A review on the utilization of sesame as functional food

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF FOOD AND NUTRITION
Print: ISSN 2157-0167, Online: ISSN 2157-1317, doi:10.5251/ajfn.2014.4.1.21.34
© 2014, ScienceHuβ, http://www.scihub.org/AJFN
A review on the utilization of sesame as functional food
Ali Asghar, Muhammad Nauman Majeed and Muhammad Nadeem Akhtar
National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad,
Pakistan
ABSTRACT
Fat and oil may improve overall food palatability, flavor and mouth feel some fried food products but
elevated fat diet are dejected because of potential diet connected diseases. Sesame or "til" is the
mainly ancient crop cultivated for its oil in the sub-continent. Because of its good taste and
outstanding stability, sesame has long been one of the most desirable edible vegetable oil. Sesame
oil may be used directly exclusive of refining is an ordinary salad oil which could need small or no
winterization and is one of the marginal vegetable oils. Sesame meal has potential use in food
products as a protein and methionine supplement; hence there is a need to utilize the defatted
sesame meal for edible purposes. Sesame coat possesses significant antioxidant activity against
various lipid per-oxidation systems. The oil was found to be cyanide free, hence suitable for human
consumption. Sesame oil enhances tocopherol and also increases vitamin E action that is
supposed to help in prevention of cancer and other heart ailments. Sesame also reduces
cholesterol level because it contains more polyunsaturated fat substance in the oil as compared to
other oils. It retains different lignans like sesamolin, sesamin and sesamol.The proximate analysis
showed the following contents: moisture 4.40%; ash 4.41%; protein 21.00% and oil 54.26%.Oil
content and fatty acid composition are important attributes desirable in oil crops. The percentage
content of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in the seed oil ranged between 40.7–49.3, 29.3–
41.4, 8.0–10.3 and 2.1–4.8%, respectively. Linolenic and arachidic acids were the minor
constituents of the sesame oil. Linoleic and oleic acids were the major fatty acids of sesame with
average values of 45.7 and 37.2%, respectively.
Keywords: Sesame, Fatty acids, Antioxidant, Lignan
INTRODUCTION
Food is one of the essentials of humans and different
sources of foods are cereals, fruits, meat, vegetables,
milk and milk products. From all these sources,
cereal grains are the most economical source of
energy and protein of human diet. From all the cereal
grains, wheat has an important position as a staple
food of the people in this world.
There are a number of nutritional elements that can
not be essentially needed by humans for survival but
greatly effect the value of human living by changing
the physiological procedures. These types of
components may work in grouping or alone, these
having many natural purposes that may be providing
as controllers of gene expression, antioxidants,
immunoregulators, modulators of numerous cellular
processes such as apoptosis and growth. Even
though every food can be described “functional”, as
they supply macro and micro components, proteins
and vitamins or encouraging atmosphere such as
pleasant aroma and taste. Nevertheless, the phrase
functional food relates to food giving supplementary
physiological advantages beyond that of meeting
fundamental dietary requirements. In recent times, a
lot of biologically-energetic molecules have been
isolated from foods and their potential, accompanied
by the mode of action, comprehensively explained;
though, the main animal and plant foods that have
been associated with physiological advantages have
been recognized for a long time.
Sesame has been regarded in the orient as a health
food for aging prevention and energy increasing
(Hajimahmoodi et al., 2008). Sesame is grown in
many parts of the world on over 5 million acres
2
(20,000 km ). The largest producer of the crop in
2007 was India ,China ,Myanmar ,Sudan ,Ethiopia
,Uganda and Nigeria. Seventy percent of the world's
sesame crop is grown in Asia, with Africa growing
26%.
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
Beginning in the 1950s, U.S. production of the crop
has been largely centered in Texas, with acreage
fluctuating between 10,000 to 20,000 acres (40 to
2
80 km ) in recent years. The country's crop does not
make up a significant global source; indeed imports
have now outstripped domestic production.
that grows in pods. Its flowers are light yellow,
although flowers are also differ in color with various
being purple or blue (Morris, 2002). Sesame is
growing to 50 to 100cm (1.6 to 3.3ft) tall in length and
it is an annual plant with conflicting leaves 3 to 14cm
(1.5 to 5.6 inch) extended with an whole edge; leaves
are broad lanceolate, to 5cm (2 inch) wide at the
bottom of the plant, lessening to just 1cm (0.4 inch)
broad to the blossoming stem. The floras are purple
to white, cylindrical, 2 to 5cm (1.1 to 1.9 inch) long,
lobed mouth with a four edges. The seed cake is an
excellent source of protein supplement in the animal
feed industry. Sesame seed are pear-shaped, ovate,
small (about 2.5-3mm in length, 1.5mm in width),
slightly flattened and thinner at the helium. Weight of
1000 seeds is approximately 3g. Light-colored seeds
yield better quality oil than dark color but lower oil
content (Mukhopadhyay and Ray, 1999).
The utilization of sesame into diet can help to have a
better taste in our daily consumed dishes. The
sesame seeds have a pleasant flavor and taste that
resembles the nuts and its utilization is simple in
different products. It can be spread over soups,
salads, cereals or yoghurt. The baked products can
be supplemented with whole sesame grains to
achieve an attractive and appealing form that
improves the texture of final product. The grinding of
sesame before its addition to products can be more
beneficial to obtain the prospective health benefits
from its active components like dietary fiber, lignans
and Omega-3 fatty acids. Several researchers have
studied that ground sesame or whole seeds can be
replaced with wheat flour used for the production of
pancake, muffins, breads and cookies. Several food
products containing sesame are available in the
market. The energy bars, pasta, bagels, muffins and
pancakes are some of the examples of products with
added sesame either in whole or its ground form
(Manthey et al., 2002).
The following outlines are discussed as
under:
 Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.); an Overview
 Characterization of Sesame Seed Oil
 Oil Quality and Effect of Roasting on Sesame
Seed
 Physical and Chemical Properties of Sesame
 Antioxidant Status of Sesame and Fatty
Acids Composition
 Lignan Glycosides and Thermal Stability
 Health benefits of sesame
 Physiological Threats; Implications for Health
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.); an Overview
The sesame is not an excellent source of starch. The
sesame seeds contain approximately a quarter of
soluble fibers out of the total fiber present in sesame.
