Building Vocabulary through Text (Grade 1)

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Building Vocabulary
st
for 1 Grade Students
Presented by:
Sheryl White
[email protected]
Get A Card
• Make sure you have a card.
• You will sit at the table labeled with the # card
you have in your hand.
Session Objectives
• Understanding vocabulary demands in the
Common Core State Standards
• Selecting Tier 2 Academic Vocabulary
• Examining strategies for teaching vocabulary
How much do you know about the 3
tiers of vocabulary?
Use a
1
Not heard of
three tiers of
vocabulary
to show your current understanding.
2
Very little
knowledge of
three tiers of
vocabulary
3
Some
familiarity of
three tiers of
vocabulary
4
Know three
tiers of
vocabulary and
how to use
5
Deep
knowledge of
three tiers …
can teach
others
The Importance of Vocabulary
• Vocabulary knowledge is one of the best indicators of
verbal ability.
• Vocabulary knowledge in kindergarten and first grade is
a significant predictor of reading comprehension in the
middle and secondary grades.
The Importance of Vocabulary
• Vocabulary difficulty strongly influences the readability
of text. In fact, vocabulary is far and away the most
significant factor influencing text difficulty.
• Teaching vocabulary can improve reading
comprehension for both native English speakers and
English learners. (Graves, 2006, 2007)
Oral Language & Vocabulary
Research
Risley, Todd R. Meaningful Differences in Everyday Experience of Young American Children, 1995.
Social Status
Number of words
heard per/hour
Estimate of number
of words heard
per/week
Encouraging words
vs.
Discouraging words
per/week
Welfare Families
616
62,000
500 vs. 1,100
Children from
Working Class
Families
1,251
125,000
1,200 vs. 700
Children from
Professional
Families
2,153
215,000
3,200 vs. 500
Common Core Vocabulary
L.1.5
With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate
understanding of word relationships and nuances in word
meanings.
Introduce- Quarter 1
• L.1.5a. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing)
to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent
Develop- Quarter 1
• L.1.5c Identify real-life connections between words
and their use(e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
Common Core Vocabulary
Introduce-Quarter 2
L.1.5.b
• Define words by category and by one or more
key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a
tiger is a large cat with stripes).
L.1.5.d
• Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs
differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance,
stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in
intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or
choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
Components of a Successful
Vocabulary Program
•
•
•
•
•
High-Quality Classroom Language
Reading Aloud to Students
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Word-Learning Strategies
Wide Independent Reading
High-Quality Classroom Language
• Use high quality vocabulary in the classroom.
• To ensure understanding, tell students the
meaning of words when first used.
– “Don’t procrastinate on your work.
Procrastinate means to wait to doing
something you should be doing.”
– Pair in the meaning of the word by using
parallel language.
“Please refrain from talking. Please don’t
talk.”
Read-Alouds
• Actively engage students during story book and
informational text reading to increase vocabulary
gains.
• Ask questions that promote passage
comprehension. Retell and prediction questions
are particularly useful.
– Use a variety of responses including:
• Group (choral) responses
• Partner responses
• Physical responses
13
Read-Aloud Vocabulary Instruction
Instructional Focus
Incidental Exposure
Example:
I don’t know what I would have done. Curiosity
might have gotten the better of me.
Explanation:
Teacher infuses a vocabulary word into a
discussion about the read-aloud.
Read-Aloud Vocabulary Instruction
Instructional Focus
Embedded Instruction
Example:
And he’s using an oar-a stick-to move the raft
[pointing to the illustration].
Explanation:
Teacher provides a synonym before the target
term oar, pointing to the illustration.
Read-Aloud Vocabulary Instruction
Instructional Focus
Focused Instruction
Example:
Let’s get set means let’s get ready [elicits
examples of things students get ready for].
Explanation:
Teacher leads a discussion on what it means to,
get set including getting set for school and
party.
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
• Vocabulary activities specifically designed to
teach new words
• Explicit vocabulary strategies
– Use informational and narrative texts
– Promote thinking and extend discourse
– Encourage use of novel words
– Provide access to print
– Examine word relationships
– Teach word parts
– Use graphic organizers
17
Successful Vocabulary Instruction
A successful approach to vocabulary instruction
involves directly explaining the meanings of
words along with thought-provoking, playful and
interactive follow-up.
