be careful not to burn yourselves. Fill the
jar until it is full but not all the way to the top. Once your jar is full, take the temperature of the water. You’ll hold the
digital thermometer in the water until the numbers stop moving. Write the temperature down, and then put the lid
on your jar.
(Wait for everyone to complete filling the jars and taking temperatures of their water.)
SAY: Now, we’re going to leave them alone for a half an hour. (Have the girls place the jars in the same spot.
Continue with your meeting. Half an hour later the girls will get their jars.)
Junior
STEM Kits
Session 4
“Shining A Light
On Light Bulbs”
“Get Moving”
Leader Guide, Page 48
SAY: Now, please take the lids off your jars and take another temperature reading. Wait for the numbers to stop
moving and write down your results. (Wait for them to finish.)
SAY: Now we want to find the difference in temperature. How do we do that? (Wait for girls to respond.)
SAY: Whenever you see the word difference, in your math book or on a test, they are asking you to subtract. So
subtract the second temperature from the first temperature, and that will give you the difference.
ASK: So if we are looking for the best insulator, do we want the difference in temperature to be a larger number or
a smaller number? (The smaller the difference in temperature, the better the insulator.)
SAY: Now, I need you to give me the difference that each group came up with.
(Write down the answers that each group gives you along with the name of the insulator used.)
ASK: Which one was the best insulator? Why? (The one with the most air in between its fibers will be the best
insulator.)
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