The main part of soluble fiber is mucilaginous gum
and its composition ranges from 8-11g per 100 g.
The alpha linolenic acid (ALA) which is an omega-3
fatty acid forms the major part of polyunsaturated
fatty acids in sesame. It is present about 50% of the
total fatty acids. ALA is essential amino acid and can
not be synthesized by the human body from any
other substance therefore it is considered as an
essential fatty acid. The essential fatty acids
requirements for the human body can be fulfilled by
intake of sesame products (Morris, 2004). 100g of
sesame provides 100% of the recommended daily
allowance (RDA) for manganese and potassium, 5765% of the RDA of phosphorus and iron, and 1335% for zinc, calcium and copper while its
recommended daily intake is 25 to 50 grams (Anon,
2006). Specialty grains (bulgar wheat, barley,
sesame, sprouted grains and rice extract) are used in
breakfast cereals to add novel textures, flavors and
colors in these products.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) a self pollinating
annual plant having a straight, pubertal stem with
branching and is known one of the most important
oilseed crop. It has been considered an element
in animal feed and human foods as a whole seed, oil,
and meal (Hahma et al., 2009). Sesame is
a blossoming
plant and
belongs
to
the
genus Sesamum. Various wild relatives found
in Africa and a minor number in India and other parts
of the world. It is extensively naturalize in tropical
areas in the world. It is grown for their edible seed
The unique flavor and its opposition to oxidative
corrosion make the sesame oil an outstanding salad
oil. With an average two third sesame seeds of the
worlds are processed into oil and meal (Kang et al.,
2003), the quality and variety of yield continue to
raise (Bandyopadhyay and Ghosh, 2002). In addition
to using sesame oil for cooking foods, it may be used
for nutraceutical food (Morris, 2002). According to the
reports, in 2003, the reserved area for sesame
planting in the world was 6.57 million hactares; with a
production rate of 3,096 million tonnes per year and

22
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
an average yield of 471.2kg/ha (Ofosuhene et al.,
2010). In recent times, a nutraceutical diversity of
sesame uses have been open to the elements from
such as sesamolin, assesamin, sesamol are lipidsoluble antioxidants and sesaminol, lignan glucosides
and sesame lignans are originate to be antioxidative
and health benefiting. Sesame meal ( 45–55%
protein value) is a significant protein resource
for the utilization of mankind because of the presence
of sulfur-containing AA. Sesamolin which is
derived from seeds of sesame inhibit expansion
of leukemia cells in human (Bandyopadhyay and
Ghosh, 2002). The consumption of whole sesame
seed shows the increase plasma γ-tocopherol and
improved vitamin E action, which are supposed to
avoid heart disease and cancer. Sesame oil is
considered to satisfy compound organ failure and
boost endurance speed during endotoxemia in rats,
while defending aligned with lipopolysaccharidemotivated oxidative and influencing constructively
the blood glucose,
glycosylated
hemoglobin, antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation
in diabetic. Sesame intake also affects confidently
antioxidant status, blood lipids and sex hormones in
postmenopausal women (Wu et al., 2006).
compositional changes during and after germination.
Various studies were to evaluate the effects
of germination on
sesame
seeds
chemical
composition and chief health-improving useful
ingredients, counting sesamol and tocopherols
(Beyer et al., 2002).
Characterization of Sesame Seed Oil: Edible oils
are resulting from plants and animals. Oils from
plants are termed as vegetable oil. The principal
sources of vegetable oils are nearly plants, which
include sunflower, soybeans, cotton seed, groundnut,
rapeseed, corn, melon and sesame seed. Other
sources are oil bearing perennial plants such as
shear, olive, cashew coconut and palm. Sesame
seed is rich in oil content with about 53% quality
edible oil, 42% cake and 5% moisture seed (Akinoso,
2006).
Sesame seed oil may be used directly exclusive of
refining is an ordinary salad oil, which could need
small or no winterization and is one of the marginal
vegetable oils. Clinical studies have shown that
sesame oil consumption has too many benefits to
health like minimizing the occurrence of cancer,
contributes to the avoidance of degenerative
processes; therefore decrease the death rate through
cerebro and cardio -vascular diseases. Health
benefits of sesame, such as antioxidative,
hypocholesteremic,
antihypertensive,
immunoregulation
and
anticancer are
mainly
accredited to lignans and their glycosides (Hany et
al., 2000).
Cultivated broadly from humid to moderate regions of
the world, sesame seeds contain on a normal 25–
35% of protein as well as 55% of oil, rich in
unsaturated fat. The richest fatty acids in sesame oil
are linoleic acid (37–42%) and oleic acid (41–45%)
(Kang et al., 2000: Kim et al., 2002). The effects
of germination on the chemical composition and
biochemical constituents of seeds differ to a great
degree with the plant kind, seed cultivars or varieties
and the germination circumstances. Such changes
are important to the marketable applicability of
sesame, more so if the health-improving functional
constituents are sought. Nevertheless, sesame in
recent times recognized as a chief cause of allergic
reactions between infant and young children and a
young woman that is amazing as sesame oil is used
widely in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries
because of its apparently low antigenicity (Caminiti et
al., 2006). Allergens that belong to seed storage
proteins, ordinary food allergens have been
recognized in sesame seeds. Therefore it is thus
significant to check the protein level in sesame. As
the investigation of biochemical and chemical
ingredients provided by germinated seeds leftovers
deficient, the benefits and limitations of germinating
seeds utilized for human have not been recognized.
To maintain the advantageous level of sesame seeds
for marketable utilizations, it is vital to outline their
The level of oil of the sesame seeds ranges from
41.6 to 62.5%, the average being 53.2%. Sesame
contains nearly 85% unsaturated fatty acids. Seed
contained 48.4% crude oil, 5.6% moisture, 20.2%
crude proteins, 7.69% carbohydrate (by difference)
and 9.3% crude fiber. Mineral profile (mg/100g) of
seed is Calcium 415.38 ± 3.14, Phosphorus 647.25 ±
3.52, Potassium 851.35 ± 3.44, Magnesium 579.53 ±
0.42 and Sodium 122.50 ± 4.21. Chemical study of
cake extract of sesame showed 4.1% ash, 51.0% fat,
19.7% sugar 6.8% protein and a total of 14.3%
lignans and lignan glucosides (Nzikou et al., 2009).
