# Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) Gates Objectives • To be familiar with

```Islamic University of Gaza
Faculty of Engineering
Electrical Engineering department
Experiment 7
Digital Electronics Lab (EELE 3121)
Eng. Mohammed S. Jouda
Eng. Amani S. abu reyala
Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) Gates
Objectives
 To be familiar with the operation of ECL.
 To determine the VTC of the Inverter and OR/NOR Gates.
Theoretical Background
a) BJT Current Switch
Figure (1) shows the ideal BJT current switch. The input is at the base of Qi, with the
base of Qr held at a constant reference voltage VBB. The coupled emitters are ideally
connected to a constatnr current sourc IEE. Where a resistor RE is connected between
the coupled emitters and VBB. The current IRE is that given by:
IRE = (VE – (-VEE)) / RE.
Outputs are taken at the collector of Qi and Qr, giving both inverting and noninverting outputs:
Vinv = Vci = Vcc – Ici*Rci
And
Vninv = Vcr = Vcc – Icr*Rcr
The states of inverting and non-inverting outputs are determined by whether the input
voltage Vin is less or greater than the reference voltage VBB. If Vin is less than VBB
(input low state), the inverting output VNOT is the output high state and the noninverting output VNINV is in the output low state. If vin is greater than VBB (input
high state) then VNOT is low and VNINV is high.
b) ECL current-switch voltage transfer characteristic
Figure (2) shows the basic ECL inverter and it's VTC.

With Vin &lt; VBB, Qi is off and Qr is in the forward active region of operation;
then
Vinv = VCC = VOH
Vninv = VCC – IE *Rcr = VOL

With Vin = VBB, Qi and Qr are both active
Vinv = Vninv = VCC – [(VBB – VBE(ECL) +VEE)/(2*RE)]*Rc.
For Vin slightly less than VBB Qi is forward active but not conducting as
heavily as Qr. For Vin slightly greater than VBB, Qr is stll on but not
conducting as heavily as Qi. The transition width between VIL and VIH is
very narrow. The transition width is found to be approximately:
VTW = 0.1V and centered about Vin = VBB.
VIL = VBB – 0.05V
VIH = VBB + 0.05V

As Vin increased beyond VIL, Qi begins to conduct
Vinv = VCC – (Rci/Rcr)*[VIH – VBE(ECL) + VEE] = VOL

When Vin is increased beyond VIH
Vinv = VCC – (Rci/Rcr)*[Vin – VBE(ECL) + VEE].

Qi will eventually saturate with further increases of the input

And
Vin = Vs
, Vinv = Vs – VBC(sat)
c) Basic ECL NOR/OR Gate
emitters to the ECL current switch, the inverting output becomes a NOR
outputs and the non-inverting output becomes an OR output.
1) First Configuration
2) Second Configuration
0
R1
R2
290
300
VNOR
VINB
VOR
VINA
-1.175
R4
3k
R5
3k
R3
2k
-VEE= -5.2 V
Fig 4. Second Configuration for NOR/OR
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Procedures
Part 1:
a) Connect the circuit in Figure 2 with VCC = 5V, -VEE = 0V, and
VBB = 2.5V.
b) Fill in the following table to find VTC
Vin
Vout
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Vin
Vout
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
2
3.5
2.4
3.6
2.5
3.7
2.6
2.7
4
5
c) Determine VOH,VOL,VIH,VIL
d) Draw the VTC of this gate by using the Orcad.
Part 2:
Draw the VTC of the circuit shown in Figure 4 by using the Orcad and show
the results.
```