# ElDev_17 [Compatibility Mode] ```Electronic Circuits
Feedback and Oscillator Circuits
Power Supplies
Prof. Nizamettin AYDIN
[email protected]
http://www.yildiz.edu.tr/~naydin
Dr. G&ouml;khan Bilgin
[email protected]
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Feedback Concepts
Feedback Connection Types
•
•
•
•
The effects of negative feedback on an
amplifier:
Voltage-series feedback
Voltage-shunt feedback
Current-series feedback
Current-shunt feedback
• Lower gain
• Higher input impedance
• More stable gain
• Improved frequency response
• Lower output impedance
• Reduced noise
• More linear operation
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Voltage--Series Feedback
Voltage
4
Voltage--Shunt Feedback
Voltage
For a voltage-shunt feedback amplifier, the output voltage is fed back in
parallel with the input.
For voltage-series feedback, the
output voltage is fed back in series
to the input.
The feedback gain is given by:
Af ≅
1 R1 + R 2
=
β
R2
The feedback gain is given by
Af = −
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Ro
Ri
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1
Current--Series Feedback
Current
Current--Shunt Feedback
Current
For a current-shunt feedback amplifier, a portion of the output
current is directed back in parallel with the input.
For a current-series feedback
amplifier, a portion of the
output current is fed back in
series with the input.
The feedback gain is
given by:
To determine the feedback gain:
I
A
Af = o =
=
Vs 1 + βA
I
Af = o
Is
− h fe h ie
− h fe
≅
 − h fe  h ie + h fe R E

1 + ( − R E )
 h ie + R E 
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Summary of Feedback Effects
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Noise and Nonlinear Distortion
Frequency Distortion with Feedback
•
If the feedback network is purely resistive, then the gain with
feedback will be less dependent on frequency variations. In some
cases the resistive feedback removes all dependence on frequency
variations.
•
If the feedback includes frequency dependent components
(capacitors and inductors), then the frequency response of the
amplifier will be affected.
10
Bandwidth with Feedback
Feedback increases the bandwidth of an amplifier.
•
The feedback network reduces noise by cancellation. The phase
of the feedback signal is often opposite the phase of the input
signal.
•
Nonlinear distortion is also reduced simply because the gain is
reduced. The amplifier is operating in midrange and not at the
extremes.
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2
Gain Stability with Feedback
Gain calculations with feedback are often based on external
resistive elements in the circuit. By removing gain calculations
from internal variations of β and gm, the gain becomes more
stable.
Phase and Frequency Considerations
At higher frequencies the feedback signal may no longer
be out of phase with the input. The feedback is thus
positive and the amplifier, itself, becomes unstable and
begins to
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Oscillator Operation
Types of Oscillator Circuits
Phase
Phase--shift oscillator
Wien bridge oscillator
Tuned oscillator circuits
Crystal oscillators
Unijunction oscillator
The feedback signal must be positive.
The overall gain must equal one (unity
gain).
If the feedback signal is not
positive or the gain is less than
one, the oscillations dampens out.
If the overall gain is greater than
one, the oscillator eventually
saturates.
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Phase--Shift Oscillator
Phase
Phase--Shift Oscillator
Phase
The amplifier must supply enough
gain to compensate for losses. The
overall gain must be unity.
The amplifier must supply enough
gain to compensate for losses. The
overall gain must be unity.
The RC networks provide the
necessary phase shift for a positive
feedback.
The RC networks provide the
necessary phase shift for a positive
feedback.
The values of the RC components
also determine the frequency of
oscillation:
The values of the RC components
also determine the frequency of
oscillation:
f=
1
f=
2πRC 6
1
2π 6RC
more…
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more…
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3
Tuned Oscillator Circuits
Wien Bridge Oscillator
The amplifier must supply
enough gain to compensate
for losses. The overall gain
must be unity.
•
The feedback resistors
are R3 and R4.
•
The phase-shift
components are R1, C1
and R2, C2.
Tuned oscillators use a parallel LC resonant circuit (LC tank) to
provide the oscillations.
There are two common types:
Colpitts—The resonant circuit is an inductor and two capacitors.
Colpitts
Hartley
Hartley—The resonant circuit is a tapped inductor or two
inductors and one capacitor.
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Colpitts Oscillator Circuit
The frequency of oscillation is
determined by:
fo =
The frequency of oscillation is
determined by:
1
fo =
2π LC eq
where:
C eq =
Hartley Oscillator Circuit
1
2π L eq C
where:
C 1C 2
C1 + C 2
L eq = L 1 + L 2 + 2M
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Crystal Oscillators
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Series Resonant Crystal Oscillator
The crystal appears as a resonant circuit.
The crystal has two resonant frequencies:
Series resonant condition
• RLC determine the resonant frequency
• The crystal has a low impedance
• RLC determine the resonant
frequency
• The crystal has a low impedance
Parallel resonant condition
• RL and CM determine the resonant frequency
• The crystal has a high impedance
The series and parallel resonant frequencies are very
close, within 1% of each other.
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Parallel Resonant Crystal Oscillator
•
RL and CM determine
the resonant frequency
•
The crystal has a high
impedance
Unijunction Oscillator
The output frequency is
determined by:
fo =
1
R T C T ln[1 (1 − η)]
Where η is a rating of
the unijunction
transistor with values
between 0.4 and 0.6.