Fatty acid profile of sesame oil showed that major
component was linoleic acid containing 41.8–45.1%
of the total fatty acids, followed by stearic 32.6–24%,
palmitic 8.2–7. %, oleic 4.6–56% and these four
comprised on 96% of the total fatty acids. About 83%
of total means of linoleic and oleic acids were as
unsaturated fatty acids of sesame. Sesame oil fit for
human consumption because high amount of
23
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
unsaturated fatty acids increases the quality of the
oil. Saturated fatty acids of sesame oil were palmitic
and stearic acids with a range of 9.1–10.4 and 3.2–
5.9%. Phenolic compounds donate a hydrogen atom
o serve up as significant antioxidants because of their
donating ability in order to form stable radical
intermediates. Hence, they phenolic compounds help
in prevention the oxidation of different biological
molecules (Were et al., 2006).
have oxidative constancy of is more than in those
isolated from of the sesame oil separated from
covered seeds. The roasting and dehulling
procedures did not cause an important alteration in
the major FA composition. The sesamol enlarged
after dehulling to 22mg/kg and significantly to
54.86mg/kg after roasting (Yoshida and Takagi,
1999).
Oil Extraction: Sesame seed oil was extracted with
hexane at 20 °C for 72 hours; then filtered. This
process was repeated three times using fresh solvent
each time in order to extract most of the oil from
sesame seeds. Miscella was collected, mixed and
evaporated at 50 °C under vacuum. Then the
extracted oil was dried using anhydrous sodium
sulphate (Unal and Yalcın, 2008).The most ordinary
technique for extraction of edible oil from oilseeds is
mechanical pressing. Nevertheless, the mechanical
screw pressing is comparatively unproductive,
leaving about 7.5-13.5% remained oil in cake. An
enhancement in the mechanical isolation apparatus
and methods through appropriate conditioning may
increase oil recovery from 74% to 81% for groundnut
and rapeseed and 60% to 65% for cotton seed
(Jaswant and Bargale, 2000).
Applied pressure, heating temperature, heating
duration, moisture content, particle size, handling and
storage are factors influencing yield and quality of
vegetable oil expression. The degree of influence
varies with kind of oilseeds and method of oil
expression. Effects of some of these parameters on
yield and quality of oil expressed from sesame using
expeller were studied. Moisture content, duration of
heat treatment and pre heating temperature were
studied (Akinoso et al., 2006).
Moisture content has highest influence on sesame
seed oil yield. To increase oil yield, moisture content
is reduced while roasting duration and roasting
temperature are increased. Temperature has less
effect on increasing free fatty acid values while
moisture may have a stronger effect. The hydrolysis
of meadow foam triglycerides improved as moisture
level of the seeds would sustain. The free fatty acid
values of the oil samples show improvement with
enhancing temperature and moisture. Optimum
condition was achieved at seed moisture content of
4.6% wet basis, roasting time and temperature of
0
13.0 minute and 124.2 C respectively. At these
conditions, oil yield was 50.4% of substance,
corresponding to 90.1% effectiveness of oil
expressed. Free fatty acid was 1.1% m/m while oil
impurity was 0.1% and color rating was 6.2 lovibond
units (Mohammadzadeh et al., 2009).
Oil Quality and Effect of Roasting on Sesame
Seed: Oil quality may be estimated by numerous
parameters, counting contaminants and indicators of
non-triglyceride oil damage such as FFA (hydrolysis)
and corrosion products. "Good quality oil" is
frequently defined as containing negligible nontriglyceride contaminants and oxidation products, but
antioxidants such as tocopherol are desirable. Nontriglyceride components may have a powerful
influence on the route of oxidation, and thus
recognition of the most significant non-triglyceride
components and the isolation and cleansing
processes that influence their content, is desirable
(Prior et al., 1991).
The high proportion of oil content in the seeds makes
them feasible for commercial extraction. The oil was
found to be cyanide free, therefore appropriate for
human utilization. The protein level for enzymeisolated seeds being remarkably lower than that of
solvent-isolated might be accredited to the removal of
protein in the aqueous stage as is evidenced by the
occurrence of substantial amounts of protein (13.9–
25.7%) (Mohammed et al., 2007).
Sesame oil extracted from roasted sesame seeds
has a characteristic flavor and a pleasant taste.
Pretreatments of seeds before oil extraction may
enhance this flavor and quality. The pretreatments
could involve moisture control of seeds and heating
conditions for roasting. The moisture content of the
seeds after washing and heating conditions during
roasting (changes in roasting time and temperature)
can be controlled to create a better quality of oil,
particularly how it relates to sensory properties for
consumers. In this study, the association among the
pretreatment of seeds (moisture contents and heating
conditions) and physical and sensory qualities was
Quality uniqueness and composition of sesame seed
oil roasted at diverse temperatures in an electric oven
observed that total fatty acids to remain more or less
the
same
roasting
at
increasingly higher
temperatures (Hany et al., 2000). Dehulled seeds
24
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
investigated for the purpose of manufacturing a better
quality of sesame oil. Sesame seeds were washed
and dried to moisture contents of about 6, 11 and
17% and heated before oil extraction. Heating was
o
conducted at 240, 260 or 280 C for 15 minutes or
was changed from former temperatures to 200 and/or
o
240 C and kept for 5 minutes. After oil extraction,
Hunter color value, rancidity and certain physical
properties of sesame oil were measured and sensory
evaluation was performed. Those sesame seeds
having moisture content of 10-12% had less of a
burnt flavor. In L value, sesame oil had 15 to 30 and
roasted sesame seeds achieved about 50 with
o
roasting at about 270 C for 20 minutes, having the
highest score in overall preference. The change in
o
o
roasting temperatures, from 290 C to 200 C,
appeared to decrease the amount of burnt flavor.
