# Gas constant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ```Gas constant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_constant
Gas constant
The gas constant (also known as the universal or ideal gas constant, usually denoted by
Values of R
symbol R) is a physical constant used in equations of state to relate various groups of state
8.314472
functions to one another. It is another name for the Boltzmann constant, but when used in
the ideal gas law it is usually expressed in the more convenient units of energy per kelvin per 0.0820574587
mole rather than simply energy per kelvin per particle.
8.20574587 x 10-5
The ideal gas constant occurs in the simplest equation of state, the ideal gas law, as follows:
8.314472
Units
J &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
L &middot; atm &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
m&sup3; &middot; atm &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
cm3 &middot; MPa &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
8.314472
L &middot; kPa &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
8.314472
m3 &middot; Pa &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
62.3637
L &middot; mmHg &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
62.3637
L &middot; Torr &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
83.14472
L &middot; mbar &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
1.987
cal &middot; K-1 &middot; mol-1
6.132439833
lbf &middot; ft &middot; K-1 &middot; g &middot; mol-1
R appears in the Nernst equation as well as in the Lorentz-Lorenz formula.
10.7316
ft&sup3; &middot; psi &middot; &deg;R-1 &middot; lb-mol-1
Its value is:
8.63 x 10-5
eV &middot; K-1 &middot; atom-1
0.7302
ft3&middot;atm&middot;&deg;R-1&middot;lb-mole-1
where P is the pressure of an ideal gas
T is its temperature
is its molar volume
This can also be written as:
where V is the volume the gas occupies
n is the moles of gas
-1
-1
R = 8.314472(15) J &middot; K &middot; mol
The two digits between the parentheses denote the uncertainty (standard deviation) in the last two digits of the value.
Contents
1 Boltzmann constant
2 Specific gas constant
3 US Standard Atmosphere
5 References
Boltzmann constant
The Boltzmann constant kB (often abbreviated k) may be used in place of the other forms of the ideal gas constant by working in pure
particle count rather than number of moles of gas; this simply requires carrying a factor of Avogadro's number. Writing:
One can then express the ideal gas law in direct terms of Boltzmann's constant:
with N = nNA is the actual number of molecules
Specific gas constant
6/22/2007 11:13 AM
Gas constant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The specific gas constant of a gas or a mixture of gases (
gas/mixture.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_constant
) is given by the universal gas constant, divided by the molar mass ( M ) of the
It is common to represent the specific gas constant by the symbol R. In such cases the context and/or units of R should make it clear as to
which gas constant is being referred to. For example, the equation for the speed of sound, is usually written in terms of the specific gas
constant.
The specific gas constant of air is
US Standard Atmosphere
The US Standard Atmosphere, 1976 (USSA1976) defines the Universal Gas Constant (R) as:
The USSA1976 does recognize, however, that this value is not consistent with the cited values for the Avogadro constant and the
Boltzmann constant. Still, the USSA1976 uses this value of R for all the calculations of the standard atmosphere. This disparity is not a
significant departure from accuracy. When using the ISO value of R, the calculated pressure increases by only 0.62 pascals at 11,000 meters
(the equivalent of a difference of only 0.174 meters – or 6.8 inches) and an increase of 0.292 pascals at 20,000 meters (the equivalent of a
difference of only 0.338 meters – or 13.2 inches).
Boltzmann constant
References
1. ^ Standard Atmospheres (http://www.sworld.com.au/steven/space/atmosphere/) . Retrieved on 2007-01-07.
2. ^ a b U.S. Standard Atmosphere (http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19770009539_1977009539.pdf) , 1976, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976 (Linked file is 17 MiB).