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Unijunction Oscillator Waveforms
Power Supply Diagram
The unijunction oscillator (or
relaxation oscillator) produces a
sawtooth waveform.
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Ripple Factor
Filter Circuits
•
The output from the rectifier section is a
pulsating DC.
•
The filter circuit reduces the peak-to-peak
pulses to a small ripple voltage.
After the filter circuit a small
amount of AC is still
remaining. The amount of
ripple voltage can be rated in
terms of ripple factor (r).
%r =
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reserved.
ripple voltage (rms) Vr(rms )
=
&times; 100
dc voltage
V dc
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Rectifier Ripple Factor
HalfHalf-Wave
FullFull-Wave
DC output:
Capacitor Filter
RC Filter
DC output:
Vdc = 0.318Vm
Vdc = 0.636Vm
AC ripple output:
AC ripple output:
Vr(rms) = 0.308Vm
Vr(rms) = 0.385Vm
Ripple factor:
%r =
Types of Filter Circuits
Ripple factor:
Vr(rms)
Vdc
&times; 100
%r =
0.385Vm
=
&times; 100 = 121%
0.318Vm
Vr(rms)
Vdc
&times; 100
0.308 Vm
=
&times; 100 = 48%
0.636 Vm
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Capacitor Filter
I dc
4 3fC
Diode Ratings with Capacitor Filter
The size of the capacitor increases the current drawn through the diodes—
the larger the capacitance, the greater the amount of current.
Ripple voltage
Vr(rms) =
32
=
2.4Idc 2.4Vdc
=
C
RLC
Peak Current vs. Capacitance:
The larger the capacitor the
smaller the ripple voltage.
I=
CV
t
where
C = capacitance
V = change in capacitor voltage during charge/discharge
t = the charge/discharge time
DC output
I
4.17I dc
Vdc = Vm − dc = Vm −
4fC
C
Ripple factor
%r =
Vr(rms)
Vdc
&times; 100 =
2.4I dc
2.4
&times; 100 =
&times; 100
CVdc
RLC
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RC Filter Circuit
Voltage Regulation Circuits
There are two common types of circuitry for voltage
regulation:
reduces the ripple voltage and
decrease the surge current
through the diodes.
′
Vr(rms)
≈
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•
•
XC
Vr(rms)
R
Discrete Transistors
IC’s
V′′r(rms) = ripple voltage after the RC filter
Vr(rms) = ripple voltage before the RC filter
R = resistor in the added RC filter
XC = reactance of the capacitor in the added RC filter
%VR =
VNL − VFL
&times; 100%
VFL
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6
Discrete--Transistor Regulators
Discrete
Series Voltage Regulator Circuit
Series voltage regulator
Current--limiting circuit
Current
Shunt voltage regulator
The series element controls the amount of the input voltage that gets to
the output.
If the output voltage increases (or decreases), the comparator circuit
provides a control signal to cause the series control element to decrease
(or increase) the amount of the output voltage.
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Series Voltage Regulator Circuit
•
•
•
•
R1 and R2 act as the sampling circuit
Zener provides the reference voltage
Q2 controls the base current to Q1
Q1 maintains the constant output
voltage
Series Voltage Regulator Circuit
The op-amp compares the
Zener diode voltage with
the output voltage (at R1
and R2) and controls the
conduction of Q1.
When the output increases:
When the output decreases:
1. The voltage at V2 and VBE of Q2
increases
2. The conduction of Q2 increases
3. The conduction of Q1 decreases
4. The output voltage decreases
1. The voltage at V2 and VBE of Q2
decreases
2. The conduction of Q2 decreases
3. The conduction of Q1 increases
4. The output voltage increases
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Current--Limiting Circuit
Current
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Shunt Voltage Regulator Circuit
The shunt voltage regulator
shunts current away from
When IL increases:
•
•
•
The voltage across RSC increases
The increasing voltage across RSC drives Q2 on
Conduction of Q2 reduces current for Q1 and the load
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The load voltage is sampled and fed back to a comparator circuit.
If the load voltage is too high, control circuitry shunts more
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Shunt Voltage Regulator Circuit
When the output voltage increases:
•
•
•
•
Shunt Voltage Regulator Circuit
When the output voltage decreases:
The Zener current increases
The conduction of Q2 increases
The voltage drop at Rs increases
The output voltage decreases
•
•
•
•
The Zener current decreases
The conduction of Q2 decreases
The voltage drop at Rs decreases
The output voltage increases
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IC Voltage Regulators
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Three--Terminal Voltage Regulators
Three
Regulator ICs contain:
•
•
•
•
Comparator circuit
Reference voltage
Control circuitry
Types of three-terminal IC voltage regulators
•
•
•
Fixed positive voltage regulator
Fixed negative voltage regulator
The specifications for this IC indicate:
•
•
•
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Fixed Positive Voltage Regulator
The range of input voltages that can be regulated for a specific range of
current
Line regulation—variation in output voltage with variations in input
voltage
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Fixed Negative Voltage Regulator
These ICs provide a fixed positive output voltage.
These ICs output a fixed negative output voltage.
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Practical Power Supplies
DC supply (linear power supplies)
Chopper supply (switching power supplies)
TV horizontal high voltage supply
Battery chargers
These regulators have