Rancidity was not observed in all sample oils. The
results suggest that low levels of moisture content
and roasting temperatures of seeds had a positive
correlation with the L value of oil. Their moisture
contents and heating conditions affected color,
sensory preference and the amount of burnt flavor in
oil (Lee et al., 2004).
recommended that a better quality produce would be
o
acquired by roasting for 24 minutes at 165 C, 15
o
o
minutes at 200 C and 5 minute at 220 C when
compared with other samples (Yoshida and Takagi,
1997).
One of the most important factors is color that might
be used for process control during roasting, as the
browning and caramelization reactions proceeds as
the brown stains enhance. Non-enzymatic and
enzymatic reactions are involved in browning of foods
(Hussain et al., 1986). Color formation in sesame oil
was dependable for both non-enzymatic browning
and phospholipids degradation. Determination of
kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant, reaction
order and activation energy) the chemistry of
reactions that are concerned in browning is hard but
the kinetics is an important device of control model
and for optimizing and controlling the process or
modeling of changes is essential. In foods zero-order
or first-order reaction is normally non-enzymatic
browning reaction and it was previously classified the
effect of temperature on non-enzymatic browning
reaction and color changes during roasting of
both peanut and hazelnut as non-enzymatic (Moss
and Otten, 1989).
Sesame seed processing roasting is one of the
principal steps. In this study, throughout roasting
process a number of physical changes of sesame
seeds happened as improved the moisture content of
sesame seeds, the roasting time and temperature
were decreased for all roasting methods. Improved in
the whiteness of seeds originally and during the
roasting process it reduced. By increasing exposure
time and temperature the enhancement in the
yellowness and redness of sesame seeds were
calculated. Sesame seeds become less hard and
more fracture with the effect of roasting that might be
responsible for crispy texture. It was establish that
roasting attributes of sesame seeds in conservative
roasting procedure was adequately described. The
kinetics of colour changes during conservative
roasting of sesame seeds was adequately monitored
(Kahyaoglu and Kaya, 2006).
In addition to the color for sesame roasting texture is
another important control parameter. Seeds become
more crumble and brittle during the roasting which
are characteristics of the typical roasted products.
The reaching of texture of a certain degree is very
vital for the creation of sesame paste. For production
of sesame paste experienced operators also control
the roasting process by eating sesame. This is called
subjective test used for the measurement.
Assessment of the textural aspects of foods might be
made with the better objective tests more sensitively,
quickly, cheaply and since the mechanical
parameters can be referred to specific aspects of the
chemistry shape, water content etc. Quality control
would become more of an objective science and so
rendered much easily of the food item (Vincent,
2004). Testing of samples can be as bulk or
individually when contained changes in the texture
of hazelnuts due to the roasting are attributed to
crunchiness and crispness in a cell. Textural
properties influenced by moisture content and
roasting process the of sesame seed and fragile and
brittle texture due to high temperature roasting
caused (Pittia et al., 2001).
The optimum process parameters for expression of
high yield and good quality sesame seed oil are 4.6%
wet basis moisture content, 13min roasting duration
o
and 124.2 C roasting temperature, which give 50.4%
oil yield, 1.1% free fatty acid 0.1% oil impurity and 6.2
lovibond color yellow (Akinoso, 2006). Compared the
quality distinctiveness and composition of sesame
o
oils roasted at dissimilar temperatures (160-250 C)
by utilization of a household electric oven, with an
unroasted oil sample were examined. Their results
The acid value which is an index of free fatty acid
content due to enzymatic activity in the samples was
found to be very low, below the minimum acceptable
25
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
value of 4.0% for sesame recommended by the
Codex Alimentarius. Peroxide value is an index of
rancidity, thus the high peroxide value of oil indicates
a poor resistance of the oil to per-oxidation during
storage. The peroxide values of Sesame seeds are
little below the maximum acceptable value of 10meq
KOH/g set by the Codex Alimentarius. The oil density
is however closer to that of groundnut oil (0.918) and
less dense than neem seed oil (0.939). The iodine
values of the crude oils were 103 and 116/100g for
white and red seeds respectively, which is high,
indicating that it is semi dry oil (Mohammed and
Hazma, 2008).
oil (0.939) (Akpan, 1999). The iodine values of the
crude oils were 103 and 116 gI2/100g for white and
red seeds of sesame respectively, which is high,
indicating that it is semi dry oil. Thus, the oil will not
attract high interest in the paint and coatings industry
unless it undergoes dehydration before use (Abayeh
et al., 1998). The values are comparable to iodine
value of melon seed, 124.5 and 121.03 for African
pear, Caryodes edulis. On the other hand, the values
obtained are higher than 53.4 to 101.5 reported as
iodine values for some selected vegetable oils (cotton
seed, melon seed and shea) and other wild seed oil
grown but lower than 178.8 as in palm oil
(Mohammed and Hamza, 2008).
Effect of air-drying temperature and storage time on
numerous characteristics of crude sesame oil terms
of free fatty acids and peroxide value were examined.
It was found that extended storage time affected oil
level very much than air-drying temperature. The
results showed that free fatty acids and peroxide
value differed between 0.54 and 1.23% and between
10.6 and 23.4meq O2/kg, correspondingly, when
samples of consistent original moisture content were
dried at a variety of temperatures between 20 and
95°C to just about 7% moisture content, stored for 8
months and then examined. It was resulted that both
oil quality distinctiveness improved exponentially with
air-drying temperature and linearly with storage time
(Bax et al., 2004).
The acid value which is an index of free fatty acid
content due to enzymatic activity in the samples was
found to be very low, below the minimum acceptable
value of 4.0% for sesame recommended by the
Codex Alimentarius. Peroxide value is an index of
rancidity, thus the high peroxide value of oil indicates
a poor resistance of the oil to per-oxidation during
storage. The peroxide values of sesame seeds are
little below the maximum acceptable value of 10meq
KOH/g set by the Codex Alimentarius. The oil density
is however closer to that of groundnut oil (0.918) and
less dense than neem seed oil (0.939). The iodine
values of the crude oils were 103 and 116/100g for
white and red seeds respectively, which is high,
indicating that it is semi dry oil (Mohammed and
Hazma, 2008; Arslan et al., 2007).