Common Core
and
Three Tiers
of
Vocabulary
Three Tiers of Words
Tier One
Tier Two
Tier Three
High
Frequency
Words
Academic
Vocabulary
Domain-specific
Vocabulary
20
Three Tiers of Vocabulary
• Tier 1- Everyday Words (implicit)
– Used in everyday speech*
chair, bed, happy, house
(Beck & McKeown, 1985)
Three Tiers of Vocabulary
• Tier Two - Words in general use, not content
specific = Academic Vocabulary
Appear far more in written texts than in speech
– concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved,
dignity, convenient, observation, analyze,
persistence
++describe, detail, example
Three Tiers of Vocabulary
• Tier Three- Domain-Specific Words
– Words related to a specific content or field of
study
– triangle, stem, addition, syllable
– tundra, igneous, triangle, perpendicular,
democracy
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Sources of Words
• Sources of Tier 2 words for vocabulary instruction
– WORDS from read-aloud books
– WORDS from core reading programs
– WORDS from reading intervention programs
– WORDS from content area instruction and texts
• Math
• Science
• Social studies
• Health
• Art, PE, music, etc.
24
Sources of Words for Young Children
• for the most part ARE NOT words from the
texts that young children read
• ARE words from books that are read to children
• teacher’s and other adult’s language
Explicit Vocabulary InstructionSelection of Vocabulary
Select words that :
• are likely unfamiliar
• are critical to passage understanding.
• students are likely to encounter in the future
and are generally useful.
• are Tier Two words (Academic Vocabulary)
• are easily explained to children at their level
(Beck & McKeown, 2003)
(Stahl, 1986)
26
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Selection of Vocabulary
“Goldilocks Words”
–Not too difficult
–Not too easy
–Just right
(Stahl & Stahl, 2004)
27
Selection Criteria
for Instructional Vocabulary
Tier 1
Tier 2
Tier 3
Description
Basic words
that most
children
know before
entering
school
Examples
clock, baby,
happy
Words that
appear
frequently in
texts and for
which students
already have
conceptual
understanding
coincidence,
fortunate,
insist, adapt
Uncommon
words that
are typically
associated
with a
specific
domain or
content area
chrysalis,
peninsula,
decimal
(Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002)
How do I determine that a word is TIER
Word
Is this a
generally
useful word?
Does the
word relate
to other
words and
ideas that
students
know or have
been
learning?
Is the word
useful in
helping
students
understand
text?
2?
If you answer
yes to all
three
questions, it
is a tier 2
word. If not,
it is probably
a tier 3 word.
Your Turn-Selecting Tier 2 Words
• In partners at your table, choose one of the
texts you have brought to work with for today.
• Identify (4 )Tier 2 words you would teach your
students.
• Use the selection criteria to help guide you
through this process.
What Strategies Would You Use to
Teach Your Selected Words?
Fold the Line
Tier Two Words
Handout: Vocabulary Activities Using Tier Two
Words
• Skim the activities
• Pick one you think you would use!
Text Talk:
Teaching Vocabulary Using Read Alouds
• Use books teachers read aloud to students as
a source of vocabulary
• Engage in vocabulary activities after a book
has been read
– K-1 recommendation
(I. Beck ,M.McKeown & L. Kucan))
Text Talk for Young Children
A read-aloud approach to enhance children’s
comprehension and vocabulary acquisition.
• Introduce the story
• Read
– Stopping and asking open-ended questions
– Following up children's’ response (e.g. rereading, revoicing)
• Think and Talk
– Comprehension discussion
• Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
• Extended practice and application
Text Talk
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Read story and select 3-6 Tier 2 words.
Introduce Vocabulary
Step 1: Contextualize each word from text.
Step 2: Explain the meaning of the word is
explained using student-friendly terms.
Step 3: Children repeats the word so they can
create a phonological representation of the
word.
Providing Student-Friendly Definitions
Providing student-friendly definitions—ones that are
accurate and that students will understand—is no mean
task. Below is a definition of dazzling from the dictionary
and a student-friendly definition. Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2003).
“bright enough to deprive someone of sight
temporarily”
“If something is dazzling, that means that it’s so bright
that you can hardly look at it.”
Cobuild
36
Text Talk
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Introduce Vocabulary
Step 4: Teacher provides examples in contexts
and other than the one used in the story.
Students also provide their own examples.
Step 5: Children say the word again to reinforce
the phonological representation.
Text Talk
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Develop Vocabulary
Step 6: Students engage in activities that allow
them to interact with words. These activities
serve as a means for students to respond, explain
and create their own examples.
Activities for Interacting with Words
•
•
•
•
•
What’s the Word
Concept Web
Making Choices
Idea Substitution
Situations and Examples
• Choose the Best Answer
• Word Association
• Questions, Answers,
Reasons
• Using All the Words*
Interacting with Tier Two Words
Study at your table:
• Vocabulary Activities Using Tier Two Words
• Activities for Interacting with Words
My Turn
“Ruby the Copycat”
• You will be my class!