Physical and Chemical Properties of Sesame:
Most important properties oil is the chemical
properties of along which evaluate the present
condition of the oil. Important measures of oil quality
are FFA and peroxide values. The degree of unsaturation of the oil is the measure of the iodine
value.
Considerably higher
FFA
and
the
unsaponifiable matter substance of the Soxlhet
method were than those of the Blye and Dyer
method. Iodine and saponification values was no
significant different to each other, in the two
extraction processes (P > 0.05). In the Soxlhet
method the slightly higher value of unsaponifiable
matter may be due to the other lipid associated
substances like vitamins, sterols, fat soluble,
hydrocarbons and pigments or due to the capability
of the solvent to extract (Nzikou et al., 2009).
Moisture contents for storage of oilseeds decreases
with the increase in oil contents. Optimum moisture
contents for maximum oil recovery are 13% for
soybean, 10.5% for rapeseed and 8% for sunflower.
Drying may be necessary prior to storage of some
oilseeds. In this operation overheating must be
avoided to prevent an increase in free fatty acids and
proteins de-naturation. The cooking temperature for
oilseeds before oil extraction may vary in the range of
70-110°C depending upon the type of seeds and
extraction process. Temperature treatment aids in
rupturing the oil globules which coalesce into droplets
and increase the plasticity of crushed seed for fast
and efficient pressing that preserves oil and meal
quality and ultimately reduces refining requirements
(Bargale, 1997).
The oils were showed to have specific gravities, of
0.915 (white) and 0.923 (red) g/cm3, which is
comparable to the values reported in seeds of
Balanite aegyptiacae 0.895, Lophira lanceolata,
0.8867 and Sclereocarya birrae 0.8975. The oil
specific gravity was however closer to that of
groundnut oil (0.918) and less dense than neem seed
Se speciation in sesame seeds (hulled) possessing
low selenium content was studied in order to assess
the role of sesame seeds in Se-supplementation
process. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is an imported
raw food material that is mostly used to sprinkle over
bakery products. Actually, the average Se content of
26
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
−1
sesame seeds exceeds 3μg Se g . This selenium
level is not regarded as significant in everyday
selenium supplementation except for those countries
where average Selenium intake is low from traditional
diet. Flavor deterioration is caused by lipid peroxidation rancidity in the in raw food stuffs. Food
material containing high fat content i.e. oil-seeds tend
to become readily rancid due to inappropriate or longkeeping storage of the food material. As sesame
contains a reasonable fat content, scientists
estimated the prospect conversion of selenium
species through this undesirable procedure (Kapolna
et al., 2007).
acids were the predominant saturated fatty acids of
sesame oil found in the range of 8.0-10.3 and 2.14.8%. Phenolic components serve as important
antioxidants because of their hydrogen atom
donating ability to electron in order to form stable
radical intermediates. Hence, they tend to prevent the
oxidation of different biological molecules (Were et
al., 2006).
The major saturated fatty acids were found to be
palmitic (8.58%), stearic (5.44%) acids with small
arachidic acid (0.9%) in Sesamum indicum L. seed
oil. The main unsaturated fatty acids are linoleic
(46.26%) and oleic (38.84%) acids. The two oil
samples of Sesamum indicum L. contained saturated
and unsaturated acids (14.90% and 85.10%)
respectively. Sesamum indicum L oil can be
categorized in the oleic-linoleic acid group. linoleic
acid is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid in
human food because of its role in prevention for
distinct heart diseases. Sesamum indicum L. oil is
primarily comprised of oleic and linoleic acids
(38.84% and 46.26%) respectively. Sesame seed is a
rich source of protein, minerals and oil. Sesamum
indicum L. seed oil is of unsaturated type and
contains the fatty acids oleic C18:1(38.84 %) and
linoleic C18:2 (46.26%). The oil extracts showed
good physicochemical properties and could be useful
in industrial applications (Nzikou et al., 2009).
Antioxidant Status of Sesame and Fatty Acids
Composition: The total antioxidant activity
decreased order of black sesame hulls > black
sesame > white sesame hulls > white sesame.
1mg/mL concentration of the extracts was used to
determine the total antioxidant status (TAS). The TAS
process is used to measure the relative activity of
antioxidant substances to scavenge DPPH radical
anion compared to the reference, trolox which is a
water-soluble vitamin E analogue. The TAS trend
obtained corresponded positively with the total
phenolics content in the extracts with a correlation
coefficient of r = 0.995. It is apparent that there is a
strong positive relation between total phenolics
content of various fractions of sesame and their
respective total antioxidant activity (Shahid et al.,
2006).
Oil content was found to relate positively with oleic
and stearic acids but had a negative relationship with
palmitic and linoleic acids. In oat when subjected to
recurrent selection for increased oil content (Mollers
and Schierholt, 2002). Similar association between oil
content and oleic and palmitic acids in winter
rapeseed was observed. The complexity of the
results for breeding is that selection for high oil
content in sesame should lead to a reduction in
palmitic and linoleic acids and an increase in oleic
acid. Collection for increased palmitic or linoleic acid
would be expected reduced oleic acid content to
result in low oil content. Both stearic and oleic acids
were inversely associated with palmitic acid, which
were positively connected. The synthesis of fatty
acids of 18-carbon proceeds via a single step
elongation of acyl chains 16-carbon, followed by desaturation. The elongation step plays an important
role in regulating the relative amounts of palmitic acid
and the 18-carbon fatty acids (Carlsson et al., 2000).
An absence in this pace leads to a decrease in the
quantity of the fatty acids of 18-carbon and a boost in
the palmitic acid content of plant tissues. Breed
sesame varieties with low or high levels of palmitic
Sesame coat possesses significant antioxidant
activity against various lipid per-oxidation systems in
vitro. The different antioxidant mechanisms of
sesame coat may attribute to a strong a metalchelating ability, hydrogen-donating ability and their
effectiveness as good scavengers of hydroxyl
radicals. Sesamin and sesamolin seem to make no
contribution to the antioxidant activity. The tetranortriterpenoids and phenolic compounds appear to
be responsible for the antioxidant activity. In addition,
in vivo evidence and isolation of antioxidant
components in sesame coat were carried out
(Vincent, 2004).
Linoleic acid was the major component comprising
42.9-54.0% of the total fatty acids followed by oleic
31.6-42%, palmitic 7.2-9.7% and stearic 3.8-5.6%. In
total, these four compounds constituted about 98% of
the total fatty acids (Beatrice et al., 2006). The total
means of linoleic acids and oleic as unsaturated fatty
acids of sesame were found as about 83%. This
higher level of unsaturated fatty acids increased the
quality of the oil for human use. Palmitic and stearic
27
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
acid by recurrent selection for oleic acid content
would seem possible based on the present work and
related reports. It had observed that strong inverse
association of linoleic acid with both oleic and stearic
acids.
The
consequences
highlight
that
interrelationship between dissimilar enzymatic steps
of fatty acid synthesis in sesame seeds is the main
determinant of the fatty acid composition (Were et al.,
2006).
in fatty acid composition. It was observed that oils
extracted from dehulled seeds were less stable, as
reflected in CD, PV, TBA and p-AV values coated
seeds were higher, than those after roasting at 200°C
plus steaming, roasting at 200°C, steaming at 100°C,
or microwaving at 2450 MHz, except for TBA values
of oil from microwave seeds. After 35 days of storage
at 65°C, the dehulled extracted oil CD, p-AV, and
TBA values seeds were 18.81, 9.12 and 1.32,
respectively, significantly (p<0.05) different while
those of their coated counterparts were at 15.20,
14.84 and 1.04, respectively. It was concluded that
few considerable changes were obvious in oil
obtained from either coated or dehulled in the fatty
acid composition of seeds subjected to various
treatments (Abou-Gharbia et al., 1997).
Lignan Glycosides and Thermal Stability: Lignan
glycosides are present in sesame seed. Higher
thermal stability observed of edible vegetable oils
after addition of sesame lignans suggests that
sesame lignans may have potential application as
natural antioxidants in the edible oil. Blending of
sesame oil with preferred oil in food industry and
might increase the antioxidant probable of oils and
therefore, blending may be more effective of
vegetable oils with sesame oil than the addition of
synthetic antioxidants. Lignans may also increase
antioxidant potential of diets and it is providing
stability, in vitro and in vivo studies reveals vitamin E
sparing
effect
has
been
demonstrated
(Ghafoorunissa et al., 2004).
Health benefits of sesame: Sesame is one of the
oldest oil seed in the world that additionally having
fabulous dietary importance that has been
investigated. Sesame contains distinctive oil that is
digested without any difficulty and it is also stable to
oxidative stress and for these causes this is helpful
and fit for utilization. The sesame oil contain
monounsaturated fat, moreover these contain a
range of supportive chemicals or antioxidants which
defend the mankind from the harmful effects of free
radicals when sesame oil is utilized as the
occurrence of sesamolin and sesamin in sesame
seed. Sesame is also a foundation of useful dynamic
componds that occur in plants, for example
phytochemicals. These nutraceuticals and bioactive
chemicals might be utilized in the avoidance,
controlling as well as in the management of diseases
for example oxidative stress, cancer, osteoporosis,
cardiovascular disease etc. Some of the bioactive
components of sesame are as fallows.
Major lignans including sesamin, sesamolin and
lignan glycosides abundantly present in sesame
(Sesamum indicum L.) seed and oil contain. In seeds
the distribution plot of sesamin and sesamolin
contents showed that the mean values of sesamin
and sesamolin were 1.66 mg/g and 0.73 mg/g,
respectively. The range of total tocopherols of these
sesame lines was 50.9-211 lg/g seed. The ranges of
sesamin and sesamolin were 0.96-2.89 mg/g oil and
0.41-0.83 mg/g oil, respectively; in commercial
sesame oils and tocopherol contents were 403-674
lg/g oil. The study reveals the extensive variability
among sesame products in sesamin, sesamolin and
tocopherol contents. The highest contents of both
lignans (sesamin 41.5 ± 3. 05 mg/g; sesamolin 22.9 ±
3.54 mg/g) and also total phenolics (14.3 ± 3. 49
mg/g gallic acid equivalent) the results showed that
the extract of white sesame seed. Sesamin and
sesamolin are reported as 300-400 mg/100g and
300-400 mg/100g, respectively and are major lignans
found in sesame seeds (Kim et al., 2006).
Ethyl protocatechuate: Chang et al. (2002)
identified and separated an antioxidant, ethyl
protocatechuate (EP) from the sesame seed coat.
They also examined that ethyl protocatechuate was a
chief cause of the inhibitory effect against human
2+
LDL oxidative modification persuaded by Cu ions.
Additionally, ethyl protocatechuate can be used in
food conservation mainly foodstuffs with elevated
fatty level, it defends lipids against oxidation.
Nevertheless, a higher dose of ethyl protocatechuate
(500 mg/kg) increased tumor formation, stimulate
touching sensitivity in rat skin and troubled the
detoxification of final cancer causing compounds
(Nakamura et al., 2001).
Dehulled sesame seeds have effect on different
processing conditions on the quality and oxidative
stability of oils extracted from intact seeds and was
studied. Iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV),
conjugated diene (CD), para-anisidine value (p-AV)
and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA), the most important
quality parameters were measured such as changes
Several experiments have pointed out that tocopherol
within sesame participates to these health benefits as
28
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
tocopherols has been found to be present in sesame
ethyl protocatechuate, these tocopherols are lipidsoluble natural antioxidants that have been stated to
posses the capability to carry out the majority of the
health benefits stated earlier (Liebler, 1993).
2000). Sesame oil comprises of approximatly 9003000 ppm overall phytosterols. Phytosterols can arise
in the free form but also esterified to sugar moieties,
FFAs or phenolic acids. Free phytosterols of both
white and black color sesame seeds comprises of
about 66% of the total sterols in the oil as
investigated by Choi and Kim (1985).
Sesame oil: Sesame oil is believed to be a food that
improves the health since it include a superior
quantity of mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than
saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and it also includes
bioactive components for example phytosterols and
tocopherol (Yamashita et al., 1992). It normally
includes fatty acids, in the following proportions 36.942.1% linoleic, 46.2-48.5% oleic and 13-17%
saturated fatty acids (SFAs). The oil is composed of a
variety of FAs, from these a good proportion
comprises of only linoleic and oleic acids (Weiss,
1983).