• Please follow along with me and participate in
the “student” responses.
• coincidence, loyal, murmured
Text Talk
Maintaining Words
The research strongly points to the need for frequent
encounters with new words in order to become a
permanent part of a student’s vocabulary repertoire.
• Apply Words Learned to New Stories
• Using Words in Reading and Writing Situations
Other Text Talk Extensions
Morning Message
Word Tallies
Our
Words
# of
Times
We Have
Heard
Word
reluctant
IIII
drowsy
III
loyal
IIII
Word
Jar
Word Wall
Supporting English Language Learners
• In addition to the language-based activities in
Text Talk, teachers should shelter instruction
by:
– Using visuals
– Adding motions or acting out words to be learned
Your Turn
• As a small group, triad or partners, you will
practice designing a Text Talk lesson using the
a book you brought for today.
• Complete the Text Talk Planning template
• Choose at least 2 interactive activities
Making Vocabulary Active
TPR- Total Physical Response
• recognizes the value of language being
associated with physical responses
• grammar-based view of language that focuses on
meaning, not form
• evidence-based strategy for English Language
Learners
• scamper
strong
• peek
• forlorn
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Using Literature & Informational Text
• Graphics and visuals
– Identify the word(s) to be learned
– Present a student-friendly explanation
– Illustrate the word with examples or have children
act out
revolve – when something moves around something else
Marzano Building Academic Vocabulary
Word Blasters
• Strategy used after reading with selected Tier 2
words.
• Used to prepare students to incorporate words
in speaking and writing.
http://www.nancyfetzer.com/
Word Masters to Movie Scripts Video Learning Portal
Categorizing/Sorting
List-Group-Label for Young Children
• Identify topic
• Provide or have students generate words related to
topic or use picture cards that relate to topic
• Sort picture cards into group
• Label the name for each category
Categorizing/Sorting
Categories Descriptors
• Familiar Settings & Topics
– Categories
• 5 Senses, etc.
• People, Places, Things
Your Turn
• Each table will be given a card with a topic and
type of category
• As a group, create a chart that shows how you
would teach this topic and categories.
Connecting Words to Real Life
Identify real-life connections between words and
their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
• Vocabulary Word: zones
• Process: Using the word “zones”, students will
identify real-life connections the word’s meaning.
They will draw a picture illustrating the kinds of
“zones” we have at school. (quiet zones, play
zones, work zones)
• Evaluation: Oral responses/product
Math Tier Two Words
Real-Life Connections
Family
Community
Seasons
Categorizing/Sorting
Semantic Feature Analysis
Can modify for
Kindergarten
students by
using pictures
on both axis.
Semantic Feature Analysis
Words and Shades of Meaning
• Acting out
• Simon Says
– talk, march, strut, prance
– speak, whisper, murmur
Shades of Meaning
• Select a specific vocabulary word, e.g., large.
• Create a list of semantically similar words. It may
work best to think of your target word as being in
the center of your continuum.
• Arrange the words in a way that illustrates an
understanding of each word's meaning.
Continuums can be done horizontal or vertical, in
a ladder like fashion.
• Have students discuss their rationale for placing
certain words in certain locations.
• Encourage a conversation about the subtle
differences among the words.
Shades of Word Meaning
stroll, wander, trudge,
swagger, stride, tread,
shuffle, creep
A Ladder of Shades of Words
humongous
gigantic
huge
massive
large
big
A Bridge
One Meaning to Others
• Sort words by degrees or shades of meaning using visual
cues
• Act out (when possible) the different meanings
Awake
Tired
Drowsy
Asleep
Word Order
• Make a list of all of the words that you know
mean _(happy)_.
• Write or say them in order from weakest to
strongest.
– Strongest to weakest
– angry, cross, furious, grumpy
•
Making this Happen
• With your group, please take time to discuss
how you will begin implementation of
Common Core explicit vocabulary instruction.
• What steps might you take to get started?
How much do you know NOW about the
3 tiers of vocabulary?
Use a
1
Not heard of
three tiers of
vocabulary
to show your current understanding.
2
Very little
knowledge of
three tiers of
vocabulary
3
Some
familiarity of
three tiers of
vocabulary
4
Know three
tiers of
vocabulary and
how to use
5
Deep
knowledge of
three tiers …
can teach
others
3-2-1 Evaulation
List 3 Things You Learned:
List 2 Things You Will Try:
List 1 Question You Have:
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