The cholesterol reducing activities of phytosterols
were earlier established about 56 years before by
Peterson (1951) who fed chicks with plant sterols in
their feed. Moreover Weststrate and Meijer (1998)
illustrated the plasma cholesterol reducing effect of a
phytosterol ester contained in margarine in human.
Utilization of 1.9-2.1 g/day of plant sterols have been
revealed to reduce the total cholesterol and LDL level
by 10-15% in an array of diverse population groups
(Katan et al., 2003). Some rsearchers stated that
phytosterols have estrogenic capacity and act as
efficient
estrogen-like
agonists
(Malini
and
Vanithakumari, 1993). Consequently, phytosterols
may therefore be utilized as main compounds of oral
contraceptives (Kamel and Appelpvist, 1994).
Bioactive compounds in sesame
Tocopherol: Tocopherol which is derived from vit. E
is natural antioxidant that is soluble in fat and is only
formed by plants like sesame and other oilseeds.
Sesame is an excellent resource of tocopherols. The
level of tocopherol in sesame differs among varieties,
location and production. Sesame oil mostly includes
α-tocopherol (50-373 ppm) and γ-tocopherols (90390 ppm). The dissimilarity in α-tocopherol and γtocopherols is due to their chemical nature and the
processes they regulates (David et al., 2001).
Phospholipids: Phospholipids that are derived from
phosphatidylcholine (lecithine) and phosphatidic acid
are normally helpful as synergists in strengthening
the antioxidant action of phenolic components (Wu
and Sheldon, 1988). Phospholipids may participate to
the texture, mouth feel and smoothness of foods and
enhance the constancy of the produce owing to the
intrinsic antioxidant properties. Phospholipids present
in sesame are the main components of plasma
membrane, and have a greater extend of
unsaturation, (Sugano et al., 1990). Hany et al.
(2000) stated that sesame consisted of 39-49% of the
total phospholipids. Phospholipids is amongst the
bioactive
components
containing
numerous
advantageous effects consisting of memory and
better learning in mouse that may be related to
humans also while sesame is utilized (Ahmad et al.,
2006).
The health advantages of tocopherol as an active
component are well recognized. α-Tocopherol, the
major type of vit. E, is an antioxidant that is soluble in
fat and it works as a scavenger of reactive oxygen
species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen (O 2) (Liebler,
1993). Tocopherol is believed to act as the first line of
defense against lipid peroxidation, and in cell
membranes it defends PUFA from free radical attack
during its scavenging action in bio membranes at
premature level of lipid peroxidation (Lu et al., 1999).
Moreover α-tocopherol apply an anti-inflammatory
action by hindering the manufacturing of the
superoxide radicals in activated neutrophils, bonding
of neutrophils, and transendothelial movement of
neutrophils (Rockse´n et al., 2003). Studies on
animals revealed that tocopherols were capable to
avoid cerebral ischaemia-induced brain damage in
rats (Mishima et al., 2003), whereas Sen et al. (2000)
demonstrated that α-tocopherols may hinder
glutamate-stimulated apoptosis also.
Polyphenols: Polyphenols are a group of chemical
materials present in plants, described by the
occurrence of a few phenol groups per molecule
(Shahidi et al., 2006). Studies recommend that
polyphenols have many health advantages. These
can decrease the danger of cancer and
cardiovascular disease (Arts and Hollman, 2005).
Elleuch et al. (2007) investigated that diverse
polyphenols were present in sesame seed coat,
including flavonoids (procyanidins and catechins),
phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid ferulic acid,
coumaric acid, and caffeic acid) and stilbene
Phytosterols: Phytosterols are minute compounds of
oils derived from plant origin composing of main parts
of the unsaponifiable portion of the oil (Fremont,
29
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
(resveratrol). A research carried out by Shahidi et al.
(2006) established that the sesame seed coat
especially the black color retains about 145 mg total
polyphenols per gram of defatted dry seed coat. Lee
et al. (2002) in their research investigated A-type
procyanidins in coat of sesame seeds. A-type
procyanidins was found to reduce the action of
hyaluronidase, an enzyme that is accountable for the
discharge of histamine that is responsible for
inflammation.
H2O2, and encourage production of normal pancreas
b-cells. (Zhong, 2003).
Lectins: Lectins have an extraordinary range of
biological behavior which has been present in
sesame amongst a variety of sources. An exciting
feature of the lectins in sesame is that high heat
treatment does not devastate those (Hany et al.,
2000). Lectins are a group of proteins that have the
general features of oppositly binding carbohydrates
counting those present on the exterior of cells mainly
in sesame seed (Vandamme et al., 1998).
Elleuch et al. (2007) stated that the components
present in coats of sesame seeds are thought to be
effective antioxidants, mainly resveratrol and
flavonoid. Besides its antioxidant action, flavonoids
and phenolic acids shown to have antiviral, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer and antiallergic activities (Kahkonen et al., 1999). It is
significant to understand that besides the
constructive health effects by utilizing them, phenolic
compounds may be utilized as effective antioxidants
in foodstuffs.
The sesame agglutinin combines carcinogenic cells
to normal cells in mammary glands, the lectins have
been extensively utilized as to investigate for
carcinogenic phenotype in numerous tissues.
Disease-reliant polyagglutin capability of RBCs was
also evaluated by means of lectin.
Previously lectins have been thought to be poisonous
matters to animals and cells, generally due to
agglutination of RBCs and other cells. Several lectins
isolated from cereals and legumes have been
revealed to reduce the development of experimental
animals and decrease the biological value and
digestibility of dietary proteins. Anti-nutritional effects
are most possibly caused by the fact that some
lectins harm the reliability of the intestinal epithelium
(Reynoso et al., 2003) and therefore, the
consumption and absorption of nutrients. Radberg et
al. (2001) investigated that direction of these
compounds to investigational animals may also
change the bacterial flora. Therefore, lectins have
normally been thought to be anti-nutritional factors
and poisonous.
Flavonoids: Flavonoids are the group of plant
compounds derived from a phenylbenzopyrone
arrangement. Flavonoids are frequently recognized
for their antioxidant action and are also recongnized
as bioflavonoids as all are of biological in nature
(Answers, 2004). Epicatechin, procyanidins, guercint
and (þ)-catechins are a few well defined flavonoids in
sesame until now. According to Lee et al. (2002),
inadequate researches recommend that sesame
seed covering can have effective procyanidin
compounds. Catechins, A-type procyanidin dimer,
trimer, tetramer, and oligomer with superior levels of
polymerization were present in sesame (Lazarus et
al., 1999).
However, lectins are amongst the phytochemicals
which have been thoroughly investigated for their
function in cancer prevention (Abdullaev and
Gonzalez, 1997). Different instigators have
investigated that lectins are utilized as tools in the
field of cell biology, biochemistry and immunology,
and for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in
cancer research (Sharon and Lis, 2002). Researches
on lab animals demonstrate that ingested lectins
have a broad variety of health effects that may be
appropriate to human disorders. A few explanations
propose that lectins that show growth-improving
effects on the gut (Govind et al., 2002).
Moreover studies on human beings demonstrate that
diet rich in procyanidins reduce lipid peroxidation of
low density lipoprotein cholesterol and enhance free
radical scavenging capability (Natella et al., 2002).
Procyanidins may have attraction for vascular tissue
and they participate in the defense of elastin and
collagen, two significant proteins in the connective
tissue, by powerfully reducing numerous enzymes
concerned with the denaturation of elastin, collagen
and hyaluronic acid. Procyanidins were found to
selectively reduce protein kinase C (Takahashi et al.,
2000), and intensively support hair development by
enhancing propagation of mouse hair epithelial cells
in vitro and stimulating hair follicle growth in vivo.
Procyanidins were also found to slow the proliferation
and reduce apoptosis of pancreas b-cells induced by
Physiological Threats: During the past 5 decades
evidence was originated for increased reporting of
sesame allergy, mostly with reports from developed
countries. Clinically, two major forms of sesame
allergy was presented in at least: (1) immediate
30
Am. J. Food. Nutr, 2014, 4(1): 21-34
antioxidant on brain hippocampus of rat in focal
cerebral ischemia. Life Sciences, 79(20): 1921-1928.
systemic
anaphylaxis
often
expressed
hypersensitivity, associated IgE antibody test fallout
to sesame proteins with some cross-reactivity with
other foodstuff or with positive skin prick test and (2)
delayed contact allergic dermatitis expressed as
hypersensitivity to lignin-like compounds in sesame
oil clinically. There were only some cases of instant
hypersensitivity to sesame IgE antibody test results
and/or with negative skin prick test that were
confirmed by verbal challenge tests.
Akinoso, R., J. Igbeka and T. Olayanju. 2006. Process
Optimization of Oil Expression from Sesame Seed
(Sesamum indicum L.)”. Agricultural Engineering
International: the CIGRE Journal Manuscript, 8: 6-11.
Anonymous. 2006. Functional, flavourful,
fantastic:
flaxseed. Food Marketing and Technology, 20: 22-24.
Answers.
Dictionary
definition
on
flavonoid
on
answers.com, The American Heritage Dictionary of the
English Language. 2004. New York: Houghton Mifflin
Company.
Conclusion: Sesame an oil seed plant cultivated all
over the world. It has great nutritional importance
that’s why it is called as queen of oil seeds.
According to the reports, in 2003, the reserved area
for sesame planting in the world was 6.57 million
hactares; with a production rate of 3,096 million
tonnes per year and an average yield of 471.2kg/ha.
Mainly it is used for extraction of oil .The seed has
high oil content of good quality. The oil may be used
for cooking purposes, aromatics, flavour enhancer,
pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfume products,
as well as for the manufacture of soap, paint and
insecticides. The meal may be used as cattle feed
and manure. Sesame meal has potential use in food
products as a protein and methionine supplement;
hence there is a need to utilize the defatted sesame
meal for edible purposes. Sesame is a source of
natural antioxidant such as sesamolin, sesamin and
sesamol tocopherols and is widely used as dietary
supplement. It may be used for prevention of several
diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular
diseases. The sesame meal supplemented wheat
flour
significantly
increased
the
proximate
composition such as the moisture contents of
different composite flours. Sesame has several
beneficial compounds such as mono and
polyunsaturated fatty acids, plant protein, dietary
fiber, phytochemicals, phytosterol, lignans, vitamins
and minerals etc. These compounds may be used as
antioxidative, antihypertensive, hypocholesteremic,
anticancer, immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory
etc. Sesame seeds also cause some sort of allergies.
Arslan, C., B.U. Uzun, S.C. lgeg and M.I. Agırgan. 2007.
Determination of oil content and fatty acid
compositions of sesame mutants suited for intensive
management conditions. Journal of American Oil
Chemistry Society, 84: 917-920.
Arts, I.C. and P.C. Hollman. 2005. Polyphenols and
disease risk in epidemiologic studies. The American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81: 317-325.
Bandyopadhyay, K. and S. Ghosh. 2002. Preparation and
characterization
of
papain-modified
sesame
(Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolates. Agriculture
Food Chemistry, 50: 6854-6857.
Bargale, P.C. 1997. Mechanical oil expression from
selected oilseeds under uniaxial compression. Ph.D
Thesis, Department of Agricultural and Bioresource
Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,
Canada.
Bax, M.M., M.C. Gely and E.M. Santalla. 2004. Prediction
of crude sunflower oil deterioration after seed drying
and storage processes. Journal of American Oil and
Chemistry Society, 8: 511-515.
Beyer, K., L. Bardina, G. Grishina and H.A. Sampson.
2002. Sampson, identification of sesame seed
allergens by 2-dimensional proteomics and Edman
sequencing: seed storage proteins as common food
allergens. Journal
of
Allergy
Clinical
Immunology, 110(1):154-159.
Caminiti, L., D. Vita, G. Passalacqua, T. Arrigo, S. Barberi,
F. Lombardo and G.B. Tahini. 2006. A little known
sesame-containing food, as an unexpected cause of
severe allergic reaction. Journal of Allergy Clinical
Immunology, 16(5): 308-310.
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